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SHEA'S CHARLEVOIX. 



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Tin: UKV. p. '^. X. DE CHARLEVOIX, H.J. 

iii\.\.M..\li;h. WITH NOTES. BV HHIN r,liy\\\[\ SIIKA. 

IN SIX VOLUMES. 

VOL III. 




NEW YOKK: 

.!»> II \ I) I LM ,\ i; ^ V ff \.i \ 

181)8. 



Ent..r...| .o...r.llni, I.. Art „f ConKr,*., Ii, (h* yn, UM, 
Hv .KilIN (llI.MMtV XIIKV 

In Iho n,rk'. Om« ,., „,„ |MMrl..t C.ur, ..r |:niu,l 8UU^ f„, ,h. 8,.uth.,D 

Uiitricl of New Vurk, 



ri 

v,3 



,*? 



(ON I I.N IS. 



ltd OK VIII. 



PriiLTidM of ri'llirl'iii nnmnkr i'"' ii|>|irr lr"iiii'ii» 'I'Ih' Mminilnirnii III irrni »lii> Miiritn*. 
'{'Ill' lriK|ii<>lH riii|.<|iir'' iipiiiiHt llic Knnrji. 'I'lic ('cii».|iinii'v diwuvirol. IikIiiiii 
iiili>|itii>ii. Ki'trrnt III' llir Kmii'li tnxn iiiiiiiii|ii|rii 'I'Ih' lriH|iiiiii rt'iu-n Ii<>niIIIiIi-n. 

Tin- VI lilt •IWrtft'iiciiii, p>vrrii>>r triiHTiil. .\rriviil nf tlif tlr.>t lil»liiiii ni' Ni-w 

I'liiii'''' ( liiiiiL'i' III iIh' in-li'MiiiNticiil K'>^'''''tli>i' X' "I i'iimikIii I'iiiImIi |irii'>l» In 
N « KfiiMi"' Mniiirial IhImihI n ij.il to iljf S. ininiirv nf Si. Siilpirr Si inliiiin nf 
i^iii'Ihi' IkiiihIi'iI. VariniiH n ^'IiImiIuM!* iin in lltli<H 'I'lii' |iiitr<<Mii);i' ol juiiixlirH 

M">ll'l| ill till' ll|bl|i>|l l|llf<|lltlll rilllll'il'll lit MllMtnill 'I'll! lllMlltlltl' III' SUtl'IK llf 

tlif ('•iiiL'riiriiiiiiM Srviriil m-w imthin* iINiumti ('mivirKiiiii ni nuiih' l!»i|iii- 
IlliiitX. ViirlmiM iliKi'iiViTirH. ,\flalrH lirlwi'i'li till' Sliiiix iitlil Illirniih. I'lirliriiliil'H 
i\» tM tlii> Slmiv. Kxtri'liiily to wlilrli tin' i-mIhiiv Ih rriliiri-il. lriii|i|iiiH liiislilltii'H. 
D'lHi'iiHi •• unil iihrliiiiiii'im. iIimhI nrWH I'imih tlii' IriHiuniH I'miiitrv. lriH|iiiitH ili'|iu 
lii'H at Mmitriiil. Kiitlirr \r Muvni' ultim's in iii'riiiii|iiiiiy tlii'iii III ihrir I'Miinliy. 

'I'lif Hamti tr.VviiiiiriMir Kiiri il" tin' Viwuimf ir.\i'i;iii-oii Viivii^ri' nl twn IrMiiitH 

I'l till' Niirtli |lr'«i'rl|itliiii 111' l.aki' St .Inlm Kxiraipiiliiiary malailv. Knilii'i' li- 
M'iviii''s ri'i'i'iitloii lit Oiiiiii.liii.'a Cliaii'.iiii- iirtiarak'iiillili'. lirliinil |mllr_v ulihln 
lliiliiili. Spi'i'i'li iif l''atlirr It' .Mnviii' in a rniiliill of llirri' calitiiriN. Itrwlininii i>f 
thai IkmIy KiiIii|.'Iiiiii mi Sliiir lli'itrl. l iariikiiiilliii'' arrlvrn at Mniitriiil \1\a 

ri'CI'|llloll, I'i'llCI' HI'I'IUH to IfCI'lll', Nl'W lro<|l|niH llllHlililll'H. AllVl'Ilt liri' III' l-'alliiT 

MiHiiaril IIIh iliatli. Orni'ml I'Htiiiintiiiii of Ills Huiii'tlty. 'rnifririil ilratli nf IiIh 
attiinlnni. l-'atliir li' Mnynr ri'turiiH In Mniitri'iil with all tin' Kritirh |irlsMii>T». 
(liiniUi'iithii''H I'liiirnc. Mr, Kniiilnr jiih'i* In nuirt In i'\|i<im' thr n<ri'Kiiiii't« nf Nl'W 
Kniiii'i' Till' kiiiir ki'IhIh atil. .\liii»i'f nf tin- liijimt' lindi' lirrtrnlai' I'liiuliict nf 
thi' liiirmi il .\Miiitri>iir. ('aliiiiinlrH iiivi'iiiiil mi iIiIk imini airniiiNt ihi' lii?<lin|i iiinl 



IIIIKH|nllal'll'^'. 



Sraiiilalu niiiiiiiu' till' liiiliaiiH. 'I'lir Mlhliiiji nl' I'ltrifa 



hi" 



|iliiiiii.M liirmi' ilii' kill): Sii. iwiiij; |ilii'Miniii'na. I'mlli timii' nl' nn i'arllH|iiiiki'. 
It lM');iiin ItH ill'i Its. .Nn nni' killi'il anil nil rnn\'rti-il Nrw proiniHlllmis nf ih,. 
InM|iinis. Arrival nf a ni'w irmi'rnnr jriiii-ral iiinl rniiiinissary at (Jim li r ll.iw 



jutitit'i' hail U't'n liithcrlii uiliiiiiiUlrri'd in Ni'W l-'ianci' I'tisi'tit I'l 



III III 



tin- 



ii 



CONTENTS 



prriiir Ciiiiivil. PriiviiilcH (in wliicli Jiidjniii'nt m Kivcn. Infrrinr judficp. Enlo- 
.Lriniii 1111(1 il.iiili iir ilic Huniri d'Aviiu^'oiir. New incurHions of the IroiinoiM in the 
Ndilli. rnriiriunaii' iiiiscluuicc. ('(in.luct of Uurnkdnthii'. New proiioHiliouM of 
licni'c. Mr. (Ic .M('s_v'h riplv. Ttic Kn^H^li Ki-i/.c New Nt-tliiTland. New trniiljlfs 
ill Cauiiilii. Violent conihitt (if (Ic Mi'sv. He makes a poor defence. Hecalled. 



BOOK IX. 

The kinp trnnsforH Cnnnda to n new coi.ipnny, the Company of n Uundrod AHBOcintea 
' Mvinfr siirrenilircd it to him. Tlie ^faninis de Traev niipoiiited Viceroy of 
Aniciica liy eoiiiniiss.on. Mr. de Courrelles apiiointed (jovernor-^'eneral of New 
rrimie, and Mr. Talon, inlendant. Orent reinforoenientH arrive in Canada. Thi) 
Iroipiiiis retire. KortH on tlie river of tlie Iro(|uoiB. Talon's memoir addressed to 
Ciillii It. Oarakontliii' at Qnehec. War against tlie Mohawks and Oneidas decided 
on. Tliey sulmiit. Bnitality of a Mohawk chief punished on the spot. De Cour- 
celles' expedition afiainst the Mohii\>ks. Mr. de Tracy marches a^j^ainst the sara 
cantoii. Success of his exiiedition. \Vliy he did not retain tho country. The 
court does not wisL the colony extended too fur. De Tracy rettirns to France. 
CiiiinL'e in atfairs in a reliirious point. Stall of reliirioii ainonir the Inilimi.' and 
French. The rmrt wishes to //•( /.c////)/ the Indians. Why the iiroject failed. Iron 
mine.'<. Free tride proclaimed in Canada. New explorations north and went. 
Ottawa su]ierstitions. Daufiers and hard.ships of Father Allouez (m this voyape. 
Hilief of the Ottiiwas. Their manners and practices. Father Allouez and the 
I'littiiwiiiomies. The jT'isjiel prei.ched to several nations. The Sioux coimtry. 
The ('ristinaux or Kilist nons Various excursions of Father Allouez. Mission- 
aries amonp the lro(|Uois. What prevented the conversion of that nation. 
I'roL'ress of the colony. Karth(]uake. Epidemics. A hosjiital nun dies in the odor 
ol siiiii'ily. Mis-iiinaries anmnir the Iro(piois, how pm|iloyed. Eulojiium of 
I'litlur lie (iirlieil. Several missions estalilisluHl ainonn the Alffonquin tribes. 
Tallin returns to Kriinic Cliaracter of de Courcelles. The Church of yuehec 
erected into a liishopric. The povern.ir of Montreal obtains a royal commission. 
Voyiiye of Vt. de Courcelles ..) the liA.qiiois, and its object. Acadian aflairs. 
Exploit (if the Sieiir de la Tour Provinces composing the government of Acadia, 
liow divided. Civil wars anioufr the French. Shameful act of Mr. de Charnise. 
Aciiiliiiu divisions, coiitiiiiied. It is seized airain by the English. Their liad faith. 
.\ilveiitiiris of tlie Sieur Denys. All these provinces restored to France by the 
treaty of Hreda. Newfoundland matters. Placentia Bay descrilied. Talon re- 
turns to Ciiiiada. Brings the Hecollects. Shipwrecked with them. Arrives in 
(iueliec with Hecollects. Indians murdered by Frem 'imen. The conseipiences. 
.Iiistii'e done and the Indians appeased. De Courcelles coniiiels all the nations to 
reiiiiiin at peace. Baptism of flanikon'Mi'. Mortality at the North. Ili^ron town 
of l.nretlc founded. The Dutch and the Christian IriKpiois women. Stratagem of 
n iiiissii'iiiiry, mid its result. Oreat progress of Christiiinity in the Mohawk cautou. 
State ol religion in the other cantons and among the .Mgonquiii nations. 






i 



i 



CONTENTS. 



Hi 



I 



BOOK X 

VVar iininnp tlip Indians. Dc I'ourcfllr'H cniiduct on tliis occasion. Baptif>ni of tlio 
linul cliicrol llic Cnyujriix. Tlic I'lirihliiiii Irciuoiw tliiiili nf li.:ix im: tlnir cuiiiitiy. 
Siii^'ulnr conversion of an Inxiuois woinnu. Comnii'nccnii'nt of tin' mis-ion >if 
iSuult St, l,ouis. Talon's nifaHnrcs to sccuro ali tlio nortli o1 ('Hiiaila to I-'ihikm'. 
The gri'at Miami cliii'f; liis rtcc|ition of tlif governor's rnvoy. I'ossession talien 
of all the country around the lakes, p'nglisli settle on Krencli territory, and 
altliougli they live on good terms with the latter, the king of Kngland is indueeii 
to recall them. Tlie Hiirons at Michilinuikiuac. Singular phenomenii (iliseivn 
tions on the tiden and currents in the hikes. Project of ■x tort at ( 'atMrHMui. De 
C'ou.'celles returns to France. His src(issi>r build-i Kort Ciitarocuui. 'riilnii w.lirits 
his recall to France, and why '? Cliaracter '<f .Mr. de ( nurcelles. ('liiiract.r of his 
successor, the Count de Frontenac. Discovery of the Micissipi. UeMMiptiiiii of 
the country of the (tutagamis or Foxes, anil of the Mascontins. Fnur of (ieoirra 
pliers as to the latter. Their reception of two niissii>naries. F.Ncursion of I'ather 
Allouez to the Outagamis. Dt.'ath of Father Marquette. Acadian iiHiiirs 'Die 
Englisli seize Pentagoet and the fort on St. .IoIiu'h liiver. \'io'..|iii. ,,f h 
C.mnt de Frontenac. The Dutch disturb the niissionaru s •.. the Irnipiuis I'li'iii' 
uac's claims in regard i../ liie ]>reyideiu'y of the SuiH-rior Council. The king's oiii.i- 
to the intendant and governor-general. The lu|uor trade begins apiiu in i ainehi 
The court is prejudiced in favor of that trade. The king's edict on tin- .-ui'j.ci. 
Mr. de la Sale arrives in Canada. His character. He undertakes to conipl-te i jje 
discovery of the Micissipi. He goes to France. What h'- < btaliis Ir^'Ui the 
court. The Chevalier de Touti joing him. Various adventures of Mr, d'- hi Sale. 
He meets with considerable losses. The Illinois defeated by the Iro<|U'> s. La 
Sale's finiiness amid misfortune. Attempt to ;oison iiim. He sends Fatlnr 
Hennepin and the Sieur Dacan up the Micissipi. He builds ii new fort. New 
hostilities of the Iro(|UoiB against the Illinois. The English susjiected of inciting 
the Indians against us and our allies. Acadia restored to France. The Fufrlish 
seize it again. The Chevalier de Tonti forced to aliandon tin; Illiimis Hiver. A 
Recollect Father killed liy the Kica))ou8. De la Sale descends the .Micissipi to 
the sea. He i''turns to France. Frontenac and du CUesneau recalled. Their suc- 
cessors and the instructions given them. Origin of the Inxiuois war. Insolent 
propositions of those siivages to Frontenac. That general's reply. The coiusi' he 
adojils. Expedient suggested by tla^ intendant. and why reiec;i-ii Iroipiois 
deputies at Montreal. Deputies of other nations. Arrival oi Nb-ssrs ile la M;in-e 
and de Meides. Mr. cle la Barre writes to court agaie.st de la Sale. Ktll-ci pro 
duced by his letters. Agseiidily of thi' notables of th,> colony. It iiilninis the new 
governor of the imsition of atTairs. The king send'., troops to Canada. Des(ri|iiion 
of UudKiu's Bay. Observation on the ice on those seas. Atmcisplu ric phiiiomeiia. 
Mixle of travelling on the ice. English and French claims to Huds^m's Bay. Two 
French ileserters coudiiet the Kngli!.|i thi-'e. Voyage of Father Allnuiel and Mr. 
de St. Simou to Hudson's Buy by way of .he Sagueuai. Fourth act of taking pos- 



IV 



(•ONTF.NI'H 



HPHBion of IliKiBnn's Bny. Tlu- two French iltficrtiTs ri'iiini to tiiniKln. 'IMmv 

iMidif liiUf lc> drive llic' l^ll^;li^ll Iruin tin- lniN. W liiil iniiu> lieiwnu lliriii una 
the EiifjliHli They nuain deliver the hay to the English. 



BOOK XI. 

Bnd fiiith of the Iroqnol!'. Mr. de la Unno Holi/its aid from tlio kinp. iranshtiness 
III' ihc lnK|iiiiir', Iiiiii_'iii's cit' ill.' iTovenior nrXewVnrk. SirniiL'i' I'uniliict nt .Mr. 
(le la HiiiTe. 'I'lie lrcH(iiois plinider French voya;.'eiirs. I'liey are repulsed at Fort 
Si l,oui>. Mr. de la liarre resolves on war. He. vvilh dilliciilly, indiiees our allii's 
to j<iin him. These Indians do nol join the army at the ap|)ointe(l rendezvous. 
'I'lieir diseonieni on ihe nnnounrenient of iM-ace. Mr. di- In Hum' rorres|Kin<ln with 
ilie frovernor ol .\i'\v York. His iMeparations Conililion of the French army. 
liirornialion received liy Mr. di- la Harre on his march. A wrong stej) of Colonel 
Poiigiiii saves the colony. FAtremity in which Mr. <le la Barre is placed. He 
makes peace on dishe.norahle cimditioiis. The king wends troops to Canaila. Mr. 
de Callieres ap))ointed governor of Montreal, nncl .Sir. rerroi passes to the govcri\or- 
slii]) of .\i-iidla. l/i'tle dependence in Canada on the peace. Vaiious reports n- lo 
Irn.|iini> all:iir>. The Miinpiis de Deuonville arrives in Canada as e-overimr. Wr 
helieves war against ilie Inxpiois in'cessary. In wliat condition he found the 
colony. Fort at Niagara projected. Letter of the governor of New York to 
l>i'ni)nville. That geniTal's reply. An enterprise of Colonel Dongan. The Fnglish 
received til MiehiHiiuakiin\c. Fori'e of Ihe colony. Father de Lamherville ]ire- 
veiiis the lro((Uois fnuu coiumencing hostilities. nis|Kisition of that nation. Afl'airs 
at Hudson's Hay, Preparation in Canada to drive out tli(> Knglish. Success 
of the eX|ieditioii. Project „( m\ understanding as to Pcut NeNon di'enie(l iin- 
praclicalple. Treaty of neutndity l)etw( en the Knglish iuk' French in America. The 
Fnglish violate it. The governor general prepares to "'.irch on the Iroi|uois. The 
]iriiu'ipal Ii'oi|uois idiiefs sur|irisi'd. seized, and sr.it to the galleys. F.vil consei|Uenie8 
of this step. Captivity of Father Milet. Noble and giiierous conduct of the Onon 
dagas towards Father de I-amlierville. Plan of a campaign against the Senecas. 
The inissiomiriis prevent the Ilurons and Ottawas from joiiili.g the Iroiiuois. 
The siipineness of the latter n« to our preparations. Colonel Dongan rouses them 
from this lelluiigy. The French army inandus, Letter of Coleiie' Oongan to 
l)en(Hiville, That general's reply. Fnglish defeated on Lake Iluro'.i, Fort des 
Sallies. A<tion with the Senecas, IJesults of the liallle. Fort l.ailt at Niagara, 
iuid soon aftir aliandonid. Fresh intrigues f)f Colonel Dongan. Fseful lahorof an 
lri'i|Uiiis Christian for religion and the colony. F.xploit of tv.d Frenchmen at 
llu.'.soii s Hay, l''nglish ex|iedi'iion to .\cadia, De .Meules' advice a,-* to what the 
country re()uired, ^Yllat ]ii vented Denonville from marching agaius' the .>enecas 
a second time, lieflectious on his conduct. His good iiualitii,- 'lis fatdts. 
Various Iroipiois hostilities. Colonel Dongan's pre (isitions to |)enoii\ 'lie. The 
latter sends Father Vaillant to him. The Fnglish giivernor's explanati(.n to that 



C'ON'J'KNTS. y 

fi.ll.er n.. pives l.ini „ g„i,l,. ,., ,,n.v,.„t Iuh jmssinff tl.roujrh the M,.Im«k .M.n. ,> 
Ilis a,lv„-,. ,„ ,i„. ir„,„„i,. .,.,,„ ,,„|i„„^ ,.,,,^, _^, |,„„i,i,i,.^ „,„, ,,,„,,,^ „_„ ^.^^^^^ ^ 

N.'K..,m.,„„.„i,|. ,I„.(.„„„,|,„.„H. lI„„Kl,ty ,,ro,„.Hal of ......c.. .■„n..t,„m,in„ i.f 

tiM. ...Lmy. i|„. ,r„,,.„j, |,|„,.k„,,,. (•„„r,^,,„i ,„.., ,„,i,,. ,^,.,„^ ,^.,,^ ^_^^.^^ _^ 

>■■«• pr,.,.«i,iou. of ,„.««,. Ac,.v,„..d. Mr..i.. l.-M.nvilU. «ri...s „, ,l,o o.,„1 lor 

IH r,.,al of ,1.,. lr.„,.,.,i„ chi,..H who wn, at Mur«.ill..H, Colon..! I.o„j,„„'h ,,.,., 

"-h. lo wl,„t IVnonvill.. „s,.rilH..s ,h,. s„lv,Uio„ of Cana.la. il. n.n.o.vs ,1,,. 

•'■■■UHs ,,, ,1,.. Al,..„,„i„i .„is.si„„H i„ H|,i„. of ,1... S,.,l,.„tary n.slM.v Con.par.v 

•■'■■■Ml f»..n,.n, r..rall,.,l. I.,.,,,,,,.,,,,.., i,.,,,,^ ,„. ,„.. „iHord..,-.s of ,h,. .'olonv li;.- 
ll.cfon.s ou lUu, l..a.r. Our ullio« cli.cout..utc.d at tlu, ,H..ac,. au.l a.sha,u...l of us 






U i 1 







i 



HISTORY 



GENERAL DESCEIPTION 



NBW FRANCE: 



WHEREI.V WILL HE FuL'ND 



ALL THAT RELATES TO THE DISCOVERIES AND CONQUESTS 
OF THE FRENCH IN NORTH AMERICA. 



f 



BOOK VIII. 

The good undorstauding between us and the Upper 
Iroquois at first seemed unaffected by what liad occurred 
at Quebec in the Huron matter ; but to render it dur- 
able, would havG required that their deputies should con- 
ceivo an exalted idea of our power, and unfo.timately 
they came only to witness our weakness. It became even 
daily more manifest, by the kind of indifference with which 
we submitted to the inroads of the Mohawks. None re- 
flected more bitterly on this than the missionaries, who 
better informed of the character of the Indians, whoso 
anguagcs few but themselves understood, durst not flatter 
themselves that the establishment at Onondaga was at aU 
a solid one. They did not fail to express their- opinion to 
the i..oper parties; but it was stiU more their ministry to 
proht by the actual dispositions of that people in order 
to second the news of Providence for the salvation of 



1657. 



Tlio niia- 
sionaries iit 
Onoiiiiagu, 



12 



IIISTOItY OF NKW FUANC K. 



i'^57. 



PmifrpKH of 

ri-liL'iiiii 

atlloMLr tim 

Ippi^r Irn. 
qiiuU, 



iniinv, and llicv sjiavcd tlu'inst'lves iu iiothiii^' timt wns 
I'Xpccli'il from their zi'iil.' 

Father Chiiunionot, on procociling to visit tlio canton 
of SoiH.oa,' found thoro a gi'cat number of Huron Chris- 
tians,' whoso good c'xanii)lo had disposed many Iieathens 
to reeoivi! this light of tho gospel.' It seenii d that tiio 
Almighty had dispersed that nation among the other 
savages, like tho Jow.s of old iu the realms of the nion- 
archs of r)al)ylon and Persia, only to make His nanio 
known there and prepare worshipi)ers of it. " What 
a din'erence," said the Indians, "l)(>tweeu the.se Christians 
and the Dutch ! They all acknowledge the same (iod, 
they say ; but the conduct of the latter is far from being 
as well ordered as that of the former. When we go to see 
the French, we always return with a tnie desire to pray : at 
Orange they never speak to us of tho Prayer, and we do 
not even know whether they do pray there." Would to 
God that tho nations of Canada could have always held 
the same language iu regard to us ! 

Father Mesuard had still gi-eater success iu the cantons 
of Cayuga and Sentca.' In tho first year ho conferred 
baptism on four hundred persons," and ho had every rea- 
son to promise himself a more abundant harvest in the 
coming time ; but God's counsels are inscrutable. At tho 
very time these Indians were deemed most to bo relied 
upon, they escaped from grace, and the colony had scarcely 
had breathing-time after its late losses, before it foiind itself 



I 



' Kclation (Ic la N. F., KmII, \\ 3. 

- Tsonnnntlioiian. Fiillicr Chan- 
iiKinot Ht'l out latr in Aiifrust, lOoli, 
with FiilluT Hi'iii' Mi'nartl, miil first 
vi^itlMl Cuyujru : licliitioii ilc la N. 
F.. U't'u, ji. lii. Ilr tlii'ii iirfK'fctlcd 
to Ouiuliigmi, a Sinrca town ; ib., 
p. 4.1 ; Cliininionot, .\utoliiog., p. 70. 

■' Fs|ii(iii|ly tliosc of till' Huron 
town. St. Miiliai'l's : Anti'. vol. ii., 

J), ■■i-ir,; lid.. KiliO, ]), 14. 

* liel. de la N. F., 1G57, i)i).41, 49. 



' Ooyoi;ouin and Tsonnoiithoiian. 

' Tlii.s \x I'vidcntly liascd on a 
stntfinrnt in Hi'lntion dt; la N. F., 
K!")?. p. .'il, and tlint in KKi:!. ]\'i:\, 
that he had u diurch of 40()('liri8- 
tians. The Helalions, 1(1.57 and 
Kl.'iS, di'soriht' thcsi' laliors, and tlio 
Hclation de la N. F.. KmS, \k 3, 
sums \ip all the baptisms dining the 
I«'ricid of this niisfion by all. at 
" .JUO cliildrcn and a uumber of 
adults." 



IIISTOUY OK NKW FHANCE. 



18 



rophiiiRcd into all tlio lioiTors of a war whoro ov(>ry tiling' 
u.is to 1p.' i'ciiitd, iiinl alisolntfly iiothiii},' to gain. It was 
at Montreal tliat tlicy first l»egau to uotico a great chaugo 
in tlu' mind of tlic I'lipiu' Iro(|noiH. 

Ononda^'as iiad arrivid in tliat island to rocoivo tho 
Iliiroiirt and takt^ tlu'Ui to tlioir cautou, as agroeil upon 
tlic year i>nviou8; Homo Froncliinou and two Josuita 
WL-rc f) ai'c'ouipany tlifni ; but tlicy woro greatly snrjjriscd 
when, on tlio day of dcpavtiui', tlie Onoudagas dfciarcd 
that they would take only the Hurous in thrir Tauocs. 
Tiicy yicidt'il, iud( ed, in favor of some of the Frenchmen, 
but tlicy obstii:atcly exehided tho two Ji'suits, who, on 
their side, unwilling to abandon their neophytes, were 
compelled to embark in a canoe which they found on tho 
bank, with no provisions but n little bag of llour.' 

This conduct of tho Onoudagas, for which men were 
unprepan.'d, seemed to augur ill for tho Hurous : many 
beheld them depart only to de])lorc tho sad lot which 
awaited them, and their presentiments wore but too well 
foundi'd. Those unfortunate Christians did not jn'oceed 
far without discovering that they were irretrievably ruined. 
A young woman refusing to yield to the passion of an 
Iroquois chief, was tomahav ked on tho spot by tho bar- 
barian ; and as though only this signal was awaited to 
throw aside the mask that covered tho blackest of per- 
fidies, a great number of the most eminent Hurous wero 
massacred a moment after. The others wore regarded only 
as jirisoners just taken in war ; and some wero even burnt, 
although it was impossible to ascertain the reason of so 
unworthy a treatment.' 

The French expected to be treated no better than tho 
Hurous ; and, in fact, it had been resolved to massacro 
them all, beginnmg by the two missioiuiries. What pro- 



1657. 



Tlio Oiion- 
(lni;itH ill- 
triiit ih« 
lliirtui;). 



' Hn^'mnfau, in Itthitiim dc la N. di' la N. F., Ki.ls. p. 2. Tlio iiiap- 

V., 1Im7, \i- '>l. tncre (iccuiTcd Aiuust :!, IImT: li"l , 

■II).. )). .").'). Siveii Ihiidns wvtc 10.5^, ]i. 9 ; .Imirual of Jesuit Supe- 

killed, besides the girl : Uclatiou rior, Oct. li, 1057. 



J 



11 



IIIHTOUV OK NKW FRANCE. 



1657. 



fon-piro 
Kriiitli. 



vciitid llic rxpoitiou of tlio tlosi^'ii, T cannot discovcM' : Imt 
if tin V csmiu'd tliis iliinf,'rr, it was only to fail into anotlior, 
wlii'id for u long time tlu-ir dostniction sih-urhI inovitablc. 
Tlif first tiling tlicy K'aiiifil on reaching Onondaga, was 
that a conspiracy against the French hail been discovered. 
This htraugo rovolutiou was uttribuled to tho following 
canst'.' 

A band of Oiieidas, having gono towards Montreal to 
hunt, surprised three Frenchmen in a solitary spot, killed 
them, and carried the scalps to tho village from which 
they started." Mr. d'Ailleboiit, who comnnmded at (Quebec 
because Mr. de liauson had returned to Franc*',' without 
waiting for his successor, demanded satisfaction for this 
outrage, and to force tho nation to give it, ordered all tho 
Irotpiois in the colony to bo arrested. Ho was obeyed, and 
the first imi)ulse caused in tho cantons by tho tidings of 
this order, made them adopt tho most violent resolutions. 
They were not, however, carried out ; and they confined 
themselves to a course adopted coolly, and after mature 
deliberation.* 

Father le Moyno, who was among tho Mohawks, was to 
be requested to go to Quebec' to uegotiato the release of 



' TliiT lilt Miintrnil ,Tuly 20. Imt 
tlic tiiiicot'llii'iruriival at Onoiulapi 
is not friviii : Uil., lii.-iT. p. 04 : HmS, 
J). !) Till' iirws <if tliiH iiuissr.rii' ilid 
not nnrli Qiirlifc till Ort li, iiinl on 
tlir '-'Sth Si'i't., !•". I'lincil hail Iutu 
sfiil tit Ji)iu till? nthiT iiiiBHiiiiinrii'8 
at Onondaga, but liraiiiii; of it ri'- 
turniil : .liMiit .Iimrnal. 'PlirbeariTS 
of l!a;;iii'ntauV li'ttiT of inforination 
\viTi.])ursiir<l,au(l narrowly iMapi'd : 
IM,, l(i.jS, p. 10. The Onondatras 
Bent two bi'lts to fxriisf the act: 
Ji'siiiit Journal, Oi-t. 'JO, 1(157. 

■Oct. 25: K.lation ilu la N. F., 
l(i5S, p. 10. Tilt' victims wrre 
Nicholas liodrt, St. Prrc nnd his 
lad: Ji'suit .lournal. Nov. 1, 1(!5T ; 
Dollier du Casson, llistoiro de Mou- 



triul, KWi-S ; Bilinont, Ilistoire du 
Canada. )). !». See Kailloii. Ilistoiro 
df la Colonie Fraiiraise, ii., ]>. :i(!l, 
for niarvils said to have attended 
St. I'ere's death. 

■ De liauson Charny sailed for 
France on the vessel of ('apt. I'oulet, 
Se])t. IS: .Jesuit .Journal. 

' Helation de la N. F., U158. ).. 11. 
The massacre of the French at 
Ononda^'a was taken up in council : 
11... p. 14. 

■' The Oovernor wrote to Lo 
Moyne. and Mohawk deputies carao 
to explain: Itelatlou, l(i5S, pp. 1'2-15. 
Le Moyne felt his imsition so dan- 
frerouH that he retired to Fort 
Oranjje. whence he wrote. .March 
25, 1G5S, amiuimciug Lis spuudy de- 



t 



HISTOHY OP NKW FItANCK. 



15 



ll^'^.•uVl•r«J. 

1658. 



tlio arrcHtcd IroqnoiH. Uiulor tin- pretext of doinp; liini '^'57. 
honor, and protoctinf,' him iigiiinst tlic insnUsof tlu» vounj^ ^^"^r"-' 
men, tlion ^voiitly excited a},'iiinst the rreiieii, it was de- 
cith'd til ^'ivf liiiii a lar^'e escort, and at the Hanie tinio 
Kend out several war-parties to scatter around tlie ecilony. 
As soon as thoso h^arned of tho release of their country- 
men, they wero to ])hinder and massacro all tiie French- 
men or allies of tlie French that they i-cidd find. After 
this, tlie sann^ tJiinj,' wa; o he done at Unondaf,'a.' 

Father le Moyno did not, however, set out, and i know tIk. cnu- 
notwiiy; but ns early as the inontli of Fi'hruary, in tlie, 
following year, numerous |)arties of Mojiawks, Oneidiis, 
and ()n(inda;4as, all in war-paint, look the tield.' It did 
not rcfjuiro all this to arouse the suspicion of the French 
conniiandant, Dupuys, who soon after learned from a Chris- 
tian all the details of the ])lot.'' He then found hiniself in 
a great dilemma, and, in fact, he saw no means of extricatinj^ 
himself that had not strong,' objections. To strengthen his 
position and stand a siege was only to prolong, not escape 
his doom, bei-ause he had no relief to expect from (Quebec, 
or none that could n'lich him in season. Sooner or latir 
ho must needs surrender, die lighting, or perish with hun- 
ger and hardshiiis. 

To escape, recpiired first tho making of canoes ; for no 
precaution had been taken to retain a certain number, and 
to work at any would lie giving notice of their intention to 

jiartiiro in a Dutch vesHcl for Qun- a comiiicrciul treaty bctwoi-ii tlio 

lii'c; 11>,. ]), 1."). lie liiul iilsd, in 1(1")7, I'olonic's, ami (•(iiiiiniinicatiil his siic- 

(lisiTiuU'il ti> .N'.Hiihattaii, where lie ces^s in a h'lter ihited Fort ()ning(>, 

nniiminct'il to Doniinie Mepipolen- Ajjril T, Kl.'iS, whicli, witli the eii- 

f'is the existence of snltspriniis at closed letterofI)'Aillcl)oiist,aregivi>n 

Unon(lap»(<)'('alhif;!ian'HNe\v Xeth- in O'C'alla-rlian'n N. l' , ii.. p. :!(il, n. 

eriand. ii., p. ;ili;'>),tlioujrh the Dntcli ' Uehition de hi Noiivelle France, 

cleif^yniau turned as (h'af an ear to l(i5S, pp. If. 14. 

such a story as he did to the con- • lli., p. 1'.!. 

troversial treatises suliseciuenlly ' See lielation, Kio^', p. :*. On p. 

sent him by his .Jesuit frienil : lli.. 4. it says they learned the ddiiils 

(i. :ifl:!, I.e.Mouie, at the ici|uest of only alier thiir escape. 1> Allli li.Mist 

the l>ul( h.ni>;otlat( d witlitheaciiufr si nt orders to Dupuys, wliich never 

OoTernor of Cauada, D'AiUeboust, reached him; p. 18, 



16 



mSTOIlY Oh' Ni;\V FUANCE. 



1658. 



DiipiiyH' 

|ilulJN. 



Iiiiliitn 
ailujitiun. 



Ectriiit <.f 
tho French 



wittn1mw, iukI niiik(> oscapo iinpoHsiMo. Yet tlnv liad lo 
rcsi>lv(> iipoii a (•(iiiisi' witlmiil diliiv, and the fnlloM iii^; 
was adopted li_v tlic (MHiiinaiidiiiit. lie l>(j,'aii \<\ sending 
an «'Xpr('ss to Mr. (rAillclMiiit, to inform liini of tlir con- 
Hpiracy. Ho then f^avo liis onlcrs to Imild in liastr small 
U^ht boats; and to jiicvcnt tli(> Iroijnois gtttin;^ the least 
idea of tlieir prctji it, lie eaused the work to lie done in tlie 
parrot of the honse of tlie .JeHuitH, which was a little moio 
isolated than the rest, and larj^or.' 

This done, he notilied his people to hold themselves in 
readiness to start on tlu^ day which he fixed, and mako 
severally their jireparations for th(> voya^^e, carefully 
avoiding,' what would giv(* tho Iroipiois any suspieion. 
There now remained only to take steps to endiark so 
Hocretly that the Imlians should have no knowled^'e of tho 
retreat of tho French, frill they had had suflieient start to 
be no lon^'er in fear of pursuit ; and they succeeded by a 
Homi'what onions stvata^em.'' 

A yoiuij; Freuehman had been n(l()])ted liy one of tho 
greatest nu'ii at Onondaga. This kind of ado])ti()n, which 
bucuiuo, at a later date, (juito conimon, has all the advan- 
tages of the adoption practised by the llomans, except 
th(! right of inheriting, which amounts to nothing among 
Indians : moreover, they have not tho Imnlens, and aro 
unailectcd even by the wars which may break out. Henco 
it has come to pass, that wo have no U'ss fre(|uently than 
successfully employed Frenchmen adopted l>y the Iroipioi-s 
to negotiate treaties of peace with them." 

Tho young man just mentioned wont t(5 his adoj)tivo 
fjvthor and told him that he; had just dreamed of one of 
those feasts whore all served up nuist bi' eaten.' Ho bogged 
him to give one of that kind to the whole village ; and ho 

' 'I'liiTi' was ii|i|iiiiriitlv iiiilv lino 'J'lir I.c Moyni'S iiml .liuiciuri'H 

houHi' : Itt'latiiin, Itilid, |i. '-.Ti. tliiis ii<'i|iiirr<l tlicir liitluiiKi'. 

' M. Marif "li' riiicaiuatidii, l.t-t- ^ l.alitaii. Ma'iiis lUs Sauvaircs, i,, 

trcH, p. .'i;!(i; liclnlion, lll.jS, (i. 7. .')7") ; I'lTiot. Mnniri* rt ( 'mi.'^tiiiiirs, 

D'Arjji'ntMiii ci'iiHured tlit-ir courH»<; ]>. 11. 'I'lu'V an' siiiiposi'il 10 liave 

Can. Doc., 11., i., '6'i4. been originnlly a 8<>rt ot bulucHUSl, 






i 






I 



IIISTOHY OF NEW FRANCE. 



17 



Ollg 

a 10 

'IICO 

lan 
unis 



lio 

niirrs 

• ■>*. i., 
mil's, 

llllVO 
iU8t. 



fold hint tliiit 111' Imtl tlii" iinpn'ssinii on liis mind, 'hat if i'>;^. 
liny tiling wa.s li-ft, ho would dio. Tho Indian told him ^^'^^ 
that ho would bo very Horry to hco liini dio ; that ho ishould Hiifht .r 
hinistlf ordor tho foHHt, whilo ho would tiik(> oaio of tho 
invitations, and nniko huio that nothing should ho lift. 
On tiiis proniiHo, tho young nmu lixitl tho I'.Hh of March 
for his fottst, being tho day Hot for tho dopartuio. All tho 
lU'ovisions on hand that thoy oould diHponso with woio 
usod, and all tho Indians invitod.' 

Tho lianquot bogan in tho ovoniug,' iiud to givo our 
people an opportunity to huuioh their bouts and load thoui 
without U'ug hoard in tho village, drums and trumpets 
kept up an inoissant din around tho oabin of tiio baiupiot. 
All being ready, the young nniii, at a giviii signal, told his 
adoptive father that ho took pity ou his guests, most of 
whom had aheady cried for quarter; that they might 
fitoj) eating and rest, and that ho was going to give all a 
refreshing sloop. Ho at ouco began to play the guitar, 
ftud iu loss thau a quarter of au hour there was not a 
single Indian but was sound asleep. Then lie went out, 
and joined tho little flotilla, which, on the moment, pushed 
otV from the shore.' 

Early next morning many Indians went, as thoy usually 
did on rising, to seo tho French, and found evcrj' door 
locked.' This now stoj), and tho profound silence which 
prevailed all around, amazed them. Thoy at first thought 
that tho missionaries were saying Mass, or that the French 



' M. Marii' do I'lncamntion, Let- 
trcs, ]> "iJid. 

' Tlicy invited nil the Iiidinns iifiir 
tht'ir limine; Uolation di' la N. K., 
lOSt*. I). 7. 

^ Till' Ixmts wcri' taken di)wn and 
loaded liy nlMiiit -lO men, 8iiyn Hn- 
giu'lleau. Then tlie lnuKiuet briike 
up, iind us WMin 118 all \\\\» still they 
h It their hdiiHe liy a rear diKir, and 
Btenllhily eniliarked : Uululiuu du In 
N. K, l(j.")8, I). 7. 

Vol. III.— 3 



•• The settlers under Puiuiys wem 
to have erected lint (nie liotisi! cif 
riinsiderable size (Ste. Marie di Oan- 
entiin). nt a (leli(;litful H]ii)t im tho 
margin of Lake Onondafra (the (ian- 
entaa of the Oiimidagns. which Mor- 
gan explains as lueuniiig '• Material 
for theCoiuicil Fire"). .\ spring still 
issuing: tViiiii the hillside \n known 
OS the.le.-uit Well. See liel.. Ki.jd, 
p. 14. This ini.ssimi cost the Jutiuits 
7000 liv. : Uouvart, MS. 



18 



IIIHTOUV OK NKW K»AN( K. 



ift^H. wiro ill ooiiiicil ; Init ahiT waiting,' for Mcvcnil lioiii« fo 

'■'^■^"^' lilt |iiir|inMt', tliry kiiDtkt'il at Htviral iIooim. Sniiif iIo^h, 

Fiitfiii oi' wliicli liiul Ih'cu It'ft looHo in tlio Iiouhoh, rt'iilinl hy Imrk- 

'" ""*"^" iiif,' ; tlioy also iwircivt'd hoiuu poultry tliroiij^li tlui piili- 

Hadi-H ; lint no hninaii Ixiiif^' was to )i<> Hnn. At laHt, 

towards rvtiiin^', tlicy lirokf in tlic doors, and (lull Hiir- 

])i'ist> knew no lioiuids on tin:ir di.sc-ov(>i'ing all tlitt Iiousch 

einjtty.' 

Tiny wcni loii^» unaMc to undiistand liow tlic Frcncli, 
\\'li() had no canoi's as tlicy well knew, Inid liccn aiilc tu 
get oiV; and tli<'i'(t is not a vision that did not enter their 
LoadH, in place of their inla^inin^ the way in whieh tho 
thiiifi really was «'ireeted. It was, in faet, tho tiist tiino 
that hoats had been used on such voyaf,'eH ; hut even 
if the French had possessed canoes, it would have heen 
inipossihle to use them, ho covered wire the rivers still 
with ico ; nnd this too prevoutcd tho Irotpiois from pur- 
Buiiif,' them.' 

Still, Mr. DuiMiys was not free from fears that they would 
pursue him ; and he u.sed such exertions, that in spito of 
head "inds, which detained him (|uite a time on Lako 
Oiitariii, he reached ^Lontreal in lifteen days. Joy at lio- 
holdiii}.; himself delivered from so j^reat a dan^^er, did not 
BO (latter that o(lic( r as to prevent his feeliii},' that such a 
precipitate llit,'ht was shameful to his nation, nnd rej^ret- 
th\'^ that they had neglected to jtut him, hy a trifling 
assistance, in a jmsition to sustain a Hcttlement of that 
im)K)rtance, and impose laws on a people who derived 
their strength, and tho right of insulting us, only from 
onr weakness." 
The Iro- He found the whole i.slaud of IMontreal in tho greatest 
Til.Kiii'iiiljH"' alivi'ni. Nothing was to bo seen on all sides but Iroquois 
parties, which, without openly declaring themselves ouo- 



% 



' M. Miirii' dp I'lnenrimtion, Let- Mnrit' dc rincarniitioii, liOttres, p. 

trt'S, \i. •'ilJT. 5I!7. Mr. Kiiillini cilix, Inr ntlicr <ie- 

' lb. lailH, d'Allit, |)i'iixii''mi' Mciiiniri' in 

• Kulatlonde la N. F., lOSd, p. 78 ; (Kuvres d'Arnaulil, xxxiv., p. 734. 



IIISTttllY i>V NKW FHANCK. 



1!> 



t 

'I 



iiiii'H, ciuiMid fnirful (lisorili'is ou nil widuH, ho tliut uo ol>o 
(ItiiHt n|)|ii'ni' ill till' tii'lilM.' 

Tnwiiitls tlir .ml (if May, Till Inr Ii« ^loyim iirrivtul ut 
tlir smiic |ilai'f, liroii)^lif in l>_v Muliawks, wlio liatl iilnl^jcd 
tlirir \M>i'il til (■(iinliK't liiiii Hafo ami hhiiikI to a riciu'li 
hcttli nil lit. Tlii'V iviiit tlii'ir word rxartly ; Imt nftiT that 
till' wliiilc iiatiiiii tlirt'W oil' tho iiiUHk, iitid tliu war lui-aiiiu 
iiKin- 111 TCI' tlinii it had i-vcr Ihcii." 

On th<' lltli of .Inly, Viscdiuit d'Arp'iison landi'd at m 
Qiirliic,' ami wiiH rcccivt'd as j,'nv<riior-^,'rm ral. 'I'lir mxt i,„ 
(lay lie was sinpi isid ti> hear a cry, "To aniiH!" niid tlu'y 
cniiic to tell him that koiiio Al^'(im|iiiiis had just lici'ii nia.s- 
sdcri'd niidcr the ^wwh of tlu> loit. lie at diici' dctaidu'd 
two Imiidrcd men,' I'rcnch and Indians, to iniisiic tlioso 
Hftvii(.,'cs, Imt tlu-y did not ovortako thcni. They found two 
chililii'ii, whiini the Indiuns had aliaiidoiicd to move nioro 
rapidly, and tlirco wommi, oiio dead, tho othor two diili- 
gt'i'diisly woiimli'd." 

Sodii afti'r, Houio MoliawkH npiiroachcd Three llivora 
with the dcsij^'ii of Hurjirisin},' that post; and the bettor to 
snccccd ill their iiiti'ijirisi , they dotailn'd li^ht men, who, 
uiidir piitiiii'o of parloying, had ordois to obsorvo rare- 
fnlly the comlitidn of the place; but Mr. do la I'otherio, 
who was in edinniand there, put oiio in prison, and sent 
tho rest to tho goueriil, who gave them a short trial.* 



l(>iX. 



.■rArifiii- 
II. ti.iVMr- 
r-(K'iiuritl 



' 'I'liry rriu'lii'il MoiitD-al, April it, 
KmH; Ucliitiniidi'liiN. K.. Hi,"iS, ji. H. 
I <incl iiii uiithiirity tor tliiH iilunii nt 
Mtmtrrul. 

■ III., p. 10; Can. I»or.. II.. i., ;!,")(!. 

■' I'irrrc (Ic Viijrr, Viwount il'Ar 
(;i nmiii ; Itillaioii dc la N. I'" , KmS, 
Ji. 17. 'I'Ih' (loviTiKir, ill Hvoilitlir 
iMil IrltiiH, ciivs 111' arriviil i>ii tlii' 
llili ami tlu- lOlli, Imt l)i> giuuH 
Jiiiirnal ^'ivis tlic llili. lli' war* a 
.v.iiiiifr iiiun of :;i) m- '•'t'i, luii was 
hijjlily ri'Cdiiiiuriicliil liy Phhiiliiit 
(li- l.amciinuDii : l-Vrluml, L'ours 
tliliHt., [>. 444. 



* Tlic Hrlatioii KiiVM '."Jd, i'Xi'IiihIvu 
III' liiilialiM, Imt till- KtiiplnJH ilti Vi- 
coiiilc ilArplisoii Huyn 1(|(|. 

M'aii. Dim., il., i., 'JliT), liOl, ;W7. 

' I)c la I'litiric tiHik ten, and Hrnt 
Hi'Vcn to tlH'tfiivcrniirOcnrral : Hi'l., 
!>. IH. 'I'lirir liadiT «a« Ato^'>aMk- 
'■an frill' •Inal Si«poii). lie l^mn 
(•loiiinal, Sept. 7, lll."iS) jrivrd tliiir 
adilicsn and llir (iovrrnorn iiiiHxvi'r. 
'11 1'v wri'L' lii'ld prlsoniTH, hut not 
I'XfCUti'd. iMiIi'li arcoiint.'i hIiow 
tlllll llli'V \M H' hilH'cl'i'. 'I'lirV luul 

a Diitrh Mililii'i' an H|ioki'Hiiiaii. and 
bvru H lottur iMiu Lu Montagiic to 



20 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



1658. 



Arrival of 
tlio first 

New France 



This vigorous conduct had nil the success anticipated, 
and brouglit the colonj- some repose. The missiouaries 
profited by it to begin their apostolical excursions in the 
north, and discovered several routes to Hudson's Bay.' 

Such was the situation of New France, when, on the Gth 
of June, 1()5!>, Francis de Laval (previously known under 
the name of the Abbe de Montigny), titular bishop of 
Petrtea, and provided by the Sovereign Pontiff with a brief 
as Vicar-Apostolic, landed at Quebec.'' For some years 



Du la Potlicrie, dati'd 15tli Aug., 
1058, given in O'C'alliiglmn's New 
Ni'tlicrliiml, ii., p. JiUO. D'Argmson 
Bent two back to the Molmwk to 
proi)Oso iieiici' : M. Marie de I'lucar- 
nntion, Lett re Oct. 4, Ki'iS. 

' Relation de la N. F., 1C.j8, p. 18 
These discoveries were made by 
Father 'Jabriel Druillettes, who had 
obtained infoniuition through the 
North of the tribes in \Vi8Con8in. 

'' Lettres Envoyees de la Nouvelle 
France, p. 1. The date is June 10 : 
lb. ; De Quen, Journal, June 10, 
1659 ; La Tour, Vie de M. de Laval, 
p. 23; Esquisse de la Vie Mgr. de 
Laval, tjuebec, 1»45, p. 20; Vie de 
la M. Marie de I'lncarnation, p. ;i07. 
Frani/ois Xavier de Laval Mont- 
morency, the first bislio|) north of 
Mexico since th(,' extinction of the 
see of Ourda, was born at Laval, in 
Maine, .\]u-il oO, lOili, son of Hugh 
de Laval, Sieur de Montigny, and 
was ordained in 1040. lie was al- 
reatly archdeacon of Evnnix, but re- 
nounceu ihat dignity, and led a life 
of piety and recollection. In lO.tl 
he was nominated as bishop for 
Cochin-China, but ho was never 
consecrated. We have si'en already 
(ante, ii., p. 183), that the Society of 
Montreal early endeavored to have 
a bishop at that place, and that Mr. 
Le (ja'.'tl're, succ'ssor and biogni]iliir 
of the celebrated Father Bernard, 
" the ixjor priest," ^vas actually nomi- 



nated by the king. They resumed 
the matter in 1050, and liad Oabriel 
de Thubiere do Levy yueylus. Abbe 
de Log Dieii, nominated to the king 
by the (Jeneral Assemldy of the 
French bishops. The Jesuits, who 
were the only priests in Canada, 
proposed the Abbe de Montigny ; 
and the* king, early in 1057, re- 
quested the Po|)e to erect tiuebec 
into a see, and appoint the Abbe de 
Montigny bishoi). Intrigues delayed 
the action of the Pope on this re- 
quest, and the Abbe de Qneylus 
obtained letters from the Archbishop 
of Rouen, dated A])ril 23, 1057. mak- 
ing him Vicar-Oeneral, in the ])lace 
of the Superior of the Jesuits at 
Quebec, who had hitherto held that 
olfice. His sudden arrival jiroduced 
groat surprise and trouble, since the 
Abbe de Montigny was expected as 
bishop ; but de Queylus took ])0s- 
session of tlie jiarish church at Que- 
bec, and placed some of his asso- 
ciates there, and others at Montreal ; 
and the Jesuits, founders of the 
churches, were confined in their 
ministry to their house, which they 
were cited to surrender. It was ap- 
]iarcntly a part of a preconcerte<l 
plan to place the Abbe de Queylus 
at the hi;ad of the clergy in Canada, 
to justify his promotion ; and the 
nionu'nt was favorable, as M. D'Ail- 
leliout, one of the Montreal Society, 
was Uoveruor. Meanwhile the Arch- 



il 



HISTORY OP NFAV FR;VNCB. 



21 



past tlio Jesuits, convinced that the i-.i'osenco of au eccle- 
siastical suiicricr, invested with a character capable of 
inspiring; respect, had becomo necessary in the colony to 
remedy certain disorders which had begun to creep in, 
had asked the court to fiend a bishop to Canada. ITie 
(jueen mother, Anne of Austria, before whom the matter 
had bi't'ii laid during her regency, advised that one of tho 
old missionaries should bo chosen to fdl the post ; and it is 
said that she cast her eyes on Father Paul Ic Jeune, wlio 
had goviTued the mission for several years, and who was 
then at Paris, engaged in tho direction of soiils, and in 
high repute for sanctity and prudence ; but the Jesuits 
representi'd that their institute did not permit them to 
accei)t that dignity, and jiroposed to her tho Abbe do 
Montigny, who was acce[)ted.' 



1658. 






l)islio])ot']{i)Ucn, luTcriviiif; thecnn- 
I'usidii lu' liiul (iccaHioiicd. by n(!W 
li'ltfi-w i)f Mmdi iil), UioiS, ri'strictcd 
tho Al)ln' Jc QucyUis to Montroal. 
Mi'aiiwIiiK', at Rome it was proposed 
to appoint a Vicar-Apostolic in tho 
first instance ; anil in May, 10.18, the 
Alibe (l)' Montigny was preconized, 
and on June :! obtained his bulls ns 
Bishop of I'ctrea. lutrigui'S began 
again ; the Arelibisho]) of Rouen 
protested against his conseoration. 
lie WHS accordingly consecrated 
l\r. S, t((."i,s, liy the Paiml Nuncio 
and two bishops, secretly. The 
]iarliann'nts of Paris and Rouen 
then interfered to compel Mgr de 
Laval, as he was now styled, to pre- 
sent his bulls lie linally received 
Ins liidls us Viear-A|)ostnlic ; but the 
Archbishoi) of Rouen still claimed 
jurisdiction in Canada, and insisted 
that Mgr. de Tinvul should take 
fai'ulties from liim. As this claim 
was not recognized, he sent a new 
np|)oiiitment to the Abbe de Qucy- 
lus, with a letter of the king order- 
iug him to continue his fuuctiuna 



(May 11, 10,50) ; but the king, throe 
days later, recalled this order, ad- 
mitting that tho I'oix' did not admit 
the archbishop's (irctonsions. Under 
a new letter the Abbe de Queyhis was 
arrested by th(.' (fovernor's order 
and sent back to France, Oct. 23, 
lOoO. Mr. Faillon treats the matter 
at great length in defence of the 
Abbe Queyhis, but it is not easy to 
justify his course. Sec Journal of 
Superior of tho Jesuits, Lea Trsu- 
linos de Quebec, i., 227. For an ap- 
preciation of Mgr. Laval, see Fer- 
lar.d, ("ours d'llistoire, p. 44'J. There 
is a lite r)f him by tho Abbe Louia 
Rertiand de la Tour ; and another, 
Ksciuisse de la Vie et des Travaux 
Ai)ostoli(nies de sa Grandeur Mgr. 
Fr. Xavier de Laval Montmorency, 
1" F.veque de Quebec : Quebec, 1845. 
This lattercontains also the discourse 
pronounced at tin' month's mind by 
M. de la Colombirre. 

' Carayon, Documents Inedits, sii. 
203. The Canada Cimipany nomi- 
nated Father Ch.Trles Lalemant ; lb. 
Father Paul Lo Jeune was hvtn in 



If 






22 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



I ' 



1658. Fiithor Joroino Lallomant, wlio had not returned to 

■"""^ Anunic.'i since his voyage to I'ranco to \n\ before tlio 

cliiuiBc in Cituuda Coiupauy tlie necessities of that country, was thou 
nsUrai V<"v- I't'ctor of tho College of la Fleclie. The new prelate asktnl 
° Canudu."' ^^i'' general of the Society of Jesus for this missionary, as 
a man who was necessary to him, and that religious will- 
ingly devoted the rest of his days to the conversion of tho 
Indians,' under tho orders of a bishop worthy of the prim- 
itive church. Sc/me seciilar clergymen' also came over 
with the bishop of Petnca ; others joined him in the ensu- 
ing years,^ and, as they arrived, they were put in posses- 
sion of parishes, of which the Jesuits had till then had 
charge, inasmuch as they were the only priests iu New 
France. 

The new parochial clergy at first served the pnrishes 
only by commission ; tliey were for a long time removable 
at tho will of tho bishop,* and sometimes of tho Sui^orior 
of the Seminary of Quebec, avIio was himself, and still is, 
appointed by the directors of the Seminary of tho Foreign 
Missions at Paris. Things have changed somewhat on 
this point, since the court ordered parish priests to be 
unremovable in Canada as in France ; but they are far 
from being so in all cases yet, and tho island of Montreal, 
with the psirishes dependent on it, is still on the old foot- 



Pnrislios in 
CuuuJu. 



I 



1592. After completing Lis theo- 
logical studies he was a])'ioi''ted 
Sui)eiior of the Coiicge of Diei)])e. 
IIij cuiiie to Canada July 5, 10:32, 
aud was Sn|ierii)r of the mission till 
10:)',). After laboring on the mission 
till Ki-lO he returned to France, and 
was Procurator of the Foreign Mis- 
sions. He died August 7, 1(!(i-l. 
Besides nine volumes of Relations, 
he Willi e a Ten Days' Retreat and 
other spiritual works. His iiortrait, 
engraved apparently after his death, 
gives him high eulogium. 

' He returned from France with 
Uovtnior de Luusoii in 1051, but 



proceeded to Franco again, Sept. 2, 
1()50 ; De Quen, .Journal, Oct. 1050 ; 
Martin, Relations des Jcsuites, p. 
23; Can. Doc, II., i., 3:J:5. 

'•' Mes.sr8. Torcapel and Pelerin : 
Estjuisse de la Vie de Mgr. Laval, 
Quebec, 1845, ]). 19 ; La Tour, Vie do 
Mgr. de Laval, p. 21. De Lauson 
Charni, previously acting governor, 
hut now a iniest, also came : Jesuit 
.lournal. 

' Messrs. Louis Ango des Maize- 
rets, Huglies Paulmiers, Jean Du- 
douyt. 

' Edict of April, 1063; Edits et 
Ordonuances, i., p. 36. 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



23 



iiif];, undor the diroction of tlio clergy of tho Seminary of iC>s^. 

St. Sulpice,' ' ^ ' 

Two years liefoi-e tliis time, that semuiarv had ae(|uired The i-lmid 

1 , . ., , 111' Miiinri'iil 

all the rights of tho first proprietors oi tliat islaiui." borne .e.i.ati.tho 

years previously tho Abbe do Qui'lns had come to Quebec, st.'suTpico. 
furnished with an appointment as Vicar-Geueral by tho 
Archbishop of Eouen ; but as the jurisdicti<jn of that pre- 
late ovtn- Isew France was not based on any title,' and as 
the bishops of Nantes and Eochelle made tho same ]n'e- 
tensions as he did, the Abbe do Quelus was not recognized 
as Vicar-Geueral, and returned to France. He came V)ack 
in 1(!57, with deputies from the Seminary of bt. Sulpice, 
to take possession of the island of Montreal and found a 
seminary there.' In this there were none to gainsay him, 
the whole cohmy being charmed to see an accredited body, 
powerful and fruitful in excellent priests, undertake to 
clear and settle an island, on which the first proprietors 
had not pushed colonization as much as had been at first 
expected. 

In 1()G2, the bishop of Pctrnoa having gone back to 
Franco for an object to be explained hereafter, proposed 



ut 



MS 



' Edicts of April, 16C3, and Jiily 
12, ITOT; Edits I't Ordonnaiifcs, i., 
]). HO."). Tho iiucstirm of tlic remov- 
ability of can's is still unsettled. 
Tlic Seminary of St. Sulpice retained 
it.^ parochial rif;lits till the year 
18(i(i. when the city was divided 
into several jjarislies. 

'' Till,' transfer was not executed 
by Fancamp, Queylus, (iarihal, etc., 
till March it, l(i()3 (Faillon, Ilistoire 
de la C'ulonio Fram.aise, ill., p. 01 ; 
Eilits et Or<lonnanoes, i., p. it;!); and 
Mr. Souart took formal ]iossession of 
the island, Aug. ly, KKW : lb.. |. 7.T 

■' It wa.s reco^'ni/.ed. however, the 
Si.pcrior of the Jesuits haviuf; long 
a<ted as Vicar-tfcneral of the Arch- 
bishop of liouen ; Ferhind, fours 
dllisioire, p. 4-l.S. 

* Tho dates are horo confused. 



Mr. Olier selected Mr. Quiylus, In 
1(1.5(), to proceed to 51oiii'eal, with 
Rev. Messrs. Souart and tJalinier, 
and Mr. Alot, a deacon, lie em- 
barked May IT. 1057, at Nantes, 
and reached Quebec .luly 2il. Ho 
was recognized, and acted as V. (t. 
till August S, KLIS, when Father Do 
Quen notified him of his patent as 
Vicar-tiem ral : Journal, .\ugust 8, 
16.")8. After the arrival of Mgr. do 
Laval, he was sent back to France, 
Oct. 22, 10.')i). lie then went to 
Rome, and having got a bull erect- 
ing .Montreal into a parish, returned 
in 1001, arriving at Queliec infny., 
August y, 1001. Mgr. de Laval re- 
fused to allow him to proceed to 
Montreal, but hi' did nevertheless. 
A litlie lie laihet arrived, and ho 
umbarkod for Franco Oct. 22. 



if .f 



I 

i 
} 



'J 



24 



HISTOHY OF NEW FUANCE. 



i66i. to tlio king's council tlio erection of a seminary at Qncbec. 

^^""^"""^ His majesty consented,' and a i)atent was issni'd, in tlio 
K»tabiii.ii- mouth of April of the ensuing year, in favor of the clergy 

Bcmhmry uf of the Seminary of the Foreign Missions." As this semi- 
Uiiubtc. jj,j,,y^ according to the system of that time, was to supply 
tlio whole colony with parochial clergy, the ]irelate ob- 
tained that the tithes should be paid to the directors of 
the new seminary, and had them fixed at one-thirteenth 
of all that wa liable to tithe rates." This was found heavy 
for colonists who were not rich, and led to various repre- 
sentations in their name.' 
Vnrions They Avcre heard, and in the month of September, 1007, 

08 totitlies the superior council of New Franco made an act in form of 
regulation, stating that provisionally, and Avithout preju- 
dice to the letters-patent granted by his majesty, the tithes 
to bo raised should be only one twenty-sixth ; but that 
they should be payable in grain and not in sheaves, and 
that newly cleared lauds should bo exempt the first five 
years. This regulation was carried out." 

The colony having increased, it became necessary iu 
time to establish new parishes. It was then claimed 
that the tithes should belong to the parish priests, 
and their absolute ehtabhshmeut began to bo discussed. 
These two points were settled by a royal edict of the 
mouth of May, 1679, five years after the erection of tho 
Church of Quebec into an episcopal see." Tho same edict 



' Esquisso de la Vie, p. 32. 

^ The Si'iiunnry of the Foreign 
Missions is not mentioned. See Pa- 
tent and Act of Estalilisliment, Edits 
etOrdonnances, i., p. Ij-i-O ; Esii'iisse 
de la Vie, i)p. 1:J4, 131 : Celeljra- 
tion du 200" Anniversarie de la Fon- 
dation du Seminuire de Queljec, oO 
Avril, 18(i;! ; Quebec, 18('.3. 

^ Patent : Es(iuisse de la Vie, p. 
Ki4 ; Edits et Diilonniinees, i., p. 3(i ; 
Do la Potlierie, llistoire de I'Anio- 
rlquo Septeutriouale, i., p. 230. 



'' Mgr. Laval reduced it to one- 
twentietU, Imt, as this did not satisfy, 
allowed tlieni to appeal to tho king: 
Faillou, Histoire de laColonie Fian- 
(,'aise, iii., p. 72, and authorities 
cited. 

' The regulation was made hy 
Tracy, Coureelles, and Talou, with 
Bishop Laval, Sept. 4, l(i(l7; Edits 
et Ordounances, ii., p. i;i3 ; Faillou, 
Histoire de la Coleiiie Frani.aise, iii., 
p. 11)5. 

^ Edita et Ordonnances, i., p. 33L 



4 

i 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 






also confivmod tlio iirovisioiml irf^aliition of tlio sniicrior i^i-'^. 
council iu regard to titlios ; but it iulilcd, tiiut if the tithes '"^'< 
wore not sutticient to support tho piivocliial clcrf^y, tho Titiios. 
council should provide therefor by a sujiplenient, to bo 
furnished by tho settlers ai d seigneurs. This never took 
place, however, because tho king choso to grant, from his 
own domain, the sum of seven thousand six hundred livres 
a ycMir to aid in supporting tho parochial clergy.' 

Towards the end of the year KiSI}, another means was 
taken to satisfy tho parochial clergy, to whom tiie last 
arrangement made by the council seemed insullicient. 
Mr. de la Barro, governor-general of New France, nud 
Mgr. de St. Yallier, bishop elect of (Quebec, wished to fix 
the suitable allowance' to bo paid above the tithes at 500 
livres ; but the king, in a letter of A|)ril 10, l(!Sl, addres.sed 
to the former, informed him that this regulation was not 
approved. " I .jiave read," said his majesty, " the memoir 
which you have drawn up with the bishop of Quebec, on 
the distribution of parishes, and the maintenance of pas- 
tors, and I avow that tho principle on which you havo 
acted seems to mo very prejudicial to the welfare of tho 
colony. You iix the suitable allowance of a parish priest 
at 500 livres, and there arc some even to whom you giro 
more, iu a country recently peopled by poor settlers. . . , 
Wiu know that in France, where the same reasons do not 
exist, the highest allowances amount to only a hundred 
crowns, and that there is a very great number of parish 
priests who have only 150 livres, and yet manage to livo 
and discharge their duties ; and what is more vexatious 
on this point is, that the said bisho)) has so well jiersuaded 
the priests that they cannot live on less than 500 livres, 
tliut it will be dilKcult to reduce them to any other foot- 
ing. IStill, I wish those M-ho have only iOO livres to accus- 
tom themselves to live on that." ' 



' Edits ft Onlonnanccs, i., j). 231. tho cnllcctiDii of tlio Edits I't Ordcm- 
• Portions contfrui'S. naui'i's, and doea not appear in tlio 

^ This dociiniout is not f,'ivi'n iu Ni.w Voik or Cauuda Documents. 



2(3 



HTSTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



I 

r 

t ■ 

I ■ 

« 

i* 



1707. Tho clergy, novcrthelcsri, atteniptcd at various times to 

^"""^•'""^ raise tlio titlios back again to oiie-tliirtoeutli ; l)ut the 

Tithes, superior council of Quebec always opposed it, and as they 

finally appealed to tho king's council, that app(>al droAV on 

tlunn a decree of July 12, 1707, which exploded beyond 

hopi! their pretensions in the matter.' 

On tho other hand, besides the .sum of 7,000 livres which 
tho king had assigned them supplementary to the tithes," 
his majesty also gi'anted one of 2,000 livres for those whose 
advanced age or infirmities prevented from administering 
their jiarishes, and, by a decree of March 29th, 1717, it was 
ordered that this sum bo divided in five jiortions of 300 
livres, and one of 200.' 
Tlio piitrnii- There arc, finally, two sums of 1,350 li\Tes each, one in 
"fmri.siicH favor of the parish priests, and the other for the erection 
iheijishop. of parochial clnuchcs, tho patronage of which, by a decree 
of March 27, 1000,* was vested in tho bishop, to the exclu- 
sion of the seigneurs, who had till then enjoyed it by 
virtue of a former decree of Mf y, 1(579." The last act also 
required churches to be bnilt of stone. All the sums paid 
by the king from his domain, for the purposes just men- 
tioned, arc at tho disposal of the bishop. The chapter 
of the cathedral is composed of a dean, gi'eat chanter, 
great arch-deacon, theologian, and twelve canons. The 
king reserves to himself tho nomination to tho two first 
dignities, the bishop appoints aU the rest.' 

To return to the island of Montreal, and conclude all 
that regards the establishments in Canada for ecclesiasti- 
cal and charitable pui'poses : the clergy of the Seminary 



' Edits ct Ordonnances, i., p. 305. 

' De la Potherie, Histoire de 
I'Ann'rique Suptentriouale, i., p. 
230, says 8000. 

' Edits et Ordonnances, p. 307. 

* Arn't du C'onacil d'Etat du Koi 
qui arcordc Ic Piitronagi' des Eglisi'8 
ti Mgr. I'Evriiuu ; Edits et Ordon- 
nances, i., p. 279. 



' Edits du Roi concernant lea 
Dimes et Cures Fixes : Edits et Or- 
donnaces, i., p. 231. 

" Do la Potherie (Histoire de 
I'Ann-riquo Sei)tentrionalo, i., p. 
S;!.")) says that iu his time, for want 
of resources, there were only nine 
canonw. He adds to the officers a 
great penitentiary. 






'1 



IIIS'I'OHV OF NEW FKANCE. 



27 



trcul. 



of St. Sulpico were no sooner in possession of that fair 1659. 
domain than tliey thought of endowing it with a hospital, ^— ~y^— ' 
and they were so fortunate as to interest several persons Foniidaiion 
in tlie ])i()us desi<;n. Madame do Bullion gave 02,000 "ui','i'moii'- 
livres ; ^Ir. d(! la Dovcrsioro, Licutenant-gouoral in Presi- 
dial of la Fli'che, devoted to it a part of his property, and 
by his advice they selected, for the direction of the hospi- 
tal, mms of the Hotel-Dieu, in that city, whoso institute 
has since been erected into a religious order by the Holy 
See. ^ladtMuoiselle Manse, already spoken of, received 
the hospital nuns \t Montreal, and, as long as sho lived, 
consented to manage the temporal affairs of their h'i'uso, 
in which sho was well supported by Mr. de INfaisouneuvo, 
who consented to continue to govern that little colony 
after the island changed its seigneur.' 

A city began to grow up there, the foundation of which 
was marked by an establishment which now constitutes 
one of the fairest ornaments of New France. Montreal 
owes it to Margaret Bourgcoys, that holy woman who had 
several years before followed Mr. do Maisonneuvo to Cana- 
da. "With no other resource than her courage and her 
trust in God, she undertook to afford all the young per- 



' On the 7th of Septombor, 1050, 
tlu! St. Andn' iirrivt'd (De Qurn, 
Jimriial ; M. Varie de I'lncarnation), 
bringiiiit the Hov. Messrs. Lc Mnitre 
and Vi}.^ial, tlireo hospital nuns 
(Mother de Bresoles, Sisters Mace 
and Mnillet), 03 men, and 47 wo- 
men, sent out to settle Montreal 
(Kaillon, Ilistoire di^ la Colonie 
Frani.aise, ii., j). 353 ; Vie de Mile. 
Mance, i., ji. 147 ; Menioires de la 
Socii'te Ilistoriiiue de Montreal, p. 
123 ; Afjn'nient dii Roi sur I't'tablis- 
sonivntilfs l{elii;ieuse» llospitidir-res 
de Montreal (April, KiT'J); Edits et 
Ord., i., p. 00 ; Can. Doc, H., i., p. 
300;. with some otiier sixintuueous 
Settlers, am anting in all to 200 
(M. Murio de I'lncarnation, Lettres 



Historiquos, p. 544). Unfortunately 
a pestilential fever broke out on 
board, of which several died; and 
on its reaching Quebec, Father Do 
Quen at once hastened to assist the 
sick, and fell a victim to charity, 
dying on the 8th of October. The 
disease spread, and infected the whole 
country. Notwithstanding this loss 
Montreal was placed on a fur better 
footing ; and had the directors of 
that post cordially co-operated with 
the older settlement, Canada woidd 
doubtless have benefited greatly ; 
but unfortunately they diil not har- 
monize. D'Argenson styles Mon- 
tfeiil (Can. Doc, 11., i., j). 3.")!); " a 
place which makes so much noise 
and is so insignificant.'' 



li 



'\ 



28, 



HISTORY OF NEW FBANCE. 



1659. 



It 



Foiimliit 
1)1' the Coil 
(<rf(,Mlion 
8i>tcr.t. 



sons of lior sox, no ninttor how poor or destituto, nn cdu- 
oiitiou wliicli luany girlH, even of f,'()0(l fuuiilioH, do not 
I soruro in the best-ordorod kingdoms. Sho succcoded 
" to thiit degree, that you constantly behold, with renewed 
astonishment, women in the very depths of indiginice and 
want i)erfectly instructed in their religion, ignorant of 
nothing that they should know to employ themselves use- 
fully in their families, and who, l)y their nnmners, their 
manner of expressing themselves, and tlu)ir politeness, are 
not inferior to the most carefully educated among us. 
This is the just meed of jiraisc rendered to the Sisters 
of the Congregation by all who have made any stay in 
Canada.' 

It wonld seem that at a later date there was an idea of 
making them cloistered nuns ; for, in 1709, they wore for- 
bidden to cloister themselves or take vows. They replied 
that they had never entertained the intention of shutting 
themselves up, a cloister life being absolutely incompatible 
with their institute ; that for the same reason they did not 
ask to take solemn vows, that their only wish was to bo 
permitted to take simple vows ; but as it was believed that 
these vows woiild perhaps, in time, lead them to adopt 
the cloister, which would render them far less useful to 
the colony, the council refused its consent." 

The Ursulines at Quebec also contributed greatly, on 
their side, to give younr^ persons of their sex a suitable 
education ; biit oiit of the precincts of that capital, few 
girls are enabled to frequent their schools, and the poverty 
of the country prevents their keeping a large number of 
boarders. At the time of their establishment in New 
France, it was proposed to confide to them the education 
of Indian girls ; but the result did not meet the expecta- 
tions that had been conceived, and many reasois induced 



■I 
I 



' See note 3, ante, vol. ii., p. S.jO. 
Vie d(! MarfruiTitc Hcmrp oys, 12mo, 
Montreal, 181S; I'aillou, Vie ile In 
Soeur Bourgeoyf, 'i vuIh. bvo , I'liris, 



1853 ; Ilistoire de la f 'olonie Franc;., 
ii., p. 174. 

'■' Edits et Ordoimauces, ii., p. 
3U8. 



niSTOHY OF NEW FHANCE. 



29 



thorn to ahiindon the project. The chiof roasons arc, tliiit 
thoHo nuns vivi\' not in a jiosition to meet tlm cxpcnso 
necessary to carry ont the project, and tliat the Indians 
themselves will not easily renounce tlie ]>leasuro of having,' 
their children with them. Moreover, wlien these children 
hsave the convinit and art; thrown in the midst of a sava^'o 
tribe, exposed to all the coutaf,'ion of intercourse with 
heatliens, blood and nature soon resume tlieir intluence, 
and nothiiif,' remains of tlu good education bestowed upcm 
tlieni except greater breadth of mind and inforuuition, 
which become pernicious by their too frequent abuse.' 

They sliould have confined tlieir labors to the daughters 
of Indian Cliristians domiciled in the colony. But these 
least reijuired this kind of aid, and ex})erience showed that 
it was better to leave them in their simplicity and igno- 
rance — that the Indians could be good Christians, without 
adopting any of our iioliteness and mode of life ; or at least 
leave it to time to draw them from tlieir mdeness, which 
does not prevent their living in great innocence, having 
great modesty, and serving God with a piety and fervor 
Avliich render them most fit for the sublimest operations 
of grace. 

Meanwhile the bishop of Petrre'a had scarcely assumed 
the government of his church, before ho learned that many 
nations had been discovered on the north and west of Lake 
Huron. Ho at once thought of means to diffuse over them 
the light of the gospel. Ho consulted Father Lallemant, 
who had just been for the second time appointed Superior- 
General of the missions, and with him he adopted suitable 
measures to carry out the project." A re-enforcement of 
missionaries was at once sent to the Abenaqui nations, 
which insensibly all became Christians ; but their wander- 
ing life prevented the progress of the gosjiel fiom being 



1659. 



Discovery 
of miiny 
nortlierti 
iialions. 



' For tlio Ursulino liibors, and ■ IJrlation dc la N. P., 1(>58, p. 20, 

especially their Indiiin seniiiiavy at Km!), p. .5 ; La Tour, Vie de Mf^r. do 

tliiH time, consult Les Uisuliues Ue Liival, p. 04; Ewjuiueodo lu Vie, p. 

(juubeo, i., p. 309, C9. 



if 



I 

it ' 



so 



HIHTOHY OF NEW FHANCB. 



1659. 



as ra])iM among thorn as had boon oxpoctotl from tlioir 
docility.' 

Conv( r>ic.ri Tho tiilioH uoarost to tho Chilf of St. Lawronco wcro always 
Kukiiimux. ftt war witli tho Eskiinaux, and often lucu^^'lit in captivfH as 
BhivoH, Homo of whom tlio missionavicH were so liaj)j)y as to 
convert. IJoiida*,'!! and distanco from their own land some- 
what nioditii'd tho manners of thoso Indians, as tioreo as tho 
wolves and boars with which thoir fearfiU deserts toom : 
without law, withcmt prineiploa, withont soeiety, diflbriug 
from thoso brntcis only, ono nught say, by thoir human 
figuro, thoy bocamo mild and reasonable as soon as thoy 
beheld thomsolvos among men who mado xiso of thoir 
reason. In tho snmll number of thoso who wore thou 
gained to Christ, there was ono woman mIioso conversion 
was attended with circumstances which mado a great im- 
pression on her coirntrymen, and still nioro on a Protes- 
tant. While they were instructing this woman in tho rudi- 
ments of the faith, she seemed to bo possessed by tho 
devil. To ascertain tho nature of her malady, many reme- 
dies were tried, but all proved useless. They then had 
recourse to holy water, which cured her perfectly ; sho 
then solicited baptism, and the ceremony was followed by 
tho abjuration of a Calviniht, who could not resist so evi- 
dent a miracle." 

Tho next year an Algonquin,' who had spent two wholo 
■ years in travelling in the uortli, found in tho neighborhood 
of Hudson's Bay a niimbcr of his countrymen, whom 
fear of tho Iroquois had forced to seek an asy' im there. 
He also found there natives of the country well disposed 
to join tho French in repressing the prido of that nation, 
which had mado all others its foes, and began to approach 

• The Holiition for Ki.TO cntiTB ■' Hclntion du lii N. F., I(i5it, i>. 0. 
into ilotails on the Miciiinc mission ■' Af<iiliiiiik, n Nipissint^ : Hclatiou 

at Capi^ Breton, tlu'li dincttd liy do In N. F., KiliO, y. i(. Ho sitarti'd 

Fathur Andrew Hioliard, Martin I'rom (frcon Bay in June, IC'iS, anil 

Lioune, and Jamt's Freinin (p. 7), jjrocfi'dcd l>y way of Laki- Suiiurior 

but is silent as to any nnt^ion among to Iludsiiu's ISay, and tlien di:- 

the Abeuaiiuis luoper. Bcendul to tlio Sagueuay. 



Various 
disoovericH 



HISTORY OF NKW FRANCE. 



81 



tlifin. Tlioy ((voii luuilt' tlit> Algonquin tho l)oiiror of inos- 
cuts to the govoruor-gcuoml ; luul that Iiidiiui who hud 
pcnotnitcd to Hudson's IJiiy from Lal;o Superior, ro- 
tunifd liy tlio way of tlio Saguouay.' 

At tiio name tiuio two Frciifhnuu, after wintering on 
the hanks of Lake Superior with a hirge number of Algon- 
(inin i'ainilies, led by curiosity to ponetrato still further 
west, advanced to tho Sioux. On their way, tliey carao 
upon ([uite a considerable town of Tionontates Hurons," 
from wliom tliey learned some very curious facts. Only 
such as are necessary for tho thread of tho history will be 
noted. 

The Sioux' till then not only had no knoAvlcdgo of tho 
French, but were very littlo known by the Huron and 
Algontjuin nations, with whom we had intercourse ; at 
least to judge by tho account of tho two Frenchmen, who 
said that their manners scorned very strange and very 
ridiculous to tho Tionontates and tho Ottawas, whou these 
took refuge among them. 

They added that tho Hurons and Ottawas even insulted 
tho Sioux on several occasions, relying on thoii- firearms, 



lC>rr). 



Wlmt 

|W1M!I1 tlie 

Sioiix ami 

tliu Ihiruiiti. 



' Relation do la N. F., 10(10, p. 13. 
lit! fdunil Al^niiqiiin nations (in tht^ 
bay, but none of his own trilm. 

■■' Six iliivH* journey noutliwcst of 
Luki! SuiHTii)!' iRi'liition de la N. F., 
1()(5", pp. I'J, 27), ai)iian'ntly on Mlack 
HivjT. Sec Perrot, Mcrurs et (,'ous- 
tunii's, p. 87. 

•' Tho Sioux, now ti'chnieally 
railed Dncfjtaa, were Htyled by tho 
AlgonciuinH NadWechiM(,'c, tho first 
part of tho name being the same, 
Nad^^e (Nottoway), whicli they gave 
to the IriHiuois. The next jiart 
CliiH (Sioux), beraine their coninion 
designiition among tho French: 
Cliiirlevoix, .lournal, p. 18:i. Tho 
WiuneliagocK, whose own name is 
OU'lmgra, the former title behig Al- 
gonquin, meaning Men from tho 



Salt Water, belong to tho s no 
family as did the Missouris, Osagea, 
lowas, and yuappas. The last of 
these weri! railed by the Illinois and 
other Algon(|uins Arkansas, or Al- 
kansas ; and an; said by Oravier 
(Journal d'an Voyage depuis le ])ay» 
des Illinois en 1700, p. 10) to have 
at one time resided on the Ohio. 
They are, jierhaps, the Talligeu, 
Talligewi, or Allogewi of Ilecko- 
■welder, who are rejiresenteil by tho 
Algompiins <if I'enn.sylvania as hav- 
ing been driven down the Ohio to 
the Lower Mis.'iissippi : lleckewelder, 
Historical Account, p. 2!). This 
would bring almost all the known 
mounds in limits occu|)ied by Dacota 
trilies Kiir the limgiuige, see Riggs' 
Dakota Dictionary. 



IIIHTOHY OK NKVV FKANrE. 



i6i;9. 



Mlniix Bliil 
llurotii. 



roenliari- 

tlcit ol tlio 

biuii.x. 



flit> )iH(' of wliicli WHS Htill miknnwii to tlicir IioHts; tliat (lioy 
kiilcil HDiiio; l)ut that at lust, ra^T and iiiiinliii's cnnipi'ii- 
Hatiii^ for tlio advaiita^'t's which rt'iidcicd th*! MtiroiiH ami 
OttftwaH HO insolent, tho Hioux niassacrod Hovoral.' 

(hw day, ainoiif^ otht'is, having' drawn Hcvnal TTiironH 
into u kind of laku or niar.sh, all covcncd with wild rice, 
tiiey oau^,'ht thcni, with their canoes, in lUits which tho 
IIur(jns dill not juirccivn ; after which they jioured in upon 
tiu'iu Huch II shower uf arrows, that not a man escaped. 
Tho rest at last thoUf,dit it advisalde to draw otl' from u 
nation with whom they conld no longer hope for u recon- 
ciliation ; and tlu'y accordinf,'ly proceeded to settle south- 
oast of tho western point of Lake Superior, whoro our two 
voya^'i'urs found them.' 

Passin",' thence amonj^ tho Sioux, they ol)served somo 
women with tla'ir noses out olF, nnd n part of tho head 
sealjied. On askinj,' the reason, they were told that it was 
the penalty inllit'ted on women for adulter}'. This seemed 
to them very rij.;orous, hecause poly{j;aniy i.s toU'rated 
among this ])eople.' Tho Sioux nation was then very 
numerous, nnd divided into forty towns,* all largo and 
populous ; and as these towns often change place, tho 
Sioux country was of immense extent." Two Jesuits who, 
in 1G87 and KJSf)," made somo excursions among them, 
spoko of them as a very ]ioworful people ; and one of them, 
Father Joseph Marest, often expressed to mo his great 
logret that ho was not enabled to take up his residcuco 
among those Indians, whom ho foini.. ^ocilo and reasona- 
ble. Ho added that tho Sioux diil not wreak on their 



' Porrot : Mepurs pt ('ouRttiiiU'H 
dfB SnuviificH, ]). H~. 

" PiTFot, M(rur» I't CoUHliiincs den 
Sauviigcs, p. H8 ; l)e la I'otlicrif, 
IliHtiiire dc lAini'Tuiiip Scptcntri- 
onnlc, ii., p. 217. One Huron, called 
Ia! Kriiid, ('S('a])i'd. 

■' lit'lation du la NouvuUo France, 
1060, p. 13. 



* The Hi'liiticm lor KidO, p, li}, 
snys forty towns, five contuinitig 
each .1000 men. 

'' Ik'nni'pin was a ])rinoiirr among 
tlic Hioux in 1()7!)-W, and gives tho 
earliest details: Oescription do la 
Loiiisiune, Paris, l()8;i. jip. t.'Oti-28.7. 

'■ FatherH Josi'pli Marebt and Ig- 
uatiua liuignao. 



HISTOHY OF NKW FUANCE. 



33 



prisonoFH tlinsn liorrois wliii-h ilis^^riioo luoHt of tlio otiior 1660. 
natioiiH on tliis eontiiu'iit, lunl tliiit thoy huvo a voiy clour ^-""v"*^ 
kiiDwlod^'o of tlio ono hoIo Clod. 

I hiivi) i'IhowIuto iiH'iitiuiHHl thn prcU'iico H«>t up that 
tliOK»( Si()U\ liiivo a C'liini'Hi" accent. This has not ht'cu 
y«t Hulmtantiatoil, but in niodo of lifi> they ^^'iisatly ichi m- 
blo tho TartiiiH.' Ft»\v Fronchiuon have loarni-il their hiu- 
guago, wliicli W(mltl, nmcrthoh'SH, bo of great advantage 
iu exploring all northwcHt of the MieisHipi ; and every 
thing leads uh to beliovo that useful diseoverieH would bo 
made there, especially in i-ogard to tho South Hea,' from 
which it is almost certaiu that they are not extremely 
diHtant.' 

Meanwhile no relief came from Franco,* and the colony Kxtrcmity 
of Canada maintained itself only by a kind of miracle. CuniiaaiH 
I\Irn durst not leave the neighborhood of the forts without 
aa escort; and in manj' places there was no apparent 
means of gathering the harvest, the season for whicli ap- 
proached.' Many believed that thoy would at last have to 
abandon every thing, and some began to take measures 
for recrossing tlio ocean. Heveu hundred Iroipiois, who 
Lad just defeated a largo French aud Indian party," held 
Quebec in a kind of blockade, the Ursulines and Hospi- 



■ The affinity of the Dakota and 
Tartar, alluded to In t'liarli'VoU'g 
Joiininl, pp. 18U-4, ha« been recog- 
nized even by modern philologiHts. 

' The Pacific Ocean. 

" Relation de la N. F., 1000, p. 5. 

* On tho aist May, 1000, Mr. DAil- 
lobou8t died at Montreal : I^alemant, 
Journal ; Belmont, p. 11. 

' On the 5tli June a woman, with 
several of her family, was carried 
oiT before Quel)ec ; but the captors, 
rouetrnde Ilurons, were pursued, de- 
feated, and taken : lielntion de la 
N. F., 1000, p. 31 ; Lalemant, Journal. 

" This was the fiuuous action at 
I.onfi; Sa\dt : Dollier de Casson, llis- 
toire de Montreal ; Relation do la N. 

Vol. III.— 3 



F., 1000, p. 14 ; M. Mario de I'lncar- 
nalion, p. 201 ; Father iiidemant, 
Journal, June 8, 1000. The French 
numbered 17, commanded by Adam 
Dollard, Mieur deg Ormeaux, a young 
officer, age<l 25. He took the field 
in April, and on the lOth defeatwl 
an Irotiuois ])arty, apparently on St. 
Paul's Island. After returning to 
Montreal he again set out, and took 
post in a little Indian fort at tho 
f(X)t of the Long Rapid on the Otta- 
wa. Here he was joined by U!) Ilu- 
rons unUer Auahotaha, and Miliwe- 
meg with three Algonquins. Tho 
Iro(|U()is soon approached, and Doi- 
lard rcuited the van, but was in- 
vested by the whole force of 300 



^ fii'1 



I: ^ h 



84 HISTORY OP NEW FRANCE. 

1660. tal imus were forced to leave their convcuts by night, no 
longer deeniiug themselves secure,' and by the close of 
aiitumn, when those savages were supposed to have re- 
tired homeward, tidings came that they still kept the field, 
•which spread consternation on all sides.' 

A Huron, who escaped from their hands, confirmed this 
intelligence, and added that it had been their design to 
di'aw out a missionary to a conference, and seize him to 
serve as an exchange ; that when they had in this Avay 
liberated all their own people who were prisoner.s in our 
hands, they would no longer observe any bounds ; that they 
proposed especially to carry off a great number of chikben 
to repeople their country ; but that an accident had be- 
fallen them, Avhich doubtless had induced them to march 
back — one of the Iroquois, aiming at a stag, fired upon and 
killed the chief of the party.^ 

They did not, in fact, make their appearance again all 



men. They attacked him repeatedly, 
but were iihvnys repulsed with lo83. 
Tliey then sent to another army of 
600. Meanwhile the French, suifer- 
ing from thirst, were deserted by 
the 39 Ilurons, who revealed their 
weakness to the Iro(|U(ii». Still, 
Dollard lield out against the two 
Iroquois armies, who at last at- 
tempted to storm their fort, regard- 
less of the loss of life. To check 
them, Dollard made a kind of tor- 
pedo, and threw it over ; but it 
caught on a branch and fell inside 
the fort, killing and wounding some 
of his own men. Then the ])lace 
was carried, and the whole jjarty 
were killed, fighting to tlu^ last. 
The Iroquois are said by Mr. de Bel- 
mont (llistoire du Canada, p. 11), on 
the rojiort of one of their nation, to 
have lost one third of tln'ir force. 
This glorious action (May 21, 16C0) 
Bo disconcerted the Iro<|uois, that 
they abaudoueil their design of at- 
tacking Threo Rivers and Quebec, 



and capturing the Governor-General : 
M. Marie de I'lncarn., Lettres Hist., 
p. 2.54 ; Lalemant, Journal, May 15, 
1000 ; Belmont, Hist, du Canada, p. 
11 ; Hist, de la Col. Fran., ii., pp. 397- 
419 ; Can. Doc, II,, i., pp. 358, 417. 

' Lalemant, Journal, May 19, IGOO ; 
M. Marie de I'lncarnatlon, Lettres 
Historiciues. ]>. 2.50. She remained 
in her convent with three nuns : Lcs 
Ursulines de Quebec, i., p. 230; Ju- 
chereau, Histoiro de I'Hotel Dieu de 
Quebec, i., p. 230. 

'' M. Marie de 1 'Incarnation, Lettre 
Nov. 2, KiOO. They sought to do- 
liver some Cayugas seized by Mai- 
sonneuve : Rel., 1000, j). 37 ; Lale- 
mant, Journal, Aug. 4. 1060. 

■' M. Marie de I'lncarnation, Lcttro 
Nov. 2, lOGO. These hostile move- 
ments had prevented the people from 
gathering in their crops, and the 
Governor nnnf)unced that tlu^y would 
need bread^tuft's from France. A 
vessel sailed to France for flour, July 
7 : Lalemant Journal. 



I 



I:; 







I 



IIISTOUY OP NEW FRANCE. 

the rest of that yccar, but towards tho close of winter, par- 
ties appeared in various parts of the colony and committed 
great ravages.' Mr. le Maitre, an ecclesiastic of the Semi- 
naiy of Montreal, was kiUcd while returning from saying 
Mass in tlie country.' Mr. do Lauson, Seneschal of New 
France, and son of tho last governor-general, going to Islo 
Orleans to relieve his brother-in-law,^ who was invested in 
his own house, /ell into an ambuscade. The Iroqrois, who 
knew him, and who passionately desired to have a prisoner 
of sueli rank, spared him for a time, seeking only to ex- 
haust his strength ; but seeing him kill several of their 
people, they fired on him, and ho feU dead before any ono 
durst approach him.* 

Many other persons of note, and a gi-cat many settlers 
and Indians, met the samo fate. Thirty Attikamegues, 
who were accompanied by some Frenchmen, were attacked 
by eighty Iroquois, and defended themselves with a valor 
that might have saved them had they fought with more 
order; oven tho women fought to the death, and not one 
of them sm-rendered.' In a word, from Montreal to Ta- 
doiissac naught could bo seen but bloody traces of the 
passage of these fierce enemies." 



35 



' Rohition do la N. F., ICCl, p. 3 ; 
M. MiiriH il(! rincumation, Lettrn 
Sept., 1001. 

'•' Mr. Jaim'8 Leuiaitre, born in 
Normandy in 1017, was ont- of tho 
mcinbore udniittud into his congre- 
giitiou by Mr. Olior himself. Ho 
cariKwtly desired to go to Montreal 
with the first elerffynien sent, but 
WHS not chosen till lOoi). He ar- 
rived Sept. 7, lO.JO, in a ship which 
sutl'ered greatly from temiiests and 
disease, lie had said Mass in Mon- 
treal, Aug. 29, 1001, and liad gone 
to St. (ial)riel to superintend some 
men at worli. being steward of the 
house, wlien they were attacked by 
a party under Outrenuati. He was 
shot wliilu uuduavoriug to cover the 



flight of his men : Relation do la N. 
F., 1001, p. ,'5; Dollier d(^ Casson, 
Histoire do Montreal, 1000-1 ; Bel- 
mont, Hist, du Canada, p. 11 ; Faillon, 
Histoire de la Colonic Francaise, ii.' 
pp. •.m-(i, 441-409 ; Vie de M. Olier,' 
ii., p. 44;i ; Vie do M. Bourgeoys, i,, 
p. 00 ; M. Marie de I'lncarnation, ii.,' 
p. r,m ; De la Tour, Mem. de Mr.' 
Laval, p. 13;i. 

^ Mr. Couillard do I/Espinay, hia 
brother in-law, was supposed so to 
be. 

^ Relation de la N. P., 1001, p. r, ; 
Juchereau, Hist, de I'llotel-Dieu pn' 
127, 8. ' 

* Relati(m de la N. F., 1001, p. ;j; 
Can. Doc, 11., i., p, ;;,<*(). 

* Relutiou do la N, F., 1001, p. a. 



i66i 



Iroquois 
ho.stilities. 



36 



i66i. 



Discaac. 
FhenoiiieDa 



i'. 



If '^ 



Good news 
from tlio 
Iroquois 
country. 



/ HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 

/ To this terrible scourge Heaven added another, which 
completed the reduction of the colony to the last extremity. 
The French and domicihated Indians were attacked by a 
disease from which no one was exempt, and which was 
especially fatal to childi-en. It was a kind of hoojiing- 
cough, which turned to a pleurisy. People imagined that 
there was witchcraft in it, and the physicians were the first 
to spread this opinion. When tho popular mind is once 
stmck, their imagination carries them pretty far, and at 
certain times all are swayed by public opinion. It was 
afterwards published that a fiery crown had been seen in 
the air; that piteous voices had been heard at Three 
Hivers ; that a fiery canoe had appeared near Quebec, and 
at another place a man, all on fire, and surrounded by a 
whirlwind of flames ; that on Isle Orleans a woman had 
heard lier unborn child sobbing : and all this was followed 
by the apparition of a comet, which completed the ten'or 
of the masses, to whom this phenomenon is never a matter 
of indifference, especially in times of calamity.' 

Yet amid these alarms, and in the very height of the 
storm, calm suddenly appeared. Prisoners escaping from 
the Iroquois towns, brought tidings that there were a score 
of Frenchmen at Onondaga whoso lives had been spared, 
and who enjoyed quite a degree of liberty; that in the 
same canton a cabin had been transformed into a chapel, 
where a great many Christians, French, Hurons, Iroquois, 
and Algonquins, met regularly to perform their devo- 
tions ;' that the matrons, who are the important body in 
the State," had had no share in tho plot which had forced 
Mr. Dupuys to retu'e, and that they had for a whole week 
mourned with theii* childx-en over the departure of the 
missionaries ; in conclusion, that in the cantons of Cayuga 
and Oneida, there were Christians who inviolably preserved 
the faith.' 



' Relation de la N. F., 1661, p. 2. 

••' lb., pp. 8, 37. 

' As to the matronu and theli in- 



fluence, see Lafitau, Moeurs dea Sau- 

vagos, i., pp. 76, 474 ; Hel., 1071, p. 6. 

* CLaumonot, Autobiog., p. 73. . 



I 



1661. 



HISTORY OP NEW FRANCE. 

A short timo after, the enemy's war-parties vanished 
almost entirely, and towards the mouth of July two canoes 
were descried, from Montreal, advancing with a flag of 
truce. They were allowed to approach, and men beheld the 
Iroquois land with as much assurance as the most faithful 
allies coiild display. They were deputies from the cantons 
of Onondaga and Cayuga, and one of them was the most 
renowned chief of the latter canton, an old host of Father 
Mesnard, and at all times the most avowed fiiend of the 
French. They brought back four Frenchmen, whom they 
proposed to exchange for eight Caj-ngas, held as prisoners 
at Montreal, and they even promised to give up all the 
other Frenchmen Avhom they controlled, if we would sur- 
render all the braves of the two cantons -nrhom we had in 
our hands.' 

They also handed to Mr. de Maisonneuve a letter signed 
by all the French captives in the same cantons. It stated 
that they were treated quite well, and that all minds 
seemed inclined to peace ; but that if the authorities re- 
fused to listen to die two deputies, all the French in the 
country would be pitilessly burnt at the stake on their 
return. The governor replied to the deputies that he 
would write to Viscount d'Argenson, to whom alone it 
belonged to accept or reject such propositions, and that 
while awaiting his orders they might remain in the fort, 
where they should enjoy complete liberty." 

At first. Viscount d'Ai'genson seemed little disposed to 
enter into negotiations ; but considering that, in the con- 
dition in which the colony was, a patched-up peace, pro- 
vided they kept on their guard, was better than the pro- 
longation of a war which they were not in a condition to 
maintain, he changed his mind. A drowning man will 
grasp at a twig that he knows will break in his hands, if 



87 



' Their wtimpum belts are ex- ' Relation de la N. F., 1661, p. 8 ; 
plained at length in Relation de la Jucherenu, Histoire de I'Hotel Dieu 
N. F., 1601, pp. 7, 8 de Quebec, pp. 131-4. 



88 



HISTOUT OP NEW FRANCE. 



1661. he finds no other. The greatest difficulty was to gi-ant a 

^-^v ' missionary to tlio two cantons, who proposed peace only on 

FiitlierLo this Condition.' The viscount sounded. Father le Moyne, 

^sent" to" '^vho Unhesitatingly replied that he was ready to start. 

theinhoine! This was the fifth time that this religious had sacrificed 

himself on such occasions : he embraced this one eagerly, 

believing it beyond all fail that he would lay down his 

Dnron life for the cause of God and the safety of the colony." 

relieves tin lu the midst of all this. Baron d'Avaugour arrived 

d'Argensou from France' to relieve Viscount d'Aigenson, who had 

been impelled to solicit a recall bj ill health,* the slight 

support he received from tht New Franco Company, and 

some private troubles incessantly excited against him by 

ill-minded men.' The new governor was amazed to see 

himself put in charge of a colony so gone to wreck. He 

began by visiting all the posts, and, after that visit, he said 

that ho was charmed with Canada ; that its value was not 

understood in France ; but that he could not conceive how 

his predecessors had held their gi-ound as they really did, 

with so little resources ; that he would lay it all before the 

kuig, and that if the troops and supplies that had been 

promised him were not sent at once, ho would not wait 

for the appointment of a successor before returning to 

France. This general was a resolute and highly upright 



' Relation tie la N. F., 1001, p. 9 ; 
M. Mnrio do I'lncamntion, Lcttro 
Oct., 1001 ; Bishop Luval, Report to 
the Propaganda, Oct. 31, 1001, in 
Faillon, Hi«t. de la Colonie, ii., 4.52. 

'' Relation de la N. F., 1001, p. 0, 
says nothing of D'Argenson's action. 
The ni'ws of the coming of the am- 
hassadors arrived June 29 ; and .luly 
2, Fathers ChaunKinot and Le Moyne 
went up to Montreal — the former to 
represent the Uoveriior, the latter 
to go to t)uondaga, and lie in fact 
Het out from Montreal on tlie 21st: 
Lalemant, Journal; Kelatiou de la 
N. F., y. ai. 



^ Aug. 31, 1001 : Lalemant, Jour- 
nal ; Relation de la N. F., 1001, p. 
10. 

■• DoUicr do C'asson, Histoire de 
Montreal. lie sailed to France Sept. 

19, IPOl (Lalemant, Journal), and 
the new Governor then took com- 
mand. D'Argenson's commission 
liore date Jan. 20, lOO'i : Menioires 
Bur les Ponsessious en Amerique, iii., 
p. 422 ; Edits et Ordonnances, iii., p. 

20. His term of three years i)egnn 
with his arrival at Quebec, July 11, 
10.)8. 

■' Lettresde Marie del'Incarnation, 
Oct., lOUl, 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



39 



man ; Imt bo prided himself too much on these qualities, 1 660. 
and conld not adapt himself to eircumstauces. Ho had "■"■'■^f~~' 
campaigned in Hungary with great distinction ; but in 
Canada he had loss opportunity to display his good quali- 
ties than occasion to show his defects, and in the brief 
period of his rule in the colony, they subjected him to 
many annoyances." 

Father le Moyno had set out when tho Baron d' Avail- Nortinvnrd 
gour reached Quebec ; and while that missionary was on '^7i"ie"mi«- 
his way to eudeav.- ■ to reconcile the Iroquois and the '''°"'"'"'*' 
French, Fathers DreuiUettes and Dablon were endeavor- 
ing to penetrate to tho Northern Ocean, by ascending t^e 
Saguenay." Early in July, two months after they set out, 
they foiuul themselves at the head-waters of tho Nekouba 
river,' which emi^ties into Lake St. Jean, and there expe- 
rienced excessive heat, which they ascribed in part to tho 
altitude of the land, having, according to their account, 
ascended constantly for a hundred leagues.* 

Lake St. Jean is the real source of the Saguenay, and of Description 
several other rivers ; it is twenty leagues in circumference, gt. j'oim. 
and oval in form. Tho many isles that stud its bosom 
make most agreeable points in the landscape, and its shores 
are lined with noble trees ; but this part would not per- 
haps be found so charming, if you were not compelled, 
before reaching it, to traverse the most fearful deserts. 
This is a reflection that travellers should make, and which 
would often save them from exaggerations which aflect 
their credit." 

Father Dablon mentions, in his journal, a very singular 
disease, but which they assured him was quite common in 
these northern countries. A person suddenly becomes a 



' For eome of his petty trouhlee, 
see Canada Doc, II,, i., pp. liTo-398. 

" Lalemont, Journal, May 11 ; Ht-l. 
de la N. F., lOlil, j). 13. Tiny went 
to establish the mission ol' St. Fniucis 
Xavier of the Kiristinons (.Crees). 



' Nekouba was the place where a 
kind of fair was held. Dal. Ion 
gives it as 49' 20 N., 305' 10' W. ; 
Relation de la N. F., KiOl, p. 17. 

' The H(>1. for 10(11. p. K, savs SO. 

' Relation de la N. F., 1001, p. 14. 



• i 



^ .il'i 



40 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



V " 



1660. 



Extraonli- 
iiiiry mal- 
ady. 



lunatic and hypochondriac, his disease soon degenerating 
into mania. In tliis condition the patient is seized wHh 
such a rabid hunger for human flesh, that he springs like 
a famished wolf on all ho meets. In proportion as ho 
finds wherewith to glut this hunge" it grows like thirst in 
dropsy; and, accordingly, they never fail to kiU at once 
any one seized with this disease.' 

The source of the Nekouba river was then a place of 
trade, which gathered almost all the northern nations. 
Yet it was so wretched a laud, that it was said, as a by- 
word, that the very mosquitoes could not find a living 
there. At this place the missionaries found a very great 
number of Indians expecting them, and among them Chris- 
tians and proselytes. These they instracted, administer- 
ing the sacraments." To the heathen they announced the 
kingdom of God, and baptized some. They could not pro- 
ceed any further, being warded of the approach of the 
Iroquois, and of their quite recent destruction of a nation 
known as the Squin'el Tribe.' 

Another missionary. Father Bailloquet, who had de- 
scended the St. Lawrence from Tadoussac to the entrance 
of the gulf, was still more fortunate. He visited seven or 
eight towns,* constituting as many difierent tribes, all of 
the Algonquin language. He everywhere found Indians 
who, to become good Christians, needed only instruction : 
he baptized several, and especially a mimber of dying chil- 
dren, and left a harvest well prepared, which he trusted to 
gather in the ensuing jear. These nations now scarcely 
subsist, and it is not easy to say wLat became of them.' 

As autumn approached, letters from Father le Moyne, 



' Relation de la Nouvelle France, 
1661, p. 15. 

« lb., p. 17. 

> lb., p. 21. 

* Papinncliois, Bersiamitcs, Nation 
des Monta Peluz, Oumainiouek, etc. : 



1661, p. 39 ; Lalemant, Journal, Oct. 
24, 1661. 

' lb. The whole number of In- 
dians, of all tribes, on the Labrador 
peninsula is now estimated at less 
than 4,000 : Hind's Explorations in 



Relation de la Nouvelle France, Labrador, ii., p. 117. 



I 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



41 



dated at Onondof^a, roaclied Quebec' That missionary 
had, on his way, run nuuiy dauf^crs from tlio Muhawks, 
Oueidiis, and Houecas, who had not taken part in the 
deputation of tho other two cantons." Ho at hist, without 
any untoward accident, arrived within two leaf^ues of Onon- 
dafja," and there found tho great chief of that canton, 
named Garakouthie,' who awaited him witli a numerous 
retiuuo to do him honor. He was the more surprised 
at this, as it is not the custom among the Indians to go 
more than a quarter of a league to meet deputies ; but 
his astonishment ceased when he knew Avell the chief who 
paid him this compliment. 

Garakouthie was Indian only in bii'th and education ; 
and with all tho good qualities that it is impossible not to 
recognize in his nation, he had an excellent disposition, 
great milduesG, a superior intellect, and great uiirightuess. 
His exploits in war," and his dexterity in swaying minds in 
council, had acquired for him great influence in his nation ; 
and it was his most ordinary employment to use it in all 
cases to lorevont violent measures, and to bring about 
peace with the French, whom he loved sincerely. He had 
given strong proofs of this feeling, by rescuing from the 
hands of the Mohawks a great many of the French ; and 
all who were at the time prisoners in his canton, or in the 
others, owed their lives to him. 

By a refinement of policy, which surprises us in an In- 



1661. 



Kcccption 
({iveri to 
Father lo 
Mnyiio nt 
Oiiuuiiuga. 



Clmrncter 

ol'Ciiiriikon- 

tliic. 



18, 



If In- 

tndor 

less 

ns in 



' Letters Aug. 25 and Sopt. 11, 
IGGl, dated from the Onnoutaghe 
C'lmi)el : Relation de la Nouvelle 
France, 1G61, p. 31. 

'' Senecas are not mentioned : lb., 
p. 33. 

'■' They landed first at Otiatanhe- 
gue. 

■* (JarakontUie (The Sun who 
■Walks) was ai'iiarently an orator, 
not a sachem, and not a war-cliief 
exertinj; u personal influence, as 
Red Jacket did. He is not men- 



tioned in connection with the settle- 
ment of St. Mary of Oanentalia by 
any of the writers at that finie, and 
it is absolutely contrary to all autlior- 
itj' to make him tlu^ projector of that 
movement. He probably, with true 
Inilian caution, watched the French 
and their missii)nuries, and at last 
came to the conclusion that guided 
all his subseciuent conduct, that tho 
true ix)licy for the Indians was to 
adopt the civilization of tlie French. 
' 1 find no authority for this. 



42 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



Heliiud 

piilioy of 

tliiH Indian 

cliiul'. 



I f 



1661. (Han, he did not wish to load Father lo Moyno to his own 
^' ' cabin till lio had conductod him to tlii^ l()dj,'cs of all the 
chiefs whom ho supposed )io might ueod for the ])roject 
which lio had formed. Ho wished all to regard the peace 
for which ho was laboring as their omu Avork, convinced 
that if ho appeared to make it his own afTair, some woiild 
oppose it from jealousj-.' This deference gained them all 
to such a point, that he obtained from them nmch nioro 
than he dared to exjiect. On tho 12th of August, at tho 
sound of a boll which had remained at the spot where tho 
Jesuit chapel had stood, deputies assembled in his cabin 
from Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca. Father lo Moyno 
was invited, and after pronouncing aloud a short prayer 
in Iroquois, ho declared that ho was sent by Ouonthio, 
whoso intentions ho was about to explain.'^ Ho then set 
his presents in tho midst of tho assembly, and spoko thus : 
Address of " To you, Onondaga, I address my words. The Cayuga, 
Moyno in ii your SOU," camo to tell mo that ho was deputed on your 
thi"t"'"i:aii- behalf to reunite the whole nation to me. Did you send 
'""'• him?" Ho was told that the Cayuga had spoken truly. 
He gave a present, and continued : " He added, that if I 
set free all the Iroquois detail ';d in my prisons, you Avould 
restore to mo all the French Avhom you hold as captives. 
Did you authorize him to say so?" " Tho Cayuga," they an- 
swered, " had orders to speak so ; he will not be disavowed." 
Ho gave a second present, and resumed his speech. "You 
have also declared to me that you besought to hide so 
deep in the earth the bones of the Iroquois fallen in the 
war, that none Avould hereafter think of avenging them, 
and that j-ou desired the same to bo done with the French. 
Do you make this proposition in earnest ?" Being assiired 
that nothing could be more sincere, ho gave a third present, 
and added : " And, Seneca, is it true, as you recently im- 
parted to me, that you wish to be comprised in the treaty 

' Relation dc la N. F., 1001, p. 33. were, the head of nil tho others, and 
" lb. accordingly styles them sons. — (Jlinr 

' The canton of Onondaga is, as it hcvu'. 



M 



' -m 



I i 



i'jj^ 



I 



IIISTOKY OF NEW FRANCE. 



43 



I 



I 
-it 



of pyacp, aiul dosiro to linvo Fronchmon settle in your '661. 
countrj' '?" A eliief replied that his canton had really given """'^i'~~^ 
that Older. Tlu! Father gave him a belt, and closed, say- 
ing : "The Mohawk has always had an ill-dispo.sed mind. 
I know that he sends presents underhand to induce tho 
others to nuuntaiu tho war. I have nothing to say to 
him, except that he will find sonio one to speak to." Tho 
missionary then, laying aside his character of envoy from 
the governor-general, turned his address to religion, and 
was listened to with pleasure.' 

They reassembled some days aft' iid the Iroquois KcHointion 
spokesman decdared, 1st. That they would send Lack to c'oun'ori. 
Onontliio nine Frenchmen, and if tho rest were retained 
during the winter, it was only to keep company with Ou- 
dessou (Father le Moync) ; 2d. That Garakonthie was 
appointed chief of tho embassy, and that ho would deliver 
tho nine Frenchmen to Onontliio. Tho missionary seemed 
surprised at this resolution, and represented that they had 
promised to set all the French at liberty. Ho was answered 
that this could not be, and he did not deem it wise to 
insist any further, convinced that it would be useless. 
Moreover, the prisor^^rs ■vrero as well treated as could bo 
desired." 

This was not the case with those retained in fetters by K'lioiriiim 
the Mohawks : they had much to sufl'er, and could not feel jiertei. 
sure of a day's life. Among them was ono young man of 
very good family, Francis Hertel by name," who sanctified 
his captivity by a great innocence, perfect resignation to 
the orders of Heaven and practices of piety, which inspired 
the respect even of his enemies. Ho had a finger burned 
and a thumb cut off, suffering these cruel operations with 



H 



^ 



' Relation do la N. F., 1(!(!1, p. ;!;3. Frnnris MiirgiuTie: Ferliind, ("ours 

J'^- dllistoirc, \K 4T-. Ill' Dtiirui'd to 

■' Frnucis llcitcl was sou ot'.Ituin'S Cuiuida by way of Ni'W Voik and 

HiTti'l, iiUrriiictiT, a native of Fe- Port lioyallN.V.Col, Doc.iii., p. l;l-,'), 

camp in Normandy, ami of Mary bic-anu' a t,aciit parti«in ollicer, and 

Wurguuriii, BiBtir of tUo iuterprotur wau i'uuobl«U in lUtil : lb., ix., p. 554. 



44 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



H 



if)6i. uiishiikon pntionco. I naw him in 1721, at tlio aj^'o of 

^^""•"^ •'i^'lity, full of hoiilth and Ktrongtli, tho wliolo colcjiiy boar- 

iuf? tt'stiiiioiiy to liis viituo aud lueiit. Tliti himiuoI of tliin 

history will show that I could not pas.s over in silcnet) tho 

honor which ho did to tho Christian rdij^'ion, amid its 

greatest enemies. But to return to tho Iroquois embassy. 

OnmkciM- Carakonthic embarked about thi' middle of September, 
tlii('' rciuilics iti i'1.1 iiif • ri- 

MoniRiii. 'Villi 11 tow (lays alter, lie met a haml ot warriors oi his 
canton led by Outreouhati, a cihief of reputation. This 
captain having Jjocn in irons at Montreal, had just avenged 
himself. Ho was loaded with scalps and spoils, and espo- 
cially paraded tho soutane of Mr. lo Maitro.' At this 
spectacle Garakonthie seomed embarrassed. His people 
advised him to turn back, unable to believe that after what 
had happened they would be received as ambassadors ; 
but, all things considered, it was resolved to continue their 
course : ho assured his people that there was no fear for 
thorn, as long as Frenchmen wore left in their canton, and 
that consideration for Father le Moyne alone would prove 
their safeguard.^ 

At the end of some days, meeting an Oneida party, he 
asked their destination, and being told that they wished 
to eat some Frenchmen, ho gave them presents, and in- 
duced them to return.^ He finally reached tlio island of 
Montreal.* He was there received in a manner merited 
by the services which ho had rendered to the French pris- 
oners in his country, and the exertions which ho had made 
to establish peace. Ho had private interviews with tho 
governor-general, in which he disi^layed great wisdom and 



Eeccption 
givcu liiui. 



' Le Moyne met Orreouati or 
Outrcoulinti at OtiiitaDlK'tJilt', going 
out to take vengeance on the French 
forliaviugput liini in irons: Relation 
(le la Nouvelle France, Kilil, iij). Ill, 
(i ; Helmont, ]i. 11. An Outreouati, 
nicknamed l)y the French (J ramie 
Oueule, th(! (Jrnngula of I,a llor.tan, 
appears subsequently in the time of 



De la Barre: C'olden, 1737, p. 80. 
The actual murderer of Le Waitre, 
lloandoran, became a Christian, and 
died at the Sulpitian Mission at 
Montreal: De Belmont, MS. cited 
by Faillon, ii., p. Uo. 

- Relation de la N. F., 1001, p. iJO. 

■' II)., p. ;>7. 

* Oct. 5, 1001 : Relation, 1001, p. 37. 



Ti 



I 



\i 



.4 

1 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. •!.'» 

ability. Ho acccptoil all tlii> i)ropoHitioiis innil(> t(» liim, i^''"". 
uiul jn'omiHod to rotuni towards tho closo of spriii^^ with "^-^ir-"^ 
th(^ ri'st of the Fiviich MriHoncvH ; and so cotnplctt'ly did 
tlipy deem it saf(' to rely on his word, that tlioy ri'storcd 
t(j him all tho Tnxjuois whom ho askod : bnt they did not 
vollrct sulHcioutly that, in a govornmont such as that of 
tho IiKlians, it is not always wise to ri'ly on tlui words of 
a singlt! chief, howovcr aecroditcd ho may bo, or individ- 
ually uprif^'ht.' 

It is truo that tho hope of a spocdy pnaco, much nioro rcnccscoms 
dnrablo than any hitherto ni'','otiat('d with tho Iroquois, 1662. 
was not based solely on tho cnulit and good intentions of 
Garakonthie. Tho Upper Cantons woro supposed to bo in 
a condition to regard it as noccssary, because tho Andastes 
had attacked and were repressing them vigorously. 

On tho other hand, war wan raging furiously between 
tho Mohawks and tho Mohegans, wl had been joined by 
tho Abenaqui nations ;' but ere long positive intelligence 
came, showing that tho Iroquois were not cither so much 
embarrassed as was said, nor as much iucliued to peace as 
the}- had flattered themselves. 

They learned that tho Upper Cantons, after repulsing pcatli of 
the Andastos, had made excursions as far as Virginia, vignoi."^" 
whence several struck far into tho west. These, on their 
return, declared that they had advanced to the sea, and 
had seen people of the same religion as the French, which 
leads to tho conjecture that they had penetrated to New 
Mexico and the Gulf of California, commonly called in 
French, la Mer FernwlJlc.' It would seem, also, that the 
Mohawks soon made peace with the Mohegans ; inasmuch 
as they, with the Oneidas, continued their war-parties, and 
approached Montreal, where they killed an ecclesiastic 
named Vignol.' 



' Relation de la Nouvelle Franco, called it Mar Benm-jo (Red Sea), 

lUUl. p. :!8. from its sluiiic. 
■' II)., p. ;;». ' liiv. William Vifriial canic to 

-' liul., 1UU2, ]). 2, The Spouiardii C'auudu iu July, 1041, uud wan iinit 



40 



IliSToUV OK Ni;\V FII.VNCK. 



it 



liiiiiiliurt 

t'lucHU. 



\(>()2, At lust, t\v(i Imiidii'il OnondaRns ovorran ii f,'oo(l jmrt of 
^""^f"""' tin- <'ol()iiy, iiiiit ill liroiul iliiy attiickcd scviTiil settlers on 
Pciiiii i.r tlie iMldiid of Montreiil, whilo working in tho fiehlH. Tlio 
iimjor of tlio eity Hulliud out with twoiity-Hix iiion, well 
iiniied, to cover tlieir I'etreiit ; liiit liiiviii;^ stnick to tlio 
woods to eoiu'eid Ills iiiiircli from tliti enemy, hv HUildeiily 
found liim.self lietweon two tiroH. Ho fought all day lou)^ 
liko a Iniivo man, and was well Hupported Ity his men, till, 
ovonvholniod by nundiers, ho perished with all Iuh party.' 



ciniiloji'il lit mill ni'iir ('ii|M' Urrlmi. 
Kriiui nils to 1(157 lii' >vum chii|iliun 
to tlif I'rHuliiii'H of liiu'lH'c. WhiMi 
till' Alibi' Ciui'vluH wiw at Quclicr, 
Mr. Vimiiil wiiH won Iiy lihii, niiil 
^rninj; tn I'Vaiiri' in lll."is l)iriimi' a 
Sul|iitiiiii. Ilr raiiii' nut ii^^'iiiii in 
KmII with Mr. l.i' Mailiv. On tlir 

y.-Hll of Oil., Ililil, 111' wrnt Willi 

Honif wi rkiiirn to llralii I'irrri' 
(I'lTonoously culli'il 111- St. IMerrt' oii 
till' iiiap in viihinx' ii.), nlittloixliinil 
In front of Montrrul, now a nuTi' 
rork, to ffi't Mlinii', but It'll into a 
parly of OiniiliiH nnil MnliiiwkH. in 
ainlm.-ili.anil wiih mortally woumli'il. 
Alter two ilays' inarcli In- wiiH killi'il 
and I'lili'u, not far from Lii I'rairii' : 
n>\. ilo la N. F., 1111)2, p. r, ■ Bri^'cac's 
Letter, lb., ]).!», l(iir>, ji. 'JO; Ueliiiont, 
Ilittt., ]i. 11 : Laleniant, .lournal, Nov, 
1'.', l(i(i'.i : M. Marie ile rincarimlion, 
LettrcH Iliiitori(|ueH. p. oO!) ; Kaillon, 
llistoire lie la Colonie, ii., p. 501; 
Vijfer, llistoire de La I'rairle, \>. (i. 

' Hapliael liiinilu.Tt Clofsi' was tho 
{;reiit Imlian fighter of early Cana- 
dian aniuilH. He was born at St. 
Denis lie Mouif,'ue8, diocese of 
Treves, and came out with M. Mai- 
Bonneuve. He seenm to have been 
appointed at once sert;c;antniajor of 
the fiarrison, and to have been in 
ciiiistant service. Ile did not lake 
up binds till 1(150, when he ex- 
plessly relioniiied all claiiii lor ple- 
viouH Borvia'H. in 1005 hu received 



autliorily to act u* ^fovernor of tho 
city in tliealisenceofMr.de Malson- 
neuve. On the '^4111 July, 1(157, ho 
married Klizalicth Moyen. a f^irl of 
fourteen, will), alter seiinj; her par- 
ents (.hilin .Moyen, Sieiir iles(irailf,'es, 
and her nioiher, Klizalielh le Hrest) 
iiiassacred by the Iroipiois at Ileaux 
Oies on Corpus Chrisli, 1(155 (M. 
Marie lie rincani., Oct. 1'.', 1(155), 
hud, with her sister, been curried otl' 
n cuptlve. Heslorcd tho winie yeiir, 
Bhe was received iit the Hotel Dieii 
by Mile. Malice ; Kaiiloii, ii.. pp. 
'.':!•,•, l.':!!!. On the ','11 of February 
following,', a fief of one hundred 
acres was conferred upon hiiu in 
reward of his services. He was re- 
markably skilful in the use of tho 
musket and pistol, and took readily 
to Indian fijjlitinf;. His exploits 
a>;ainst the Indians were numerous, 
but the most memoralile were tlioso 
of July lit), 1(151, and Oct. 14, 1(152. 
He enjoyed the uni. rsal esteem of 
all parlies in the colony; Faillon, 
llistoire de la Colonie Frani.aise, ii., 
l)]). 10;), 12(1, Ml), Mr, 151, :iS7, 5l;( ; 
DollierdeCuiHSon ; M. Murie de I'ln- 
carnutioii. Lettre August 10,1(1(12; 
Juchcrcuu, llistoiru de I'llotel-Dicu 
di; Quebec, pp. '.W. ; Creuxius, Hist. 
Can., )). (i(i:t ; Helution ile la N. F., 
1(15:1, p. ;i: 1(1(12, pp. 4,5. Cliarle- 
voix was misled by the last author- 
ity, wbicli alludes, ill fpeakin^-, ot 
thu litjht with 20 men, to a previous 



*■ 

t 



i 



IIIOTOIIY ol' NKW KIIANCK. 



47 



Notliiiig Imt (lishoiirtcuiiig tidiiif^H camo from all tliriM'- 1662. 
tiiiiis, iind lit tlu) Hiiiiio tiiai' hikI iiit('lli^j,t'ii('<' caiiit) ooiu'crn- -"^''"~^ 
iiif^ Fiitlii r Arcsiiiinl, wlio liml liccii ^'ruiitcil, witli a hoiui!- AKinture!* 
what cxccMHivo facility, in tlio luoutli of Aiip;ii.s(, llKill, to a Mu»n»ra. 
Hticoml l>aiitl of Ottawas, who had coino down from tho 
wliorcs of I^ako Hnpurior. 

Notwithslaiuliiif^ tlit) caniostnoHH dinphiyod l>y these Tn- 
diaiis to ol>taiii this missionary, he soon perceived tiiat ho 
had littlo to hopt^ from their diHi)osition to ombraco tho 
faith. They not only forced liim to row diirin;^ tlie wliolo 
voya[,'e, so that Iio was compelled to take from his hours 
of sleep timo to say his oHice, but they even carried their 
brutality so fur as to throw Jiis broviary iuto tho wator. 
Moroover, thoir provisions van out, as it ahnost always 
hapi)ens to the Indians, and Father ]Mesnard was rediu.-ed 
to such an extremity that tho most insipid and ruvoltuiy 
food bocamo a delicious mor"ol in his oyos. 

His giiides expocto('. to moot Indians at tho entraueo of 
Lake Superior who w iild give them supplies, but in this 
hope they wero disuiipointod. Somo timo after, a falling 
trco crushed tho cauoo iii which tho missionary was, and 
ho was loft alono at tho spot with three nu'ii, but Avitli 
uo provisions. Fortunately thoy pirceived a ([uautity of 
bones on tho shore ; those they poundiid and made into a 
kind of broth, which supiiortod them for sonu; timo. In a 
letter received after his death, tho servant of God declared 
that uothiug served more to sustain him amid so many 



action, nppnri'ntly tlint of Oct. 11, 
lO.W, or thiit mt'iitioncd in Hoi., 
1(1.');). In tlic liuttlc in wliii-li ho frll 
lie liiid lint twelve men : M. Miirie de 
I'lucanmtlon, licttre .\ng. 10. Only 
thrci' were killed beside.i hiniselt'; 
Laleniunt, Journid, .March 'i'i, lUd'J ; 
He^nstre do Montreal, Feb., 1003; 
Belmont p. 13. Ho went to tho 
aid of some workmen attacked liy 
the IriKiuois; but the cowardice of 
a Dutch servant, who took tlight, 



emboldened tli(> enemy, and ('low"''8 
pistolH misHinj; lire, he wan killed 
before he could adjuHt them. ( Iohno 
acted also at .Montreid nn notary and 
grellier: l''aillon, Ilisloire, iii., p. ol!0. 
He left only one daughter. .lano 
Cecilia. His services were not for- 
gotten after his death. In 1(JT2 
another lief was granted to Ids 
widow, and the street St. Landiert 
WU.S so named in honor of his patrou 
wuut. 



II.-, ' 



48 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



It 



K 

V 



I fj 



1662. crosses, tliau these words, adtlresseil to liim by the bishop of 

^—"^^""^ Petraca, whom he had met betweeu Tliree llivers and Mou- 

Adventures trcal : " All kiuds of reasons, my dear Father, should retain 

Mesmird' you here ; but God, more powerful than all our reasons, 

wills you in the country whither you go." ' 

At the end of six days, they came to conduct him to the 
place chosen for their wintering ; this was a bay on the 
southern shore of Lake Sujierior. He arrived there on 
the 15th of October, and gave it the name of St. Teresa, 
whose festival is celebrated on that day. There ho found 
some Christians of various nations, who gave him sufficient 
employment, and he increased their number by some pre- 
destined souls, for whose salvation Divine Providence 
seemed I0 him to have conducted him into those wilds. 
These are those secret sprmgs of God's goodness, mani- 
fested only to those whom it deigns to use to work the mir- 
acles of His grace, and a knowledge of which diffuses over 
their labors an unction which they alone are able to relihu." 
In the letter ah-eady cited, the apostolic man added, 
that the piety of some Frenchmen, who had accompanied 
him on this expedition, also contributed greatly to dimin- 
ish sensibly the grief which he felt on beholding the hard- 
ness of heart of most of those for whose salvation he had 
exposed himself to so many perils. These savages always 
maintained the treatment which they had kept up through- 
out the voyage, -md he soon perceived that ft hat prevented 
theii" hearing him, when ho wished to speak to them of 
religion, was the fear of drawing on them the miseries 
which had overwhelmed the Hurona : moreover, polygamy 
was very prevalent among thqm. 



' Uelntion de la N. F., 1604, p. 2 ; 
Letter of Aug. 27, 1600 ; Helatiim, 
1000, i>. 29. Tli(> party with whom 
Menard went cauu' down with Dcs 
Oroscillers, who had penetrated to 
the Nation de Boeuf (Sioux Seilen- 
taires), and now brouglit down in 
20 days from Lake Superior 00 ca- 



noes of Ottawaswith 200.000 livresof 
furs : Lalemant, Journal, Aug., 1060. 
Father AU)anel set out also, hut was 
forced to return : lb., Sept, 14, 1660. 

« Relation do la N. F,, 1604, p. 3 ; 
Relation, 10(i;!, p. 18. 

' Letters of Aluy 1 and July 2, 
1000 ; Relation, 1004, pp. 2-0. 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



49 



ill- 



,Tl'S of 

1(!U0. 

it was 

ICOO. 

,p.3; 



as 



•* 



At last, after moro than ciglit months' stay iu this 1662 
wretched phxce, where he lived on little else than acorns 
and the bark of trees pounded, with a little oil to season A.ivoiitnrca 
them, ho was invited by some Hnrons who had settled iu Mc-mird^ 
the island of Chagouamigon' or St. Michael, at the western 
extremity of the lake. Some of the Frenchmen in his 
party had made the jonruej-, and used every endeavor to 
divert him from undertaking it : they assured him that 
it was, at least, a hundred lea^^ues ; that the roads were 
fearful ; and that it was against all the dictates of prudence 
to undertake it iu his exhausted state. He replied, that 
he could not end his course more gloriously than in seek- 
ing to gain souls to Christ ; and on the IJith of June, in 
the year IGGl, he set out with John Chierin, a very holy 
man, who had been for over twenty years in the service of 
the missionaries.' 

He parted regretfully with the other Frenchmen and his 
neophytes, wlio had hitlierto been his sole comfort. On 
taking farewell, he was deeply affected, assuring them that 
they Avould no longer see him in life ; and he left them 
deeply touched to see him hasten to almost certain death. 
Some Hurons had come to servo as his guides ; but as 
they approached their village, they left him, saying that 
they were going to seek provisions. Father Mesnard, 
feeling exhausted, stopjied to wait their return ; but .hen 
two -weeks passed \vithout any one appearing, he set out 
.iu a canoe, which he chanced to find on the bank of a 
river.' 

On the 20tli of xVugust,' ho was obliged to walk some 
distance to avoid a rapid ; and while his companion was 
engaged in carrying over the canoe and loading it, the 



' Tliis nami' is jicncrally given to tliat thu Ilnrons were at C'hagoiine- 

n cclcbi'ati'd liay opfxisitc St. Mi- gon ; nor is it the fact, 

chad's island. l>Ht it id the i)ro|)er •' Relation de la N. F., KKil!, r.. 21. 

name ot' tin" island itself. — Cltmie- ^ 11). 

■ctiix. The Relation de hi Nouvello ^ lOlh of August : Relation, 1UU3, 

France, lUtio, ]). 20, does not say p. 21. 

Vol. Ul.— 4 



^ 



50 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



i 



1662. missionary cntcrod tlic ■wood and lost his way. Gnerin, 
^■^. — after awaiting liini for a considerable time, began to call 
His deatli. liiui at the top of Lis voice ; he then fired his gnn several 
times, but all in vain : ho even M-cnt iu various directions 
through the wood, without discovering any thing. Then, 
not knowing what to do, and satisfied that the Hurons 
were not far oil", ho resolved to push on to their village, 
which he reached in two days. Ht; explained to the In- 
dians, as well as he could, the accident which had befallen 
the missionary, and he induced one, by a present of pow- 
der and ball, to go in search of him ; but this man came 
in at the end of two hours, saying that he had seen the 
enemy.' 
^''■T vi of' '^^^^^ ^^^^ apparently a pretext ; but be that as it may, 
his iimctity. nothing certain was ever known of Father Mesnard. His 
bag was found, s(jme time after, in the hands of an Indian, 
W'ho would not tell where he got it ;' and after a liipse of 
severid years, his soutane and breviary Avere recognized 
in a Sioux lodge, ■'vhere a kind of worship was i)aid them, 
the Indians ollering them all the dishes served up at 
ilieir feasts.' This resulted from the high reputation of 
sanctity which that religious enjoyed among all the na- 
tions of that region. Nor was it less among the French, 
and indeed New France had not at the time a more accom- 
plished missionary. Heaven had especially eiuhjwed him 
with a rare talent for gaining the; Indian mind : this had 
a2)peared especially iu the short time ho spent among the 
Cayugas.* 



1 



' Relation de la N. P., 1003, p. 23. 

3 Perrot, Moeurs, Coustuime, ct 
Ri'litridii (Us, pauvajrcs, p. i)'i. 

■> Kt;lation do la N. F., 1003, p. 23. 
Thwe is iin uncortaiiity ns to tlie 
))lac(' of Father Mriinid's dentil. 
Bancrot't siipjinsis liiiii to imvc 
crossi'il lli(^ ]iininsLiln towiinis Clic- 
goiiiiegon l)y way of Ki'wi'cna Luke 
and Portngo (iii., 1 IT) ; but as wr 



know that the Hurons were on 
Black River at th(( time (Perrot, p. 
87 ; Rel., KiOO, pp. 12. 2T>. not liaving 
followed tlie Ottawas to Che^^oime- 
gon, Menard would seem to have 
proceeded to Black River trom Ke- 
'.veenaw, and to have iierished at 
the i':r|pld, within u<layV journey of 
a bluti' where the Huron tort is still 
diseeruilile; Historical Magazine, 
viii., )), 175. 



i 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



61 



His servant rcnifiiiicd but a very sliort time with the 
Hurons, and then returned to the French, whom he had 
k^ft at St. Teresa Bay. There he spent the winter, bap- 
tizing' over two Inmdred dying cliikh'en, the most of them 
Ottawas (Outoouais). 

The; next summer he made several excursions ; and one 
day, wliea the rain compelled him to take shelter under his 
canoe, tlie gun of one of his eonu'ades going oft' acci- 
dentally, killed him while he was at prayer. He merely 
had time to pronounce the holy name of Jesus.' Such 
was the result of the second voyage which the Ottawas 
made with missionaries. After this they had none, till 
they settled with other Indians better disposed than they 
to receive the gospel ; nor did they derive greater profit 
from the advantages which* Heaven afforded them. So 
that, down to this time, they have had no part scarcely in 
the kingdom of God, except by the children whom it was 
possible to baptize at the point of death." 

Meanwhile, notwithstanding the last hostilities of the 
Onondagas, Father le Mojne quite freely discharged iu 
that canton all the functions of his ministry. It did not 
indeed escape him from the first, that all minds were not 
equally disposed to peace ; but he thought it best to dis- 
semble, and this course proved successful. Garakonthie 
returned loaded with presents, and charmed with the cor- 
dial manners of the French. He was gi'eatly surprised to 
find a part of his nation in sentiments so diftereut from 
those in which he had left them ; and what he heard of 
the defeat of the major of Montreal, touched him greatly. 
He soon became aware that they distrusted him ; and had 
not his firmness been proof to any test, there would have 



1662. 



Dentil of 
Ills survunt. 



^ 



' Relation dc la N. F.. KiC.:!, \>. 'i:i. 
John (iui'rin dii'd in Srpt.. Itili'J 
(Liilpmiint, Jdunuil, Auj/. ."i, l(i(i;!), 
when till- nt'ws of Uu' driith of 
Mi'nanl and (huTin iuiivcd, 11 tlo- 
tillii of ;J5 canoL'H and loO Indiuus, 



with seven Fnnclinicn. having corat) 
down. 

• The niiiisions were continued by 
Father Allouez (1{.>1„ ICiOo, p. !)), liy 
Miiniuelte. who took them to Mack- 
inaw, und hy others. 



I* 



52 



I' I 



J I. 



•»?,■ 



I 4 



1662. 



FatluT la 
JldVim re- 

liiriis to 



Willi illl 

Ficiii-'li 
Iirii*"m-'i-s. 



HISTORY OP NEW FRANCE, 

hocn a danger of his being disavoM-cd l)y tlio very men 
Avho liad deputed to the governor-general.' 

In tliis crisiH, ho acted with a i)rndencG and adroitness 
that Avould have done lionor to a man trained in the man- 
'^' '""i'l'iu ligament of the most refined poHey ; and he succeeded in 
coni2)leting his work. The treaty was ratified l)y the threo 
Coiuiiii'i "f c'juitons, and all the French prisoners were oiven up to 
tii''^- Father lo Moyne, who brought them all to Montreal," ex- 
cept one, Avho died a martyr to conjugal chastity." 'J-'-^y 
had endeavored to force him to marry in the cabin where 
he Avas a slave : ho refused, on the groi;nd that he had a 
wife, and that his religion did not permit him to have two. 
This reply did not alter his master's determination, and that 
Indian, after frequently threatening to kill him, if he did 
not comply with his wish, fulfilled his threat by tomahawk- 
uig him. 

Mr.I'onclier 

conr'tVorep- gour that Garakontliie 

neacs-itius 1->iit the information that he received from all quarters 
Jbrance! ^^ *'° '^vliat was going on in the cantons, gave him the 
deepest concern. By the last vessels that sailed from 
Quebec, this general, and all the persons in office in the 
country, had written strongly to the court, to implore tjio 
king to take under his protection a colony which was 
iitterly abandoned and reduced to the last extremity. 
They had committed their memorials to the Sieur Bou- 
cher, who commanded at Three llivers ; and much was 
hoped from the zeal of that ofHcer, who was oetter ac- 
quainted with Canada than any other, and whose virtues 
fitted him in the highest degree to obtain a favorable hear- 
ing from the prince.* 



The return of the others fully convinced Baron d'Avau- 

had negotiated in good faith ; 



' Relation de la Nouvello France, In Kifll : Relation do la Nouv(!ne 

16(53, p. 11. Fiantv'. l(l(i-', \\ 14. 

Mle arrived ;nst Aug., lOiii (l{il., ' noiK-licr, llistoire Vcntnblc do 

16(i2, ]>. Vi). and at Qudn'O Sejit l.') ; la Noiivdle Fniiici', l',>ni(), Kifil ; M. 

Journal 1)1' KiiiIk 1- Lul.-iiiaiil. Marii' dr I'lucarnation, Lettre (il, p. 

'^ Lttliberti', tttkuu at Throe Rivers 574. 



f 



UISTOKY OF NEW FRANCE, 



68 



lie 
I; M. 
l-l. 1'. 



Ho WiiR iiulood vory well roceivcil by his ninjosty, who 1662. 
inaiiil'estod f^'rniit snrpviHo on loarninp; tiiat so fine a coim- ^~'^r—~^ 
try had met with such ncf^lect. Tho king then ap])oiutecI tiic kimj 

-Kri-^ri • 1 ''I'i 1 1' 1 SOUcIs uid. 

Mr. (le 3Ionts eomnussarv, to visit it, and convey Jus onlers. 
He also commanded four hundred men of his regular 
troops to be S(;nt over to re-enforeo the garrisons of the 
most e^tposed posts. Mr. do Monts embarked at llo- 
chelle as soon as navigation was open ; and, on the way, 
took possession, in the king's name, of Plaeentia, on the 
island of Newfoundland. His arrival at (Jueboe caused 
great joy, both l)y the actual aid which he brought, and 
by tho hope it inspired that still greater would couio the 
next year ; but Xew Franco needed more than one kind.' 

Till tliis time the governor-general had pretty consist- Abuse of 
ently enforced the laws which they had themselves issued trade. 
against the side of liquor to the Indians ; and Baron d'Avau- oil ooiuiuet 
gonr had ])roniulgated very severe penalties against all who d'Avmi^'mi'r 
violated his ordinances on this important point. A woman muuer. 
of Quebec happening to bo caught transgressing, was 
at once thrown into prison. Father Lallemant, at the -m- 
treaty of her relatives or friends, thought that he might, 
without ill results, intercede in her belialf. Ho called upon 
the governor, Avho received him very ill. Without reliocting 
that there was nothing inconsistent in the ministers of a 
God who gave his life to destroy sin and save the sinner 
acting with zeal to repress vice, and yet ask mercy for the 
criminal, the governor abruptly told him that inasmuch as 
the litjuor trade was not a fault punishable in that woman, 
it should not be in future in anybody. 

A little more coolness would have caused him to tell 
the superior that he did his duty in interceding for the 
woman ; but that, on his side, his duty forced him to do 
justice : but d'Avaugour consulted only his ill-humor and 



' Df Monts sailed with t\vo laix'' mi!, Oct. 27, IfUi'J. An extract of his 

vi'ssely, ciirrvinp; 100 soklicrs and iiocnuni is pvrn in tlie Hcliitidn do 

200 otliiT persons, and aiiionir lu Xouvelii' Fnini'i', l(l(l;i. eli. ix., p. 

tUuui Mr, liuuuliur : Luluuiaut, Jour- 'io ; M, Mttrie du I'lucuniutiun, 



i 



M 



51 



IIISTOKY OF NEW FHAXCE. 



1662. 



Ciilumnies 

concocted 

on tliU 

occasion 

nciiinst tlio 

13islii'|i 1111(1 

mission- 

ariea. 



a inistivkon npriglitnoss ; and, what was worst of all, luado 
it a i)oiiit of honor not to retract tho indi«croot expression 
that had escaped him. Tlio people were soon informed 
of this, and the disord(>r became extreme. ]\Ien bej^au to 
declaim aloud against the confessors, who, with truly sacer- 
dotal firmness, wished to oppose a barrier to this torrent. 
Nor did they siiare the Bishop of Petnea, who had deemed 
the evil sufficiently great to employ in its euro the cen- 
sures of the Church.' 

As these clamors did not induce them to relax their 
severity, complaints and invectives redoubled. Some irre- 
ligious young men just arrived from France, who were 
greatl}' hampered I)}' the watchful attention of the pastors 
to their Hocks, jouied the malcontents. On all sides the cry 
was raised that consciences were fettered ; and men have 
been surprised, and with reason, to see this calumny since 
renewed in a book printed under the name of a religious.' 
In tine, some individuals thought themselves authorized 
to draw up memoirs and send them to tho king's couiicil ; 
but their addresses were all the more ill leceived from the 
fact that not only were the motives whi'ih induced them 
to speak easily penetrated, but tho calunniious statements 
with which they sought to support their complaints were 
refuted by persons in office, whose testimony could not bo 
suspected.' 
Scandals Moreover, the bishop of Petriva, and all the ecclesi- 
iiidiitus. astics in Camula, had a reputation too Avell established 
to be aflected by such accusations. But if the caluni- 
iiiators were discountenanced at court, the evil contiu- 
iied its rapid progress ; and the disorder went so far that 
men soon gave no heed to bishop, or preacher, or con- 



^ 



' Tlic> ilocuments ns to thci-i' ul- 
fuirs are very few. Of d'Aviui^our, 
only two disiimtches are given — 
N. Y. Col. Doc, ix., p. Ui ; Ciiii. Do.-., 
II., i., p. ■\'i\ — anil neither lieur.s cm 



Lettre May (i, 1602 ; La Tour, Mem. 
de Mr. de l.iivul, p. (iS-H". 

• Tliis iilludis to Lo Clereii, ]0(al> 
lisfienient de la Foi, ii., ji. 84. 

■ M. ; iarie de rincarniitinu, Lot- 



thtju : M. Marie de I'lucuruuiiuu, tre lUth Aug., HH),i, p. u 7^. 



IIISTOHY OF NKW FRANCE. 



55 



tou- 

lll'lll. 

■Uiil.- 

Lut- 



'iX 



fessoi'. Threats of Divino wrath and the thunders of tho 1662. 
Churcli were alike iinav lilinj^- to stem a torrent w'lieh liad '— ^r^^' 
burst its bounds. The litpior trade boinj,' opeidy toh'rated 
by tlie very man who alone could ellectuidly check it, tho , 
Indians, who are not able to refrain from it when oU'ercd, 
and in whom tho least eflect of this drink is the suspen- 
sion of their reason, plunged into scandals which cost 
many tears to those who had at such cost begotten them 
to Christ. 

In vain did the sachems and village chiefs use cA'ery 
exertion to stay the furious torrent ; in vain did they im- 
l)lore the governor-general to interpose all his authority 
to iissist them in enforcing his own ordinances : they could 
produce no impression on a man who believed, in his pre- 
judice, that they were exaggerating the evil.' Thus the 
disorder kept constanth' increasing, and gained the most 
fervent neophytes ; so that, with the exception of a few 
who voluntaril}' r'ondemned themselves not to leave jyl- 
leri, so as to shield themselves from the contagion, and 
some others who, with tho same view, retired from Three 
Ilivers and took refuge at Cap do la Magdeleine, all these 
new Christians, hitherto so exemplai-y, and the admiration 
of the very pagans, became the opprobrium of Christianity, 
which they exposed to the blasphemies and ridicule of the 
enemies of God." 

Then the holy Bishop of Petr.T a, seeing his zeal unavail- Tho Bishop 
ing and his authority despised, resolved to bear his ojmphTr's 
complaints to the foot of the throne, and passed over to '" ' '" '"'°' 
Trance." He was listened to, and obtained from the king 
all the orders that ho deemed necessary to arrest the scan- 
dalous trade which committed such ravages in his flock ; 
but Heaven had already anticipated them, and by one of 
those events which spread terror through the most disso- 

' M. ^[aric de I'lucanuitioii, Let- Muiie cU' I'liicuriiation, Lcttrcs, p. 

trcs, p. 5T1. 571 ; Lulcinant, Journal, Aug. Vi, 

'•' UiUitiou tk' la N. F., 100:!. p. 8. 1003 ; Boucher, llistoire Vuritabio, 

" La Tour, Mem. de Mr. de Laval ; p. 116. 



. II 



cc 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



1662. 



Siirprisins; 
phunoiiienii 

1663. 



! I 



Into sonls, Noav Fmnco had already had tho consolation of 
beholding most of tho ening already return to the path 
of duty. 

Tho fact which I am going to relate is so extraordinary, 
that I should not have hesitated to suppress it, or pass it 
lightly over, if tho unanimous and constant testimony of a 
whole colony amid which it happened, and the prodigious 
eflfects which it caused, some of which still subsist, had 
not given it a notoriety which i-nables it to defy tho most 
hardened sko])ticism. Not that I pretend to guarantee a'l 
the details which fill some Relations : people nowhere in- 
dulge iu greater exaggeration than in well-authenticated 
wonders. I shall, therefore, confine myself to the surest 
memoirs, in Avhich I remark nothing that is not confirmed 
by tradition, derived from several most irreproachable 
witnesses. 

During the fall of 1002, a few days after the departure 
of the Bishop of Petra'a, a number of fires, of various and 
quite eccentric shapes, were seen flying through the air. 
Over Quebec and Montreal there appeared one night a 
globo of tire, ditl'using a great light, — with this diU'crcuce, 
that at Montreal it seemed to detach itself from the moon, 
and was accompanied by a noise resembling a volley of 
artillery, and after traversing the air for about three 
leagues, it disappeared behind tho mountain which gives 
name to tho island ; while at Quebec it merely passed 
without any thing special.' 

On the 7th of January, in the following year, an almost 
imperceptible vapor rose fi'om the river, and when struck 
by the tirst rays of tho sup, became transparent, so that 
it had sufiicieut substance to supjiort two parhelions which 
ai^peared on either side of that orb, so that three appa- 
rent suns were seen at once on a line parallel with the 
horizon, apparently some fathoms apart, each with an iris 
whose momentarily varying hues sometimes resembled a 



-^ 



' Relation du la Nouvello France, 1603, p. 2. 



niSTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



87 



I 



.1 



rainbow and sonietinios wovo a luminous white, an tlioupli 166^. 
a great firo wore behind. This Hpectach* laf.tcd for two '^"^(^—^ 
whoU> liours, and bi'<,'an anew on tlio I'ltli, although on 
tliat day it was less striking.' 

What I am going to add has not been as ])ub]ic, and rredicti.nm 
each one will believe what he thinks fit ; but I must ob- cartiicniMke. 
S(U've, that th(> predictions about to bo related were not 
inv(>nted after the fact, but were known before the event ; 
that the event, to judge by the eileet which it had pro- 
duced, has all the appearance of a warning fr ,m heaven, 
and that the ordinary conduct of Providence, on such oc- 
casions, is to wai-n the guilty that divine Justice is ready 
to launch the lliunderbolts. Thus did the Almighty act in 
regard to the Ninevites, who averted the threatened blow 
by cxemi)lary penance ; and in this case, as we shall soon 
see, there is something still more marked. 

Be that as it may, in the beginning of Tebruary, in the 
same year, a vague rumor spread that there would soon 
be an earthciuake, unexampled in history, and this rumor 
was basetl on the words of a person of eminent piety, who 
had discoursed on the matter to a small nundjcr of friends, 
and who used great exertions to induce all t(j make their 
peace with God, and labor with all their might to appease 
the Avrath of Heaven, justly incensed against New France. 

On the third of the same month an Algoncpiin squaw, 
a fervent Christian, while in her cabin at night awake, and 
sitting up in her bed, thought that she heard a voice, which 
told her that in two days things unheard of woiild occur ; 
and the next day, as she was in the woods with her sister, 
getting her supply of wood, she again heard the same voice 
very distinctly, telling her that the next day, between five 
and six o'clock in the evening, the earth woxdd tremble at 
a fearful rate. Her sister did not hear the voice, and per- 
ceived nothing.' 

' Relation de la N. P., 1663, p. 3 ; '' M. Marie de I'Incnrniition, C'lioix 
M. Murk' de Iliicarnntion, Lettres, de Lettre.s HistoiiijUcH, p. 270; Kel. 
p. 575 ; Choix uc Lettres, p. 28-1. de hi N. F., HiU3, p. 6. 



88 



JI18T0IIY OF NKW FHANCE. 



' ^ 



iCif>]. A yoiiu;^' ^'irl i)f tlie siiiiu' nutioii, who led a pi'ifcctly nn- 
g«'li(( lifts and whoso pii'ty and confidenco in tho powor of 
tbo Haviouv's cross had boon rowardod Ity a sudden cure of 
a disease deemed iiieuiaiile by nitdieal men, also thouf^ht 
that, in a dream durin;,' the night Vietween tho. fourth and 
fifth, sho beheld the IMctlier of God, tolling her tho hour, 
and all tho circumstaucos of the enrtlujuako. On tho 
evening of the fifth, a short tinu> before it began, sho 
seemed beside herself, and twice cried aloud at flu^ top of 
her voice, "It will soon l)e here;" producing in all who 
heard her a great sensation.' 

Finally, tho same day, Molher INIary of thc^ Incarnation, 
the illustrious foundress of the rrsulines of New Franto, 
Avhoso generally esteemed works show that sho was any 
thing but weak-minded, after receiving from heaven sev- 
eral warnings of Avhat was about to hu])pon (as sho im- 
parted to her director. Father Lalli'inant), while in prayer," 
about hiiU'-past five thought that she beheld our Lord 
incensed against Canada, and at the same time felt herself 
borne by an irresistible power to implore his justice on 
tho crimes committed there. All that sho c d do to 
mitigate the rigor of this order, on submitting iu it, was to 
add fervent pr'iyers to obtain from heaven that the aouls 
should not per:sh with the bodies. 

A moment after, sho felt assured that tho Divine ven- 
geance was about to burst forth, and that the contempt 
shown for tho ordir.ances of tho Church especially enkin- 
dled tho wrath of God. Almost at the same time, she 
perceived "our demons at tho four corners of tho city of 
(Quebec, shaking tho earth with tho utmost violence, and a 
person of majestic mien, who, from time to time, gave reins 



' Hclation de la Nouvelle France, tor, CLoix de Lettres Ilistoriquos, p. 

1CG3, p. 0. 279. It is not iirobable tlmt hIic nl- 

' She relate.') all this in her letters luileg to hersilt', as she ascribes it to 

in the tliird person, liiit there is n "per.son of tried virtue," teririH 

every leiiMm to inter that .-h<- spoke she would not use to designate her- 

of'hersell'. — C/i'.u/i rui.i; 8eeherlet- nelf. 



t*.s 



I 






) 



IIISTOUY OF NK*V FHANCi:. 

to tlifir fury, tlu'ii drew tliciu in.' At tlio sivmo iiiHtant, 
tlio 111 iivtiis Ijciii^ perfectly Hereiie, a noise was Iieaiil 
fhroii^'iiout the I'ity like timt cunsod liy a f<reat tire. This 
caused all the ))eoi)le to run out of their houses.' 

riiey were then extremely surprised to see all tlio build- 
ing's shaken uith such violence, that (he roofs almost 
touched the f,'round, first on one Hide, then on the other; 
doors opened of themselves, and shut with {,'reatcst vio- 
lence ; all the lulls sounded, thon;^di no one ran^' them; 
the posts in the palisade wore fairly dancinj,' ; walls split 
open ; hoards started oil' and fell ; animals uttered ftuirful 
cries and lu)wls ; tht! surface of the earth assumed a niovo- 
nient like that of a stormy sea; trees were twisted to- 
gether, and many torn up by tho roots and Hung to a 
distanco.' 

Then n()is(>s of all kinds were heard : now, as of a soa in 
fury bursting over its bounds ; tlu'U like that oi a number 
of carriages rolling over a pavement ; and again, tho crash 
that mountains of rocks and unublo would make as thoy 
burst ojjcn and came crashing together. A thick dust, which 
rose sixnitauoonsl}-, was taken for smoke, and spread T.'ara 
of a general conflagration. Finally, some imagiiu'd that 
they heard Indian yells, and were convinced that tho Iro- 
tpiois were about to swoop down on tho colony ii. all 
diriictions." 

80 great and general was tho panic, that not only men 
but tho very animals seemed thunderstruck : nothing was 
heard but cries and lamentations : men ran about in all 
directions, without knowing whither they wished to go, 
and wherever they went they met what thoy sought to 
escape. The fields presented only yawning chasms, and 
they expected to see tho ground eveiy moment open agaiu 



60 



1(^,63. 



It IickIih. 
lU uUoctn. 



' Ki'lfttion do la N. F., KUJIi, p. : 100:5, gives a very moderate state- 

M. Maiii' ill' riiR'iiriiatidii, l.itti'r iiicnt, iind siiys tlic shocks lii>ti'(l 

cited. tVoiii Fell. "> to Miiroli M. 

'-' licliitiou dr 111 Nmivillc Fnuic, ' M. Marie di' I'lnuarnution, C'hois 

1000, |). ;J, Laluiuant, Journal, Ft- 1*., di'» lA'ttri's, p. aSl. 



' V 



00 



IIIHTOUV OK NEW FIIANCK. 



i' ( 



i('f>^• at tlit'ir U'il. Wliolo luouiitiiiim were uprootod ftiul ninv<>(l 
from tlmir ImHo ; hoiuo wcro thrown iimul rivrrH, lilockiiij,' 
up tlii'ir courso ; otlicrH Hiiiik ho (l('»'[), that tlio v»Ty tops of 
tlu' decs (Imt covtMcd tliiiii wtMo iio longer viMil)lt'.' 

TrooH \v(!ri> liuilrd tlimuj^h Hit' iiir iis stark as tliougli 
a mini) had oxplodoil under their roots ; and Homo were 
found phuited rootH up. Men deemed themseivoH no Hafer 
on water than on hmd : tiie iee, wliich covered th(( Saint 
Lawrence) and the rivers, erashed hh tlie ])ieeeH eanie to- 
gether ; vast HpUnterH of iee th^w uj) into the air, and from 
the spot thoy left, sand and nnid in ahundaneo sjiirted 
forth. Many Hjirin^H and Hinali streams dried up ; otiiers 
wore impregnated witii sulphur : in some eases, tho hed 
wiiero tlie water iiad run eoidd no huiger be discerned." 

Hero tho waters became rod, there yoUow : tho water of 
tho Saint Lawrence from (Quebec to Tadoussac, that is to 
Bay, a distance of thirty hiaguos, became ])erfectly wliite. 
Tlie air, too, had its phenomena. A constant hum was 
heard ; men saw or imagined spectres and tiery phantt)mH 
bearing tt^rches. Flames appeared, taking every kind of 
form, some of pikes, others of lances, and wisps of fire fell 
on rool's without setting them on fire. From time to time, 
plaintive voices increased tho terror. Porpoises, or oea- 
cowH, were heard moaning in front of Three lUvors, where 
none of those creatures had ever been seen ; and these 
boUowings in no wise resembled tho noise of any known 
animal.' 

Li a word, throughout an extent of three hundred 
leagues from east to west, and of more than one hundred 
and fifty from south to north, tho earth, tho rivers, and 
tho shores of the sea were for (pxito a time, but at inter- 
vals, in that agitation which the Royal Prophet portrays 
to us, when relating the wo;idors which attended tho do- 



4 



' Hcliitu-.. (Ic In N. F., KiC:!, v- 4. ' H 'Intion (!:■ In Jwmvflli' Finnce, 

• M. Miiiir (Ic .'Iiuunialidii, Clioix l(iii;>, ,i. I ; M. .Mmicili'l'Iuiuinutioii, 



IIISTOHY (iK NKW KHANCR. 



61 



partnro i)f tlio \)Po\)h of (IimI from EKy|»t. Tim ofVoctH of if'63. 
tliiH oiiilluumko wciu iiifmitfly varit'il ; iiinl uovov, |)orhii])H, ^""""^ "^ 
WHS tlnrc urnittir ri'iisoii to lii'licvc tliiit niiturd was tli.s- Kiirtli.vinko 
Holviii^ uhtl till' world iil)oiit to ciiil. 

The lirst sliork hiHtcd liiilf till hour, uliiiost without iu- 
toiTuptioii ; l)iit lit tlio 011(1 of II (luiii'tor of 1111 iiniir it 
lu'^^'im to (liiiiiiiisli. Alioiit ci^'iit o'clock in tlm csciiiiij,' of 
till) Kiimc (liiy tluTo WHS 11 sci-otid shock, ci|Uid in viohsiico 
to tho first ; iiud in tlio space of half iin lioiu' two othoiH. 
During' the Huccoodin^ night hoiuo reckoned thirty-two 
nhoeks, several of them very violent.' The horror of night 
and tho general constitrniition may havt) made them appear 
greater than they wero. Even in t!i(^ intervals hetween 
tho shocks, men felt on shore as if in a ship riding at 
tiuchor ; but this, too, was perhaps 11 result of u torror- 
Htricken imagination. Yet it is certain that many oxpo- 
rienced the sickness at the stomach and dizzinoHS folt ut 
8oa, by these umiccustomed to that olemont.'' 

The next day, tho fitli, about three o'clock in the morn- 
ing, thert! was a stroiig shock which lasted for a long 
time,'' At TadouHsac it rained ashes for six hours.' lu 
iiuothor place, some Indians who had left *lioir cabins at 
the tirst shockH found, when they endeavored to return, a 
large i)ond of water where their cabins had stocKl.' Half 
way bctwiien Tadoussuo and (Quebec two mountains were 
levelled ilown, and tho earth which slid from them formed 
a point which ran out a quarter of a league into the river." 
Two Frencliiuen, on their way fiom Gaspe in a sloop, 
perceived nothing tiJl they wero opposite tho Siigneuay. 



' M. Miiru) di) riiK'iiniution nays Ah to thi'orij,'"! "ifthcHiMiHli showers, 
two in an hour utter eif;ht o'clotk. sec ScwcU, Dark Days of Canada, 
S)i(! says kIk! coiinti'd only six sIichUm i" the QucIjcc I^it. and Hist. Soc, ii., 



that nit,rlit. thoUf;h nonic (MHintrd :i'i, 
rrckouiiii; sonii' very sli<:lil siliockt". 

■■' Hi lalion di' la N. K., Kill:!, ]). 4. 

■• M. >hirir dc rincarnation, Choix 
do Lett res, p. -JS:!. 



]t. 'J:;."); Haddclcy, II)., i„ p. IW; 
llinil's Lalnador, i., p. 'S>1. 

■' M. Marii- dc I'liuai'nation, Choix 
di' l.ctlivs. p. -JsT. 

" Kclatiomlfla N. 1'.. Kid:!, p. ,") ; M, 



•• Uflution dc lu >'. v., ]Uti;j, p. .J. iMurif du I'luc, (.'huix do Lit., p. 28^. 



It : 



f^l 



|h', . 






f « .: 



62 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



1663. Tlieu, however, altliotigli there was no wind, their sloop 

-<-~ — ' l)egan to toss as thonf,'h it Avere ou a most stormy sea. 

Eiirthqnake Uiiablo to xtnderstaiul wliat could produce so singular 
a result, they looked towards the shore, and perceived 
a nioimtaiu which, according to the expression of the 
prophet, bounded like a ram, then turned around iov a 
time as if by a Avhirlwind, then sunk down and disap- 
peared altogether. A shii) in the wake of this sloop 
was not less tossed ; the stoutest sailors could not keep 
their feet without laying hold of something, as happens 
in a very heavy swell ; and v. hen the captain cast anchor, 
bis cable snapped.' 

Qiiite near Quebec a fire, a full league in extent, ap- 
peared in broad day, coming from the north, crossed the 
river, and disappeared over Isle Orleans. Opposite Cape 
Tourmoute, there were such torrents of wild waters de- 
scending from the tops of the mountains as to carry away 
every thing they met. There, too, and above Quebec, the 
river was diverted, a part of its bed was left dry, and its 
loftiest banks sank down in some places to the level of the 
water, which for more than three u:onths remained miiddy 
and of the color of sulplmr." 

New England and New Netherland were not spared 
more than the French territory ;" and throughout this 
vast extent of laud and rivers, during the period between 
the great shocks, a pulsation was felt, quickening un- 
equally, Imt commencing everywhere at the same hour. 
The shocks were sometimes headlong plunges, at others 
only a kind of swaying, more or less violent ; sometimes 
they were very abru})t, at <.)ther times they increased grad- 
ually, and not a shock ended without producing some evi- 
dent result.' Where a rapid had existed, the river now 



' lA'spiniiy's sloop ^Titll Mr. do 100:1 p. 5 ; Morton, Ncnv Englniid's 

Miizu ; M. Miu-ic cU> I'liioanmtitm, M,iM.iniil..Iiin.^O, l(i(i:!iO.S.), p.'JSO; 

CLoix di" l.cttrcs. p. ;>S9. .lossrlyu. p. .W ; O'C'allat^liau's Xl-w 

2 II)., ' . -iW,. XctlicrliiinI, ii.. ji. -lS;i. 

» 11 ., p. 'JDT ; Relation di; la N. F., ■* Rfhuioii Uf lu N. F., lOOli, p. "1. 



1 663. 



Ni> one Im 
killfd, aiul 

i\\l lire 
oonvcrlcd. 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE, 03 

flowed calmly on without obstruction, Elscwlioro the case 
was I'cverset'l : rocks rose amid a river, whose iicaeeful 
course was previously retarded by no obstacle. A man 
Avalking in the fields suddenly perceived the earth yawn 
open near him : he fled, and the fissures seemed to follow 
him. There Avas generally less motion on the mountains, 
but there an incessant din was heard.' 

The wonder was, that in such a strange convulsion, 
lasting more than six montl'S, no one perished. God 
doubtless Avished to convert sinners, not destroy them. 
A('C(n'dingly.. great conversions occurred everywhere. All 
made general reviews of conscience, in many cases with 
streaming eyes and contrite hearts. Scandalous sinners 
pul>licly avowed the abominations of their past life ; ene- 
mies were reconciled ; evil associations ceased, and for a 
time there was nothing said of that odious traflie which 
had been the primary source of all the evil. Fasting, 
alms, ])iigriniages, the frequentatiou of the sacramoits, 
nothing was forgotten to disarm the wrath of Heaven, 
which was at last appeased." 

But although the earth recovered its pristine tranquilli- Coiiso- 

I T -I , -I 11 11 ■ -1 1 1 Tir !• -I qllU'l^^O" of 

ty, men (Uil not deem all tlieu- evils entleil. Many reared tiiceurtu- 
tliat the subterranean fires which had caused such great '^'"'•^'" 
shocks would burn up the earth and long prevent its pro- 
ducing any crop. Besides this, the planting season was 
followed by such heavy rains, that there was every reason 
to suppose that the grain had rotted ; but to their agree- 
able siirprise the harvest was abundant.'' 

It was also feared that so much moving of the earth, 
such revolutions in the waters and exhalations in the air, 



1*1 



' M. Marie de I'lncnrnatiop, Clioix ^ M. Marie i[p I'lncnrniituin, Loltre 

Uc LcttrcH, ]). 2!)4 ; Ki'lation dc la N. 18th Aug., Kit!;!. The sUocUh lusted 

F., It'(il5, l>. 5. 'I'lu'suiUf olisci-viition till Into in tlio ycir : Iti., An;,'. 50 ; 

was iiiudi' in the I'iutluumki' ol' 1800 ; FiiillDii. llistoirc de hi < 'dUmic Fniii- 

FciliiiKl. p 488. (.aisc, iii., p. Tr,' ; Hclution. l(i(i:i, \K'2ii. 

'•' l\('i, (Ic la N. F., in();5, ]). 7 : M. For tin' seven known caitlicnuikes 

Marie dr line., t'lioix di' I.I t.. ]i. '.2!ii) ; in (■aniida, Mr Dawson, Nott'S ou 

liouclu'i-, Hist. Verit., Avant Projios. thu Earthquake of 18U0. 



64 



1^1 



/ 



!■ 1 ■ 



< ;'l 



« « 



? '* 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 

■would cause dangerous diseases ; yet, notwithstanding, 
there never had been less sickness. Gradually the coun- 
\ try resumed its original form in places where it did not 

need a second earthquake like the first to restore it ; for 
the mountains remained where they had been transjwrted ; 
some rivers did not return to their former beds ; and of 
the newlj'-formed islands, some remained, and even in- 
creased in -iime by means of the mud washed on them, 
and the trees which stopped there : other islands, however, 
were soon swept away by the current. 

I have remarked, in my Journal, that He aux Coudres, 
which is half-way between Tadoussac and Quebec, then 
became much larger than it was before : but it is not true, 
as some have asserted, that it was entirely formed by a 
mountain which leaped into the river, and in the site of 
which, for the first time, appeared the whirlpool which 
renders that passage so dangerous ; for it is certain that 
the island obtiiiiied the name it bears fvom Jacques Car- 
tier.' As for the whirlpool, inasmuch as it is not men- 
tioned either in tlie memoirs of that navigator or in those 
of Mr, do Chauqilain, both merely mentioning a strong 
current in this channel, it may indeed be at least in part a 
result of the earthquake.'^ 
New pr.ipo- It is easy to conceive that while all the elements wei*e 
tlie iro<iiiois in tlic agitation just described, the Iroquois did not think 
much of war. Some, however, made their ,i.ppearauce in 
the direction of Montreal ; but without committing any 
considerable ravages : they were even defeated in some 
slight actions." Moreover, the Mohawks and Oneidas re- 
ceived quite a check from the Chiiipeways,' and the three 



' Charlevoix's Journal, p. 60. A» 
to Isle mix Coudres, see vol. i. of this 
work, )). IKi; La I'otherie, Histoiro 
de rAmeruiuc Septent., i., p. 200. 

' La Pothcrie, Histoire de I'Ame- 
rlqin' Septentrionale, i., p. '^0!). 

» Hel. de 111 N. R. 1 li(;:i, II. 211 ; 1 )oHier 
de CaH.«on, Hist, de Montreal, 1003-4. 



* The Chippeways defeated them 
near Lake Huron : Relation de la 
N. P., 1063, p. 10. The Algonquius 
of Sillery, under (iahronho, to the 
number of 42, also defeated a Mo- 
hawk Oneida jmrty under Oaristar- 
sia, or Iron, a eelebrated chief, who 
was killed, with tuu of his party 



P 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



66 



otbor cantons were a^ain straitened to defend tliemsclvos 1663 
aj^aiiist the Audastes.' Finall}', tlio sniull-pox broke out ""'■"'^'' 
in almost all their towns, and coiumitted great ravages." 
Hence they wei'e more disposed than i^ver to live well with 
us : the Onondagas even requested the French to como 
and restore their former establishment in their canton, 
offering to send as many of their own daughters as should 
be desired, to be educated by the Ursuliues, and serve as 
hostages." 

But at the time that they were preparing to dispatch 
deputies to conclude this arrangement, a Huron, natural- 
ized among the Iroquois, spread rumors through all the 
towns, which broke off the negotiations. Ho arrived from 
Three Rivers, where he had learned, he said, that tliou- 
sand.s of men had just landed at Quebec, and that the 
French were on the jioiut of pouring dov.u in full force on 
the Iroquois country, resolved not to leave a cabin stand- 
ing, and to exterminate the whole nation.^ 

The only truth hi this Avas, that the Bishop of Petrica Arrival of 
and Mr. de Mesy, whom the king sent to relieve the Baron 
d'Avaugour, had just arrived at Quebec with troojis." 
They were also accompanied by the Sieur Gaudais, whom 
the king had appointed Commissary to take possession, 
in his majesty's name, of all New France, the Canada 
Company having restored the domain to the king on the 



I new 

(ioveriior 

iiml (,'0111- 

iiiissiiry ut 

Qiieboo. 



thcra 

de la 

hKluius 

Ito the 

a M<v 

Iristar- 

|f, who 

party 



I 



and several taken, near the Riche- 
lieu IbUs : Relation de la Nouvelle 
France, lOO:!, p. l."j ; Lalemant, Jour- 
nal, May, l()(i3. They also rescued 
a settler (if Montreal, who had just 
been ei rolled in the Militia of the 
Holy Family, recently established liy 
M.de Maisonneuve; Mem. Hist. Soc. 
Montreal, p. lo4. 

' SusepiehannaB : Relation do la 
Nouvelle France, ItiO;!, p. 10. 

• Relation de la Nouvelle France, 
KiiW, p. 11. 

Mb. 

Vol,. III.— 5 



Mb. 

^ They arrived Sept. 1,5, 1063 : 
Lalemant, .Journal ; M. Marie de 
riucarnation, Letlres. De Mesy's 
coniiiilssion Ih in the Edits et Or- 
donnances, ill., p. 21. D'.Xvaiigour 
did not await the arrival of his suc- 
cessor, but left on the 2'M of July 
(Lalenuint, Journal), after having 
submitted to the king an able nu:- 
moir on the means to be adopted to 
give France the mastery of North 
America : N. Y. Col. Doc., ix., pp. 
13, 20. 






60 



IlISTOUY OF NEW FRANCE. 



i| f p \i 

i '■ 

VI ■■ 






1663. 14tli of February, in the same year.' Tlicy wore also 

' r — ' aecoinpauiril by a Innulred families, cu...:'ii^ to settle the 

country, and by several officers, civil ami military. 
How jiistico The Commissary be}j;aii by administering the oath of 
iu'evicmsiy fidelity to all the settlers : then he regulated police af- 
'tL'r'e'.Vin fairs, and issued several ordinances concerning the mode 
Cmuula. ^ij- .;,]jiijuiytt>i.;iig justice. Hitherto there had properly 
been no courts of justice in Canada. The goA'ernors-general 
judged matters in quite a sovereign style : there Avas no 
thought of appeal from their sentence ; but they usually 
gave no judgment until after all ways of arbitration Avero 
ineffectually tried, and it is admitted that their decisions 
Avere almost always dictated by good sense and the rules 
of natural law, which rises above all others. Baron 
d'Avaui, nn- had especially acijuired a high reputation by 
the manner in wliich he settled ditl'erences. Moreover, the 
Canadian settlers, altli(nigli generally of Norman'' origin, 
had nothing of the litigious spirit, and ordinarily- preferred 
to yield something of their just rights rather than lose 
time at law. Indeed, there seemed to he a community of 
property in that colony ; at all events, they lived for quite 
a long time without keeping any thing under lock and key, 
and it Mas unheard-of that any advantage Avas taken of 
this confidence. It is very strange and very humiliating 
for man, that the precautions adopted by a Avise prince to 
banish chicanery and establish justice almost mark the 
epoch Avhen the former arose and the latter declined. 

There had indeed been a Grand Seneschal of NeAV 
France in 1(540,'' and a jurisdiction at Three EiA'ers, de- 
pendent on the tribunal of that magistrate ; but he Avas in 
turn apparently subject in his functions to the governors- 



' See Giuidais' Instructions, Edits ' Tho Normans are proverbially 

et OrdiinnancL's, iii., 2;J ; N. Y. C'lil. litigious. 

Doc. ix., 9. Tlio surrondtT of the ■' The Chevnlier .lolin <!(' I.auson, 

colony liy tlii' comiiany, and the Avlio arrived in Ki.")!, is the first 

Uiiifr's uoceiitaiice, iir:' in vol. i., p. Senrcliid wliom 1 liiid uientinued. 

31 ; but C'hiulevoix gives the date He was killed, as we liave seen, in 

ineorreclly — it should be Fel). 2 tth. 1000 : Mem. Soc. Hist. Montreal, p.G7. 



1:3 






I 









4 



IIISTOIJY OV NEW FKANCE. 

general, wh.) liad always reserved the right of administer- 
i"H- jnst.ee i„ pc.rson, ou reco.irse hud to tlumi, and tliis 
was re.iuently the ease. In important affairs, ],e con- 
venc^l a land oi eouueil, eoniposed of the Great Senesehal, 
H3 Snpermr of the Jesuits (who, previous to the arrival of 
1.0 bishop, was the only eeelesiastieal Superior in the 
countiy), and some of the most notable inhabitants, who 
were nnvst.Hl with the title of couneillors 
Th„s when in 1G51, the Sieur Godefroy was sent with 

d Xls^'r™ t two colonies, ^. was styled in his cro- 
cntuds, Counedlor m the Council of New France." ' But 
tins council was not permanent: the Governor-Genera 
c.h.bhshed . by virtue of the power conferred on hi^^ 
the lung, an.l changed it as he saw fit.' It was not till 
«- year 10(;3,and after the Icing took Canari::^^ 

cstal 1 shed by the prince. The edict for its creation 
^ed in Mai.h of this year, enacts that it shaU c!^ Hj 
Monsieur deMesy, Governor-General; Monsieur de Laval 
Lishop o Petnea Viear-ApostoUc in New France; Mr' 
Wx.r the Intendant ; of four councillors to be nam^d by 
these hree, subject to removal or continuance in office at 
tl^eir pleasure; of a Procurator- CJeneral, and a GrefHerin- 

Mr. Eobert, Councillor of State, had been this year hd 
l->^ed Intendant of Justice, Police, Finance, am^Z- 
neiee for ^ew France, and his commission is dated the 

W^^first day of March; but he never came to clnat 
and M . Talon who arrived in 1GG5, is the first who ^lled 
t .0 ofhce.' Mr. Dnehesneau, who succeeded him in J^5 
brought over a royal order, by which the Intendant vs 



67 



' Si-e vol. ii., J). 314 \ -i w -,- 

■' Stv k.tt..r of d'Arge.Kson, Sent it '! ^^ ., \ ^'"'"'"'ll ^^ocuu.ents, 

10r,S, Can. i)„e., n,, i ,, ,.,j-' ' '' ''■•;• '• "'"^'l' M'vr. .Mard., 

nance, i., ,, ,,, .^e it bear^tlo ZT^^"'' "• -' ' ^^ '■ ^"^- ^-. 



1663. 



The 
Superior 
Coiiiieil, 



In* 



1 



G8 



HISTOUY OF NEW FRANCE. 



Mi- 
ps 



1663. 



Prcsont 

form of the 

Superior 

Comicil. 



.( 



Priiieiplns 

rc(;iilatiiig 

its (le- 

ciaioU9. 



to Jisc]iarp;o, in council, tho function of First Prosidont, 
giving', uiivortliolcsH, tlio first place to thu Goveruor-Gcnerii) 
uud tho KOCOU.I to tho bishop. The number of councillors 
Avas at tho same time increased by two, and all tho mem- 
bers of tho council received commissions from the court.' 

This investing of tho Intendant with the functions of 
First President, gave great umbrage to the Governor-Gen- 
eral. He remonstrated, but was not heard. It was, how- 
ever, enacted by an edict of the Council of State, on tho 
29th of May, KiSO, that in all tho acts and minutes of tho 
council, the Governor and Intcndiiut should take no title 
but that of their office or rtink." In 1701 four new coi;n- 
cillors were created, one ecclesiasticiil and three laymen : 
the number is accordingly twelve at present," including the 
bishop. One, styled First Councillor, has a double salary. 
He is appointed by the court, but tho grade is only an 
honorary one, without any special functions. He has 
eight hundred livres a year : five senior councillors have 
four hundred, the rest nothing, and there are no fees. Tho 
Procurator-General and Greffier-en-Chef also have salaries, 
but very moderate ones.* 

The council meets regularly every Monday in the palace 
where the Intendant resides ; and when an extrtiordinary 
meeting is necessary, the diiy and hour are lixinl by the 
Intendant, who notifies the Governor-General by the fir.st 
Huissier. Justice is administered according to the ordi- 
nances of the kingdom and the custom of Paris. In the 
mouth of June, 1G79, the king, by edict, authorized some 
reguhitious of this council, and this is called, in Canada, 
"La Unhui'iuiL (In Cotk'."'' Difficulties then arose as to 
the hearing of appetds, and these were explained by 
another edict in March, 1G85, which further declared that 
actions, in which members of the council were interested, 



' Edits ft Ordonniinces, iii., p. 81. 

■' lb., i., p. 2JS. 

' iri;!. 

* UUitB ut OrduuuauceB, i., p. 200. 



' Tlic oidouuancf of KI07, as modi- 
flfd, in ffiwAi iu tlu' Kdits i>t Ordiiu- 
lumcfs, iii.,]))). IOO--0U; the king's 
edict, lb,, p, 'iiM. 



\ 



HISTORY OP NEW FRANCE. 

should, ou tlie (lemmid of ono of tlio parties, bo tmnsferrod 
to the Intendiint, who wliould deeido tlieni, aided by judges 
whom he was to snnimou for the purpose. Those, also, 
who Avishod to return by civil petitions, wore authorized to 
prest'iit them on a simple pi^tition, and the council was 
em]u)wered to pronounce, judging both reseindant and 
rescisoire at the same time. Finally, the same edict em- 
powered the council, to the number of five judges, to try 
criiniual actions.' 

There are also in this colony threii subaltern tribunals — 
those of Quebec, Three Elvers, and Montreal. They are 
composed of a Lieutenant-General, a Particular-Lieuten- 
ant, and a King's Attorney. Their salaries are regulated 
by a Declaration of his majesty, dated May l'2th, 1G78.'^ 
The notaries, huissiers, and sergeants have also salaries, 
without which they could not live, fees being reduced 
almost to nothing in so poor and thinly-peopled a colony." 

Till the year 1G92 the local tribunal of Montreal lie- 
longed to the Cientlemen of the Seminary of Saint Hulpico, 
in their character of Seigneurs. They then resigned it 
to the king, on condition of reserving the exercise of tke 
right within the enclosure of their seminary, and on their 
farm of Saint Gabriel, with the perpetual and incommut- 
able right to the Greft'e of the Koyal Justice, to be estab- 
lished in the island, and the nomination of the First Judge. 
This was granted in the edict creating the new triJMinal, 
dated in March of the following year, lG!)i5 ; but as to the 
last article, only for that occasion.' Such were the provi- 
sions of the late king to afford his subjects in New Franco 
prompt and easy justice ; and on the model of this Supe- 
rior Council of Quebec, others were subse(|uently estab- 
lished in Marthiicpie, Saint Doming(j, and Louisiana. All 
these councils are d'epee. 

Sieur Gaiidais was not to remain in the colony. Ho 



60 



1663. 



Siilialfcrn 

.jiirisilio- 

tiona. 



■' Edits ct Ord jimanccs, iii., p. 253 
" lb., i., p. «9. 



^ Edits (T Ordonnances, i.,p. P9. 

* iij., p. aro. 



i'il ■ 1 



70 



HISTOHY OP NEW FHANCE. 






.663. 



New rii'kla 

of till! 

Iroiiiii'iH in 

tliu imrtli. 

1664. 



had oxproHS ovtlors to return to Franco by tho samo ves- 
sel that took liini to Quebec, in order to render the kiw/, 
an exact account of tlie country, and inform him as to 
the conduct of IIm! l)ishop and ecck'siastii's, tlu! efli'tt 
produced by tho cstal)lishment of tho council, what 
ground there -was for tho complaints made against tiie 
IJavon d'Avaugoi; , an 1 the manner in wliich Mr. do Mesy 
was re. ..^;d.' x.Ah Commissary fultilled his mission as 
an upri. r '. iviii,, <ind everything passed satisfactorily to 
tho partie- * J^ • ; rrible scourge Avith -which Canada had 
been afllictv ! nad r I'od all things to order, and recon- 
ciled all. Tho Baron ci A\ lugtnir, mIio could be reproached 
only with excessive harshness, and a disinclination to lay 
aside his prejudices, seemed well pleased Avith a recall 
which he had himself re(]uested. Ho soon after, with tho 
permission of his royal master, re-entered tho service of 
the emperor against tho Turks, and was killed tho next 
year, while most gloriously defending Fort Serin," on tho 
frontiers of Croatia. 

The Iroquois, nevertheless, kept constantly in arms ; but 
they did not ap[)ear in tho colony. They wished, appar- 
ently, to observe what effect, so far as they were concerned, 
Mould be produced by tho changes made and the re-enforce- 
ments received. Tho next winter they resumed their 
forays in the north, and committed groat cruelties. Still 
Garakonthie did not cease to labor for peace ; and his 
ever consistent conduct gave reason to hope that Canada 
would always find in him a resource against tho caprices 
and levit}' of his nation. Ho had again assembled the 
French caj^tives to be found in tho cantons, and sent them 
to Quebec escorted by thirty Onoudagas." 

As they were advancing on their way, in all the security 
that such a commission seemed to pevniit, they were sur- 
prised by a party of Algonquins, who took thena for enc- 



' See instructions, Arrets et Or- '■' Zrin, on the Unna or Sunnn, a, 
(lonnanci'S, iii., j). 2o ; N. Y. Col. trihiitiirv of tlir River Siiv.'. 
Doc, ix., p. y. ' Kel. de la N. F., Ili(j4, i)i), •H>-oi. 



I1IST0|{V OF NEW FHANCE. 



71 



\ 



iiiios, and nttackod them without liositntion. This thoy did i^)^4- 
with siu'li iiupctuDsity, that si-vrral Tro(|iiois were kiMcd '■''^r~~^ 
oil tlu' spot, and tho rest i)ut to thglit. Even tiu! I'lcufii Ujifurtuimie 
liartly cscaiHid the disorder. Not ono of thuni, liowovur, mro. 
was wounded. Tliero was every reason to fear that tliis 'nurs 
luisadventure Avould have still more fatal conseiiuenees ; 
but (iarakonthie prevented them, and made the Ononda- 
gas listen to reason.' 

At the end of some months, the French were agreealjly Now pmpo- 
surprised to see arriving at (Quebec the Cayuga ehiof, j.imku. 
mentioned several times already, who, without alluding t(- ' '.jo 
the affair with the Algonquuis, i)resented to Mr. de Me.-v 
belts from all the cantons except the Onei(hi, and protcsi ;, 
their sincere disposition to live in peace with him.'^ 'i'lc 
general gave him a cordial welcome, and ho deserve, u • 
but Mr. de Mesy told him tluit his predecessors had .jeou 
so often deceived by similar propositions, it woidd ' 'in 
imprudence on his part to put any trust iu the nation , iu>t 
he let him see that a design was adopted to rid themselves 
once for all of an enemy so often reconciled iu appearance 
and so irreconcilable iu fact.' 

Mr. de Mi'sy thought he might assume this tone, because The Enjrlisii 
he felt his strength, and was sure of receiving speedily a Nctheriund. 
})owerful rc-enforccment : but, this very year, a change took 
place in the neighborhood of the Iro(piois, changing en- 
tirely the position in which that nation stood, and to which 
must be ascriljcd a good part of all that we have since 
theu had to sutler from the insolence of the Iroquois. To 
understand this clearly we must resume matters, and ex- 
. plain somewhat at length matters oidy alluded to iuci- 
dentallj'. 

Hem-y Hudson, as already mentioned, discovered the 



' Relation de la NouvcUc Friinco, l(i()4, p. ii.'j. They iinived at Quebec 

1004, p. B4 ; Laleniant,.Ioumal, May, Sept. IS, 1004: Lalemant, Journal. 

1004 ; M. .M:irie ili' riiicuniat.on, lie did nut regard it as a sincere 

Letlre Au{,'. ly, 10()4. peace. 

'' Kelatiou de la Nouvelle France, ' Relation de la N. F., 1G04, p. 35. 



■'4': 



1 



72 



UISTOIIY OP NKW FRANCE. 



I)** 



1664. livor Mdiilititto ill 1(500. I do not kiioAv on wind princi- 
l)loH ho doomed himself iiuthoiizi'd to disposo of liis dis- 
covory as owner ; but it is certiiin tliiit ho sold it tho sumo 
year to tho )St!it('s-(lonoi'al, who, in l(il4, Ix-^an to clear 
tho country, and sent over Hottlors in considerabh' num- 
borH. Several years after, Sir Samuel Argall, tho samo 
who had expelled the Freiieh from Pentai^'oet and Acadia, 
having been invested with the f,'eneral govi'rnment of Yir- 
fj;inia, resolved to reclaim the territory discovered by Hud- 
son, protendiiif,' that that navij^ator could not sell, nor the 
States-(Jenei'al buy it, without the ]>ermission of the king 
of Clreat J'litain, wliose subject he was. 

Ho accordingly .sent troops and inhabitants to Man- 
hatto, and tho Dutch, taken by surprise, could not prevent 
tho English from taking a part of New Netherland ; but 
they held their ground in the rest, and remained masters, 
especially of the cajjital, which they liad cidled New Am- 
sterdam, of tilt! city of Orange, and of two other forts.' 
The Swedes also, at this time, settled in the southern part 
lu^arest to Virginia.' Now it appears that down to this 
year, IHlil, these three nations lived quite haniioniously. 
But in this year the king of England, Charles II., having 
been informed that tho Dutch were beginning to encroach 
on the English, sent four commissaries with good troops, 
who, without resistance', took possession of Mauhatto, or 
New Amsterdam, which they called New York, of Orange, 
which they styled Albany, of tho city of Ai'asapha, and of 
tho Castle of Lavare." 



' It sctnia scni'ci'ly necessary, (or 
AiiiiTinui leiiilcrM, to i-xiiofc tlit- it- 
rors luTc. As to lliulson, sec unto, 
vol. ii., p. to. Ihidson was in Dutch 
ciuiiloy iiiul i-i a I>utch vcssil wlien 
111' ilisiiivcrcd tlic ciHiMtiy, luul made 
no sale. Arirall's visit is. beyond 
doubt, a lati.' invention; and was 
nsHignod, not to tlic period wlicn he 
was Ooveruor of Virginia, but to 



tlint when he was returning from 
Acadia: Ante, vol. i,, p. 2S;i. 

■-' The Swedish settlement was 
wade in lOyS. As to it, seeCamiia- 
uius, Nye Sverige ; StoclUiolni, 1T02. 

•'New Amsterdam ciiiiitiilattd 
Se|iteinber (i, 1(104. See ('onimeiu. 
of ('oM(|. of Nc-w Netlierlund, p. til. 
Arasapha is proliably Kscjpiis. 'I'lio 
C'hatetu do Lavare is Do La Warro. 



IIISTOIIY OF MiW KIIANCK. 



78 



a of 



Tlioro wns Hul)Hoqii(>ntly an nnanf^'cinont between tlio 
Eii^'lisli iiiid Diitcli ; si'Vcral of tlic latter (•oiisciit.d to lui- 
kiiowlt'df,'!' tilt! kiii;^' of (ii'i'iit Britiiiu us tlicir Hovcrci},'!!, 
iiml on this condition wcro miiintainiHl in posHcsHion of nil 
tluir i)i()[)i'ity. His Ihitannic; Majt'sty, to oonipensato tho 
Statfs-dfMcral, ocdod to tlieni tlit? scttlcnicnt of Surinam, 
in tho vicinity of (hiiana ; and tho Swi'dos also retained 
Honio of their forts.' Sinec! tliat time Now Netherlands has 
borno tho iiamo of Now York, and the French in Canada 
Avert! not lon;^ in pt^rceivinf^ that the Irotinois, l)y chanj^inf^ 
nei^'hbors, had bticonio less tractable, havin<,' snon discov- 
ered that tho antipathy of tho two European nations be- 
tween whom they lay, would always enable them to find 
in one of them sutlicient aid to save thom from all oppres- 
sion at tho hands of tho other." 

The French in Canada had not h"u time to note what 
was occnrrinj,' in New York : moreover, tho re-enforcements 
wliich tho kinj^ had alreaily sent to New France, and 
still more tho ste])s taken to follow up these first advances, 
gave l.'opes that wt; should soon be in a posititm to dictate 
terms to tho Iroquois. l>ut, unft)rtunately, the harmony 
which the gov(!rnment flattered itself on establishing be- 
tween all tht)so who hail most tt) do with tho management 
of all'airs, was but short-lived. "When it was least antici- 
patetl, tho new Governor-General fell out with the Bishop 
of Petriua, and with all those in office in tho colony. 

Tliat prelate had, as we have noted, gone to France to 
complain <A the Baron d'Avaxigour. He not only t)btaintHl 
the recall of that general, but the king even carried Lis 
condosconsiou so far as to leave to the bishop the choice 



\6f^. 



Fri'uli 

Iniiilili-" in 
Ciiiiiulii. 



was 
pn|iii- 
Il702. 
IhUvil 

tlK'lU. 

'I'ho 
farro. 



' The Dutch rcciiiifurcd New Nctlii-rliind, to insure tin- biifcty of 
Ncthci-land. Auj;. Vi, l(iT:i, and gave Canada, is notfd hy M. .A[nry (if tlu! 
it up tor Surinam, in Ui74. Tlio luciirnation; and as Louiw XIV. dis- 
Swidish jKiHts had already houn re- liked tho Diitrh, it is reniarkahk' 
dueed by the Duteh, and tlio whole that he did not seize New Nether- 
country beeanie Kn^dish. land, esiiecially after Cruniwcll's 

'•' Tho necessity of taking Now avowed iiiloutiou to do so. 



*s»* 



74 



inSTOUY OF NEW FllANCE. 



1664. of his Miu'cf'ssor. I\Ir. cli> Mi'sy, iiiiijor of the Citiulcl of 
^-""y"^ Cni'ii, j)rofi>sst>(l oxaltcd piety. Tlin JJislioj) of I'otrii^a, 
wlio liiul known liini intinmtcly, ciiHt his oyos on him, pro- 
posi'd him to tlic kinj^, and liis iniij'Mty iict'cptcd th« nom- 
ination. Jhit he was scaii't'ly in olVit'c l)i>l'ort) iu^ soomod 
a totally dillcrcnt man, or cIho tliosts who aliusi'd his pro- 
dccHmHoi's woaknoHs profited by his (for Avhoro is tho man 
who has not sonu*'!') to urgo him to still j^Tcati-r cxhoshos 
against tho liishop and against thosi) who thought liku tho 
])rc'lat(;.' 
Vloiont Th(i motamorphosis was so widdon, and tho Uamcs of 
Mr.do.Mt«y discord Wi-ro kindU'd to that (extent, that it was uocesHiiry 
to api)ly n prompt remedy. The king's eouneil had no 
doul)t of the eulpaliility of Mr. do Mesy, (^s[)eeially when 
they lieheld at the head of his accusers two of the chief 
members of tho council, namely, the Sieur Villeruy, Coun- 
cillor, and th(! Sieur T$ourdon, Procurator-CJeneral, both 
men of known probity and wisdom, whom the new gov- 
ernor had, without any form of trial, compelled to ond)ark 
for France. Yet, thi'y did not disregard tho memorials 
which he had transmitted to tlio ministry iu his own do- 



' AiiffUHtlno dc SiilVrii.v Mi'fy wuh 
orinimilly a Calvinint. Imt licciiiiit' 
a iliwipli' lit' the ci'lrliniti'd Mr. dc 
Bcrnirriw, and liad [lanscd some 
time at the Ilfniiitajtc with Mr. dc 
IjUVoI : M. Marie dc I'liKainalicin ; 
Juflicrcau, IliHtoirc dc rildlcl-Dicu 
do (iiiclMM', p. lis. Dc Mrny'.s colli 
inissicm wiiH dated May 1, Hi(14 : 
KditH ct Onlouiiaiiccs, iii., \). 'Jl ; 
Can. Doc, II., ii., p. 170. On liis 
arrival tlic Cduncil was noiyaiii/ud, 
under edict i>l' April, Kililf (Kilits ct 
Ord., iii., p. UT), (iiidicr made n city 
with a mayor and cchcvlnH (Edits ct 
Ordon., ii., p. 10), and t-cvcrc laws 
against liciuor-dcalcrs promulpitcd. 
licss Justifiiililc were Iii-* acts in rela- 
tion to Montreal, and cspeelully Ids 
removal of the veteran Maison- 



nciive, in .June, l(i(14. Onrncau, 
Ilisioirc (111 Canada, i., ]>. ISd, pvcs 
u detail ot llic whole striiffjrle l)c- 
twceii dc Mi'sy and tlie hisliop, from 
tin' Kc);istris of tiic .""overcign Coun- 
cil. The breach arose from tin; elec- 
tion of a syndic, in 1(1(14, to replnco 
tlic mayor and cclievins. Dc Mesy 
removed the first one elected, and 
called a new election against llic ad- 
vice of his council. Dc Mesy re- 
moved threes of the council and Mr. 
Honrdon, Procurcur-ticncial ; and 
finally, Sc|it. IH, 1(104, diss<ilvcd thu 
council entirely, and formed a new 
one: Lidcmant, .loiirnal. ThehiBhop 
]irotcslcd against these nets as ille- 
gal : N. Y. Col. Doc, is., pp. lit, 2:.', 
etc. See as to dc Mi'sy, IJagucucau, 
Vie dc la Mere Catberino, p. 364, etc 



pl 



IIISTOIIY OK NKW FllANCK, 



76 



■w 



fonco ; (viul iiltliouf;Ii tlicHc did not juHtify his coui'ho, thoy i6^'4 
oxcitoil suHpifions wliiili it was subHoquoutly very ililVKiult ^■^"v^ 
for Homo to lay usido. 

I ft) Imd insisted ospccially and Htron^ly on tho (^voat 
inllurncc wliii-li tho JcsiiitH had in tli»> i-olony ; and as tho 
court had iiitluTto Kcarccly intcrtV'rcd in tiio alVair.s of Nt'W 
France, '.viiu'li it iiad in some sort aliamhtncd to tlu' ("an- 
adu C'onipuny, and as tlir iidations ahnnaiiy icctivt'd IVoni 
that conntry and widely circulated, spoko nuieli of tlioso 
nuHsionaries, whose; fiuietions ol»li<^'ed tluni to enter into 
nil matters that cone, led the Indians, iminy i)ersonH 
\\\H' convinced that the (governor's conii laints were not 
iinfcmnded ; they judj^'ed of what was hy what nii^jht ho, 
and concluded that men wlio enjoyed so j,'reat an inilucnco 
would, naturally sp(>aking, uso overy endeavor to presorvo 
it, and nii;,'ht at times abuse it.' 

Ou tho other hand, tho council was convinced, and uii- 
hesitatini,'ly avowed, that New Franco was under oi)liga- 
tion to them for beinj^ upheld in the critical circumstanct^s 
throuf^h wiiich it had passed ; they were esteemed neces- 
sary in connection with the natives of tho country-, who 
know them only, and who could l)e secured only l»y their 
means; tlnally, ^Ir. de ^lesy, whih^ recriminating', had not 
cleared himself, the IJishop of I'etra'u mukinf,' charges of 
which he could not purge himself. 

Mr. Colbert, accordingl}-, deemed it necessary to recall 
him, reserving to himseU' to take precautiims to limit the 
power of the ticclesiastics and missionarit'S in case it was 
shown that it went too far ; nud, in this view, he prepared 
to select for tho colony officers of a character not to give 
any ground of excerption in tlieir conduct, and who would 
not suiter any to share with them an authority which it 
behooved them to bo invested with exclusive'y. Mr. do 



IIO in 

reculluJ. 



' ;Se( . Hs to tliis atlUir, I.ii Tour, ApDHtoliijiics do sa (irandcur Mr. F. 
Mem. di- Mr. dc I.aviil, Alilc Mtii-i, X. lu l.avalMoutuiiirwK'y, jili. '^'J, 
EiiquiHHv lu lu Vlo ut (iuij i'nivuux SJO. 



''l1 



76 



HISTORY OP NEW FRANCE. 



1 664. Mi'sy was accordingly rccallciT ;' bi;t before speaking of tlio 
successor appointed in his stead, it is well to continue our 
xomurks on the change made in the government of Canada 
by the suppression of the Company Avhicli had enjoyed 
the domain of Canada for thirty-five years, and this wo 
shall do in the following book. 



' On the 27th April, lGfi5, Mr. do and died May 5-G, IfifiS: Lalcmnnt, 

Mrsy. then (|iiiti' ill, coniiiiitisioiifd Jimnial. The council did iidt, linw- 

Jamos Lcneuf d(^ la Pothcrie to ad- >'.or, rccojinize do la I'otht'riu : Edits 

niiniHter tho colony after Lib death, ei. Oi-donuauces, ii., 35. 



the 
our 
ada 

wo 



nnt, 

lOW- 

Idits 



BOOK IX 



1 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



79 



BOOK TX. 



We havo seen in what a state of weakness and lanfr^xor , c,6, 
the Company of a Hundred Associates, erected in 1028 for — ^ 
the settlenieut of Canada, although one of the most pow- 
erful ever formed, either in the number or rank of the 
members, or tlio privileges conferred on it,' liad nevertlio- 
less left that colony. It even wearied soon of the sliglit 
expense it mcurrcd, and, after tlie year 1644, abandoned 
the iur-trado to the settlers, although it was almost tlie 
only advantage it derived, reserving only for its right of 
seigneury an annual quit-rent of one thousand beaver- 
sknis.'' 

At last, in 1GG2, having been reduced to forty-five asso- Ti,e ki„^ 
ciates. It purely and simply surrendered all its riglits to his ts™,' it 
majesty,' who soon after included New France in the grant "Tv'i'i'r^ 
made of the French colonies in America in favor of the '^"'"''""'y "<■ 
West India Company, with the riglit of appointing gov- '^'^- 
ernors and all officers.' It is true, that as this new com- "''^^.r' 
pany (says Mr. Colbert, in a memoir that I have had in 
my hand) had not yet sufficient knowledge of the persons 
proper to fiU the first posts, it besought the king to fiU 



' Sec vol. ii., ante, p. 30. 

^ Article.s accordes cntre les diroc- 
teurs ct ussocit's eu la('i)mpiigni.'di>, 
la Ndiivclh. FraiKV, .'t le.s deput.'s dcs 
iKibitants du dit pays, Can. Doc, 11., 
p. I.W. Tlicy wcro dati>d .Jniuiary 
14, Kill, and were a|)prov('d by tlie 
king March 0. l(i4.T : Edits i;t Ord., 
i., '^'-^ ; MfHioiivs sui' k-s Pot^sost^ionH' 
ii., p. 497. 



^ See dolibcration held Feb. 24 
lOO;!, Edits et Ordonnanws, i., p.liO; 
Aban<lon ,t Deiiiis.-ion du ('anuda 
uu Roi par la Conipagnie du la N. 
F., 11)., yi ; Acciptation du Roi di> la 
Demission, lIi. 

■* See ])at('nt, Etablisseinent de In 
Compagnie di's hides Occidentales, 
_^hi.VJS, KiOl, K.iiis,.! Ordunnanees,' 
i., p. 40 ; Mem. des Comm., ii., p. 537.' 



80 



HISTORY OP NEW FRANCE. 



1 664. 



The 
Mar<|iiis 
lie Tiiiev 



them, till it was able to use the privilogo which his majesty 
had had the goodness to grant it ;' aud it was in couse- 
qneuoe of this request that Mr. do Mi'sy was appointed 
Goveruor-Gcueral, aud Mr. liobert luteudaut of Now 
France. 

On the 19th of November, in the same year, 1G63, the 

king issued a patent of Lieut(^nant-General, with the power 

VicLri.y i^iHl commission ot Viceroy in Aiuericu, 111 ia^or 01 Alex- 

by'^oi'nmu'- antler do Prouville, Marquis de Tracy, Lieutenant-Geueral 

*"""■ of his armies, ordering him to proceed to the Windward 

Isles, thence to St. Domingo, and thence to New France, 

there to remain as long as should be necessary to settle 

all matters in that colony, to establish it solidly within aud 

secure it without, by bringing the Iroquois to reason." 

De Tracy set out early in the ensuing year ;' and soon 
after his dejiartu.i', tin* c(mrt received the complaints of 
the Bishop of Petra'a and the Superior Council of Quebec 
against Mr. de ]Mi'sy. His majesty was at the same time 
petitioned to send over to New France families to settle 



' Instructiona to Talon, N. Y. ("ol. 
Doc, ix., !i.5. Ii. this (Idciinii'iit of 
Colbert wo sou a now cU'incut outiT- 
iiig into till' goveinuicut idoas — the 
anti-Josuit nntl anticlerical. Tho 
influence of Colbert was to exclude 
the clergy from tho important part 
hitherto exercised by them, ana to 
restrict tlLem in miiny eintti'rs with- 
in tlicir h'Lritinmte coiiii icnce. The 
strugjfle belween tln' civil and eccl" 
siastical authoritii's, which bef,;.n 
Tinder d'Avaugour, laBted for many 
years. 

'■' CommiBsion of the Marquis de 
Tracy, Nov. 19. 10fi3, Edits et Ord., 
i.. p. il. lie is often styled Viceroy, 
but incorrc'ctly ; the Viceroy at tlie 
time was <i(Klfrey, Count d'Kstnic'u's, 
Marshal of France, a|i|iointe(l appa- 
rently in Kid'i. He was at this time 
auibnssa<lorin Holland. After Hiche- 
lieu (1028-43) and tho Duke de 



Maille-Bn'/.e (1642-4) had acted as 
such under tlie title of ■• <irand Mas- 
tiT, C liie', anil Superintendent-* ieno- 
ral of the Navigation and ('(■ 'nierce 
of France," there was a serit ot ('ice- 
roys — 1. Francis Christopher de Le- 
vis, Duke de Damville, 1044-GO ; 
3 )-'.'. de Pas, Manpiis de Feu- 
iuicrL-i. l'i(50-2; 3. tiodfrey, Count 
iisJTiKl.-.- 10()2-S(i; 4. John, Count 
i!'I'-:'.ri'-(.„ et de Tourpes, UiSO-lTOT; 
5. Mary Victor, Count d'Estrees, 
Marshal do CanivrcB, 1707-1737, with 
wliom the title ceased. The earlier 
viceroys have been already men- 
tioned. See Menioires de la Soc 
Ilistoriciue de Montreiil, ]ip. !)7-122. 

■• Tnicy sailed to the West Indies 
from Hoclielle in the Breze, Feb. 
2(1, 1(1(14, with orders to jiroceed 
thence to Canada: Helalioii de la 
N. F., lUOo, p. 3 ; Juchereau, Hist, 
do I'Hotel-Dieu, p. 173. 



$ 



niSTOlJY OF NEW FHANCE. 



81 



II 



Mr. do 

r'diii'i'i'iifs 

■ l|ip"illtCHl 

(Invcriiiir 

of Nfw 

Kniin'C iiinl 



tlio country, and to sclcH't tlicm fioiii tlio Isle; do Franco, 1664, 
Norniiindy, Picanly, anil tlii! ni)ighl)()riii,Li;' provinces, as the """^"^ 
people tliore were, it was said, luborions, industriuiis, full 
of religious feeling, -wliilo the provinces near the sea])orts, 
•where the shipments were made, contained niiiiiy heretics, 
and a population less adapted to agriculture.' 

As soon as the king determined to recall Mr. do Mesy, 
he assigned as his successor Daniel do Remi, Seigneur de 
Courccllcs, a meritorious and ex25orienced ofticer ; and to 
replace Mr. Iiol)ert, his majesty clujse Mr. Talon, mIio iu'^r'J'n 
was Intendant in Fainaut. On the 21st of March, KiGo, ^"[^gT' 
the nominations of these gentlemen were signed, :iud a 
special commission was added, re(piiring them, in conjunc- 
tion with the Marqiiis de Tracy, to investigate the charges 
against Mr. do Mesy, with orders, in case he were found 
guilty of tho facts of which he was accused, to arrest and 
bring him to trial.'' Orders were also given to raise colo- 
nists, and to embark tho regiment of Carignau-Salieres, 
just arrived from Hungary, where it had greatly distin- 
guished itself in the war against the Turks, and which was 
now intended to act against the Iroquois." 

Do Tiiicy arrived at Quebec, in the month of June, with 
some companie of tho regiment of Carignau-Salieres, who 



■vs, 

ith 

liiT 

LMl- 

SOC 
>0 

lies 

■d 
111 

int. 



' Tlio mntti'V of faitli, previously 
Fo strictly ntllicrcil to, and lu'i'e 
urfjoil, si'eins to have boen disro- 
gardwl, as Le >[iTcier's Jomniil, 
Sept. 14, says : " fp to tliii? time ','0 
heretics converted." The sliipa 
brinfjiuff over settlers broitfflit imieh 
sickness. The Xormimdy, Oct. 3, 
broiig-Lt82 women and V.]2 working- 
men. 

■' See coniniissions, dated March 
2y, Edits et Ordoiiiiances, iii.. pp. 
ol,;ilJ; N. y. Col. Pocunients. ix., p. 
22 ; Instructions to Talon, lb., ]i, 24. 

' The Caiinnan re^ri'iieiit t.^ok its 
name from hiiviiiir lieni raised by 
Thomas Francis, i'riucu dc Curi- 

Vol,. III.— 



pnan, of the family of the iiri'sent 
kini; of Italy, and was still con- 
siderod as lielonirint;' to and eom- 
nianded by his son; Imt tlii> kinL'' 
luul placed in actual coiiiman(* 
Henry de C'hiipelas, Sieur de S 
lieres, jiroprietor and colomd of a 
other regiment, which was incor|Ki- 
rated with that of C'ariLriian; ln-iico 
the Uoiilile name. The ( 'arij.'-; jii 
regiment iiariiciiiateil in the win of 
La Fronde, and served unilei Tu- 
ri'nie- a' .\iixcnT. Itwasjiar* t the 
4,(H.O men sent in Itidl ton . i.rf*>- 
1M)1(! auaiiist the Turks, and was ills- 
tiiiiruishid al the luiilh- of St. Uo- 
durd : Uarueau, i.. p, 203. 



\fi 



§ 



h.. 



if- I 



.1 i 



82 



IIISTOBY OF NEW FRANCE. 



0' 



1665. 



Great 
re-onforco- 

iiieiitH 
nrrivo in 
C'lmiKlii, 

'I'hf 
Iroijiiois 

retire. 



li!i(l iiccompaniod liiiii to the Wost Iiulios,' and he dc- 
tuclu'd a part with soiuo Indians, under tlio guidance of 
Captain tlio Sieur du Tilli do Eepontigny, to pursue the 
Iroquois, Avlio luid renewed their raids." It required 
nothing more to induce these savages to boat a retreat ; 
and as the fruit of tliis first expedition, the harvests were 
gatliered in perfect security. Tlie rest of tho regiment of 
Carignan, except some companies, arrived with the colo- 
nel, Mr. do Halieres, on a squadron which also brought 
over Messrs. do Courcellcs and Tidon, a great many fam- 
ilies, a number of mechanics, lal)orers, the first horses seen 
in Canada, cattle, sheep — in a Avord, a more considorabL 
colony than that which they came to ro-enforco.° 
Forts imiii The viceroy lost no time. As soon as he received this 
river of iiie re-enforc(>nient, he pixt himself at tli(, head of all his troops 
roiiuuitf. ^^^^-j j-jj.^^,p|j,,(i jy ^]jy mouth of the river liichelieu, where 

he set them to work at tho erection of three forts simul- 
tau'.ously. Tho first was erected on tho site of the old 
iurt Eiclielieu, bialt by the Chevalim' do Montmagny, of 
which only the ruins remained.' It Mas put under Mr. do 
►Sorel, captain in the Carignan regiuient, who was k'l't as 
commandant ; and since that time the river has taken his 
name, which he gave to tho fort. Tho second was built 



I Tracy arrived June 80, 1003, 
with lour ci>in|iiiiiiL's <m the Brcsi' 
and Turoii ; but lour (rtluTs had ar- 
rived direi t from Hochelle on the 
17th and I'Jlh: Lah'mant, Journal, 
June 1!)-;J0, 1005; Ilelatioii do la 
Nouvelle France, lOfi."), iip. 4, 'i'l ; 
Juelicreau, Uistoirc de rilutel-Dieu 
de Quel), c, p. 1T4 ; M. Marie de Tlu- 
carnutio:), Letfre '2V Juil., lOlj."). 

•July So: lielauon de la N. V., 
lOO."), p. 7 ; Lalfiuaut, Journ;d. lie- 
]ientigny eomnumded a company of 
provincial volunteers ; liclntion. 

^ Colonel di! Suiieres arrived with 
his son, .\ufr. 15: Le Mercier, .lour- 
nal. The Hel. 1005, p. -■), fays Au;;. 
18-1!). Capt. Poulet's vessel, from 



Havre, which reached Quehec July 
10, brought twelve horses and some 
girls, etc. : I.aleiuaut, Journal ; Kel., 
1005, p. 25. Courcellc and Tahm 
arrived Sejit. 12, on the St. Sebas- 
tian : Le ^Mercier, Journal. The 
Jardin de HoUande came on the 
siinie day; and the Justice, with 
eifiht companies, two days after: 
lielati.-ju, p. 25. The first horse had 
been bnuifiht Juno 20, 1047, and 
was presented to Montnnigny ; Lale- 
mant, Jc irnal. See Hist. Mag., v., 
]). 355. 

■■ On liel'.in's map ai-companyinff 
this work it is ]>laced im the left in- 
stead of being ou tho right of the 
river. 



*• f 



IllSTOltY OF NEW FRANCE. 



88 



nt the foot of tlio rapid wliioli, us I have roniarkcd, is met 
as yon asceiul tlio river. It n'ocivi'd tlio iiamo of Saiut 
Louis ; but Mr. do Cliauil)ly, ca])tuiii in tlio sumo regiment, 
who directed the worlcs and had command, having after- 
wards acquired the ground on whicli it stood, the wholo 
canton and the stone fort, sul)se([uent]y built on the ruins 
of tlie first, now bear the name of Chambly.' 

^Ir. (h; Salieres took charge of the third, whicli he called 
Fort St. Teresa, because it was completed on the feast of 
that saint. It was three leagues above the si'cond fort, 
and the colonel made this his own iiost.' These works 
were comjileted with extreme diligence ; and they did iu- 
deeil at first in.spiro the Iroquois with alarm, but tlie_, soon 
recovered from it. Only one road to enter the colony wiis 
l)lockaded, and they soon opened several others. If, in- 
stead of these three forts, a good one had been built at 
Onondaga, oi' in the IMohawk canton, and care been taken 
always to kec[) up a good garrison there, t^'ey would liavo 
embarrassed them much more. That still standing at 
Chamlily, nevertheless, does not fail to shield the colony 
on the side of New York and the lower Iroqitois.'' 

Meanwhile Mr. Talon had remained at (Quebec, where 



166?. 



It III- 
tho 



' AecDnlinsr to tln^ Hfl., 1(1(!.~(. p. 
10, C'liiuiilily Ijiiilt Flirt llii'liclii'u, or 
Siiri'l, 1111(1 hiird Fort St. Lmiis. or 
Cliaiiilily : Init tlio mii]) rcvrrws this. 
niul is aiiimri'iitly forroct. 

-' Hi'latioii lie 111 NouvL'lic Fnincc, 
KKi.'), p. 10. It WIS l.") fiTt lii.L'h, 
with u (loulilo iiali.stdi'. anil a liaii- 
(|Uriti' within n toot ami a half from 
till' ground: II). Lc Mcnicr notrs 
its coiniilction in his .lournal. Oct. 
I--), KKi.l, on which iliiy, at !l r. .>[., 
there was a shock of an carth- 

ilUlikr. 

"Fort Cliatiibly, or " iShiinihlcc," 
us our early colonists called 'it, 
liu-iircs in all the lionler wars iilt.r 
LhttiiuvoixB liiiy, Oue of the t-urliist 



nets of Pe Tracy was to remove ^r. 
de Miiisonneuve from otPice us Gov- 
ernor of Montreal, and send liini 
hack to France. This is not men- 
tioned in the Uelmion or in the Su- 
lierior's Journal, hut is stated in 
Dollier de I'asson, Ilistoire de Mon- 
treal, and more fully by .Tuchereau, 
Ilistoire de rilotel-Dieu de Quebec, 
]ili. I','4-.^. He (iied III Paris, at Jii.s 
ordinary residence in the i.iui.sh of 
St. Ktieiine ilii Mont, hc'tween the 
pites of St. Marcel and St. \'ictiir, 
Sejit. 11, KiTIi, and uiis Imrled the 
next day in the church of the 
Fathers of the t'liristinu Doctrine: 
Failloii. Uistnire de ia Colouie Fran- 
i;aiiie, iii., pj). IIU-U. 



I 



f V 



84 



mSTORY OF NEW FHANCE. 



1665. lio liiul not been inactive. Ho infonnod liiniHoli' tlioiouf^li- 
' » \y of the forces, nature, ami resonrcos of the country,' uml 
Tiiloii'H by tlie Itli of October, lie comiilctcd a detailed nicnioir, 
ciiburt? ■Nvliidi ho addressed to Mr. Colbert. Ho aciiuainted him 
that Mr. do Mesy had died before information of his recall 
reached Canada ; that it had been considered most ad- 
visable by the Marquis de Tracy, Mr. ilo Conrcolles, and 
himself, not to proceed to invosti<;ate the eondiiet of that 
povernor, and that as the liisho]) of I'otru'a, tlu^ ecclesias- 
tics, the Superior Council, in a word, all who had broni^lit 
chnrfies, refrained from itildnf,' any further stei)s in the 
matter, they had considered that his majesty would not 
di'oui it improper that his faults should bo buried with 
him in the tomb.' 

Ho then speaks of do Trac^ , and remarks that the ago 
and infirmities of that Ticcoy hispired grave fears that 
the coiuitry would not possess him long ; that ho did not 
spare himself at all, and could not bo more active were ho 
a rnaii of thirty ; that his great ability for the oflicc; wjiich 
his nnijesty had confided to him rendered him, neverthe- 
less, very necessary tc N(iw I'ranc(! ; and that in his opin- 
ion, in ease ho sought to retire, the king should iu>t dis- 
please him by refusing permission, but should urge him to 
continue his services, leaving him at liberty to return, and 
crineiug tlu; ]ilcasure that it would afi'ord his majesty if 
li! did not avail himself of it, till he was assured tli;it his 
absence would bo in no wise prejudicial to the affairs of 
the colony. He gave his ojiinion on Mr. de Courcelles 
brietly, making a v> vy fine eulogium upon him ; and he 
detracted nothing from it, even in the tinu; of the conten- 
tions which he subsofjucntly had with that governor. 
Finally, to come to colonial topics, ho declared that he did 
not know a more glorious imdertaking for a groat minister 



V 



' Mcitlicr .liicUcrriui t;iV( s 11 jilcng- -' Tiilon's Hcpoit to Cullicrt, Oc-t. 

iiii,' iiucc(li)te lit' his I'iissiiip hinis<'ir 4. U'ti'i't, X. Y. (.'olonUil Docuiiicnts, 

oft' lis a vidct in visitiiiir iln' llntd i\.. \). 'i'J. C'auadu DucuiU'iits, ii., 

Dieu. Hist. Ue lUoli'l Dieu, [i, IIH. p. 4?. 



IM 



i-j 



HISTORY OK NKW FKANCB. 



8« 






like him, tliuu tlio caro that Ik; would f,'ivo this country, 
there bein^ uono in America that eouUl become more use- 
ful to tlie kinf,f(Iom. 

"]jut," ho continues, "if his nuijesty wishes to niiiko 
nny thiufj; out of C'anaihi, it seems to mo that lie will not 
succeed, except by taking it out of tlii! hands of the Wi'st 
India Company, and by granting the setth-rs great liberty 
of trade, excluding only foreigners. If, cm the contrary, 
his majesty considers this country only as a place adapted 
for trade in furs and the sale of some products from liis 
kingdom, the emolument that can result from it is not 
worth his application, and very little deser\is j-ours. lu 
that case, it would be moi'e advantageous to leave tho 
whole direction to the company, in the same manner that 
it has that of the West Indies. The king, adopting this 
ct)urse, may dejiend on ruining the colony ; for on the lust 
declaration that tlie company made, that it will sutler no free- 
dom of trade, nor permit the settlers to import goods from 
France on their own account, all revolted. The company 
by this conduct will profit greatly by impoverishing the 
country ; and will not mdy deprive it of means of subsist- 
ence, but will prove a serious obstacle to its settlement." ' 

At the close of December, Mr. de Tracy having returned 
to Queljec, Ciarakonthie arrived there with di^puties from 
his own canton, as well as from Cayuga and Seneca. Ho 
made that general some fine presents, and assured him of 
the perfect submission of the three Cantons. He spoke 
with modesty, yet with dignity, of the services which ho 
had rendered to the French ; then, in the maimer of tho 
country, he bewailed the death of Father Ic Moyue, re- 
cently deceased, and t\)r vhom the Iroiiuois nation has 
preserved a high esteem. On this topic (iarakonthie 
made ^iuch touching and intelligent remarks, us to sur- 
prise extremely the Vieeroj- and all present. He concluded 



ir/.;. 



(iiiriikoii- 
lliii' iit 
(iuobec. 



' StM> 'I'lildii - K'cpiiri, N. Y. Cdl, 17. Tln' iiiirt (luntuil is uui an ex- 
Doc., ix., ^y-yU; Can. Doc, I., i., p. act trau«tript. 



i-i 



I 1 



80 



niSTOUY OP NEW FHANCl. 



if! 



} 



\()(i(>. hy iiskiiif^ poaco, and lilicity for nil tlio ])i'is()iiois tiikcii liy 

^~"^'^~^ us IVoiii till' tliirc ("iiiitoiis. since the lust cxcliiuii^c.' 

Wuriii/iiiiiMi ])i' I'l'iicy hoiiiil him iill'iilily, mid iiiiinitiisti'd to liim, Ijoth 

liuwiis "ii.l in public iiiul private, f^vciit iVicudsJiip : lie ^'rauteil nil liin 

dciurmii'ioil I'ciiuests oil vei V ri'fisoiiiiMe coiidit ions, iiiid dismissed Iiini, 

""• as well as Ins I'ellow-depiities, loaded with ])i'esents." Tlio 

silence of the ]\Iolunvks and Oueidas, and still more tlieir 

past condiict, left uo doiilit as to their ill-will ; ,iiid it wa.s 

resolved to march as soon as possil)le, to teai h them that 

the Frv'iich were in a position to punish their insults and 

perfidy. Two corps of troops were sent to give them 



' 'riuTc Hci'iiiH 11 ('(inrusidn ns to 
till' iliiti' dl' tills riiiliusHV. t'lmrli' 
vdix lii'i'i' savs lull' in Dri'ciiilirr. 
Till' Uilulion (Ir la N. !•"., HUKI, p. n, 
Hiiys Ditiilur ; but l'"iitlii'r Li' Mrr- 
ciiT, in liix .loiiniiil, umlcr iliito of 
Dec. 4, announcrs the iirriviil (if Mr. 
Li' Miiyno, with Buvpn Onoiiiliifins 
ami (ini' Oiu'iiln. (fiirukoiithii' anil 
Graiiili' OuiMili' liriii^' siilisfiiiirntly 
inrniioiii'd. Ilf iilsn nii'ntions ri'- 
t'l iviiiir iiiti'llifirni'i' 1)1' till' ili'iitli of 
Katlirr Siiiiim If Moyiii' at t'ap t!i' la 
RIa;,'ililainL'. Nov. 'ii. l(l(l.">,at .") a. ,m., 
ngi'il (11. IIo then Kpeakti of thiir 
niakiiii; tin- iirosmts and bi'iiifr 
fcastiil. The N. V. ("ol. Doc, ix., 
p. ;!T, j.'ivi' the explanation of the 
eleven presents of the iiiubassadorM 
linilerilate Dee, l,l(i(i5. ThetlealV 
Deivinbi I- l;;, l(i(i.-), N. V. Col, Doe,, 
iii., pp. rjl-."i. is the tiist fminal 
treaty between the Friiieh ami In- 
diana, Simon le Moyne entered the 
Sixiety of Jesus in Ul'i;!, ennie to 
Canuila in l(i:iS, nml was, as we 
have seen, the (list who sueeeedid 
in estublishiiifr a niission aiiioutc the 
Irixpiois, anion;; whom he went re- 
]ieate(lly : Carayon, Documents In- 
eilits, xiv., pp. lUi, Hi'', ami nole.s 
of Kev, V. Martin, (iainkontliir's 
apotttropLu tu him wuci uii> fuUuwH : 



"Ondessonk, dost thou hear me from 
the land of souls, to which thou 
hast passed SI) i|iiickly '^ It was thou 
who ilidsl so often lay lliv head on 
the scatlblils of the .Mohawks ; thou 
who hast gone so brnvely into their 
very lires to rescuo so niany of iho 
French ; thou who didst bear pence 
anil traiiiiuillity wherever thou didst 
pass, ami hast made believers wher- 
ever thou didst dwell. W'c have 
seen thee on our ciiiincil-mats decide 
peace and war ; our cabins lieianie 
too small when thou didst enter, and 
our very villnjjes were too contracted 
when thou wast there, so great wua 
the crowd drawn by thy words. But 
I distinl) thy rest by my importunate 
Words. 'I'liou hast so ofim taught 
us that this life ol' misery is followed 
by one of rtirmil bliss, iiuw that tlioll 
iiijoyest it what reason have we for 
grief',' Hut we deplore thee, becauso 
in losing thee we hiive lost our father 
and our protector. Nevertheless wo 
will be consoled because thou con- 
tiiiuest to ill- so in heaven, ami be- 
caii.se thou bust found in that alioilo 
ol lili>s the infinite joy of which 
you have so often s]ioken to us:" 
Keliiliiiii lie la .N'oiivelle France, 
lljli.-), p. .5. 
''Holatiou do lu N. F., ItJtiO, p. 0. 



\ 



, 



\ 



IMSTOHY ()|- NKW FIJANCE. 



87 






Tlitf 
OiiouIjih 
sii limit. 



olmso, luid ^Ir. do ('DurcclIcH vi'soIvihI to Icatl tlio first, as i^//i. 
lii'iii};' the luuii! coiisidriiiML'. Tin* sci-ond niarclicd uiidcr -^i"" 
iMr. di) Sdivi; 

TIk; (■iiiitiui of ()uoi<lii, nlarnicd at tlicsd jncjjarations, 
dispiitfluul dt'putifs to Quobeo to avert tlio iiii'iiaiMii^' 
Ktonii. From some luciiioirs, it would st-iiu that tlicsc 
deputies liad full power to aet iu tlu! uaiue of the INIo- 
liiuvks ;' iait the latter still had war-parties iu tiie field, 
and r,uo of thoHO .surprised and killed three olUcors, Mes- 

hif s ■' ".asy, Chauiat, aud Mariu ; the first, a nephew 

(.. xraey. It was not, however, this untoward aecideut, 
but tlu' hrutality ui a Mohawk chief, that absolutcsly broke 
oil' tho uo<,'otiatiou commeuood by the Oueichi deputiuH." 

Mr. de Sorel, wheu ou the poiut of fuUiu^' upou a ^lo- iinitiiHty of 
hawk town, uu't a troop of warriors lu'aded l)y the I'leuiish (imf 
Dastard. He was about to attack tlieni, wlusii the Mohawk „n"ti'iu V|"ot. 
chief, Hooiuf,' hituHclf greatly inferior to thu French, and 
■with no means of escape, adopted tl e plan of advancing 
to Sorcl aud telling him, with a very confident air, that ho 
was going to (Quebec to treat of peace with Mr. do Tracy. 
Sorel bclievi'd him, and himself took him to the viceroy, 
■who received him well.' Another Mohawk chief inived 



;iit 



' January 0, KiOO: Hi'lntion do la 
Nouvcllc b'niiici', l(i{ill, 1). (i ; Lo Jfer- 
ciiT, .loiiriml. 

' TliiM wiiM iiiucli liUcr. Tliu 
Oni'iila ainbnssiuloi'H aiTivii! ,luly (i, 
with letters from tin- Dutrli : 1,« 
MiTcicr, .Journal ; Hcl., l(l(l(!, ]>. 7. 
They had aiulitMiCf ou the Hih. 
Somo were di'tainrd as liostai^cs. 
FatluT Bescheler was si'iit as am- 
bassiulor to Oranfro, arcom]miiii'd liy 
Mr. dc laTcswrii' as intrr]irctir and 
]loi|Ui't as assistaiU : l.f McrciiT, 
Journal, .luly S. This cmlMuwy was 
nrrrstfd l>y the murder of th(> olli- 
ccrs: III.. July '.ia. 

■' 'I'lierc is some confusion as to 
thi'<i' (illicrrs. liO .McrciiT, Journal, 
July '-'0, says M. do Cliasy and t- 



otlii'i-s killed, and four taken, in- 
cluilini; Mr. de Leroles, de Traey's 
cousin. The llelation, p. T, luakes 
thiisr liilleij ilie Sienrs ile Traversay 
and de Clnisy. Talon ^ Memoir. N. 
Y. Col. Hoc., ix.. p. .51!. says ileaths 
of ('hazy and Travory, and of Cha- 
luiit and Morin. De la I'otlierie, 
Hist, de r.\ni('riiine Septentrioiuile. 
ii.. II. >*'>, says de Chasi, do Lerole, 
and de MontaL'ny ; I'errot.]). lll.,de 
Chasy killed, and de Noiro'le lakeii. 
ImuIIou, Ilistoire de hi Cnlonie Kran- 
<;aise, iii., |i. \',','t, says .Mr. de Holes, 
See N. Y. I'ol. Doc, iii„ p. l;!-t, 

^ Relation de la Nouvelle France, 
1(1<II!, I). 7; Talon in N, Y. Col. Doc, 
ix., p. ."iSl ; Le Mercier, Journal, Aug. 
2S, lUOO. 







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Hiotographic 

Sciences 
Corporation 




23 WEST MAIN STREET 

WEBSTER, N.Y. MSEO 

(716) 873-4S03 






'I 



88 



mSTOUY OF NEW KlJANrE. 



\ (,(,(,. 



('iiliriTllr'K 
fX|>i''litiMn 
i.u'iitti-l Ilic 



at (^iK'lirc a few (lavH afli r, ami ^'ave liiinsclf (nit iilsn as 
a (Irpiity tVoiM liis canton. No dinilit was now ciiti'iliiiinil 
lait that till' Mol:awks woii' ically ilisposcd to ])cac(> ; l>ut 
onr (lay, when ilc Tracy had invited the two |in'ttiidcd 
deputies to liis talih', the conversation turning on tiie 
(loath of Mr. de Chasy, the ^lohawk (liiel", raisin;.; liis arm, 
oxclainu-d : "This is tiu' arm that tomahawked tiiat young 
oiru'er." TIic indignation of all ])resent may lie innigined. 
Tlie Viceroy told the insi.lent savage that lie would never 
kill another, and had him strangK.l on tiie s|iot liy tho 
oxi'cutioner, in iircscnce of the Flemish IJastard, wh^mi he 
retained as a prisoner.' 

On tiu) (.ther hand, Mr. de C'onrcelles, in ignoraiu'c of 
what was jta.ssing at the capital, had entered the Mohawk 
canton :' Imt lit'l'orc coninii'ncing hostilities, he deemed it 
udvisal)lo to havo an interview with the commandant of 
Corlar,' a t( wn in New York, and lu> got a promise from 
that ollicer tliat he would give no aid to the Jro(|Uois. He 
KutVercd greatly on this march, which ln' made in mid- 
winter, on snow-shoes, himself carrying his provisions and 
arms, like tin; hundilest of the soldiei's, several of whom, 
recently arrived from France, were crijijiled iiy frost. A 
littli' greater experience would have taught him that, while 
ho took a useless precaution at such gri>at cost, ho missed 
liis l)low. He sv)on perceived it, for on entering tho Mo- 



' Cliiirli'Viiix liiTi' liilliiNVH I'l-rriil, 
Md'iirx el ( 'iiiiKliiMii-ri, |i. li:t, iiikI <Ii' 
111 I'citliiTii'. Ilist"iri' di' r.Vin.'rii|iif 
Hrptrlitriiilliili', ii., )). S."i. 'I'lic He- 
liilion ill' 111 Nimvilli' l'"riiiii-i'. llillli, 
\.r Mi'irirf > .liiiiriml. mill M. Miiry 
(if till' liirnriiiiiiiiM liiivi' iiiitliiii^' 
o!' till' kiiiil. us to till' iliiiiiir Ki'i'iii' 
iiDil liiiiifriiiK iif .\pii-iiitii. Si'iiti'iii- 
Im'I' II, till' .liMiriiul iMi'iitiiiiiri till' 
nrriviil of ('uiiHlurr with two Mi^ 
IihwUh, mil' lit tliriii " ii N'liiti'r.cliU'l' 
ol till' lirifTii'li- ili.li killi'il ll^'<'llll^^■." 
M. .Miirii' il<' I'liiriiiiialiiiii. in Iht 
Irtiir iif Nov. 1',', lillil!, mtiUiiiiiiH ilo 



'rraryV liiiti/riiiK "»•" u>* '"i inrraitnr 
III till' |irii('i'. 

'I'IiIh !.•< 111! iiiis|iliii'i'.l. |)i' C'our- 
ci'lli' w't mil .liiiniaiv !l, 1(1(1(1, niul 
wan nl Ciui'lirr afriiiii .Miii'i'li IT, KKl'i 
(I.r .Mircjir. .Iiiiiriiiih. lint; l"'l"i'<' 

till' ilratlinl'lli' (luisy Ullil till' I" I'lilH 
to wliirli It li'il. 

' Ciiilar in S<'liiin'i'iaily, and was 
HO ralli'il I'roiu Aiiiiili Van CurliT, 
wlimii till' Iiiiliaii8 ri-f^ii'ilril uh t)ie 
nilrr of till' lliilrli; O'Callafrlian, 
Ni'w Ni tln'i!iiiiil, i , 11. :1'.''J. Colili'ii, 
in liis Fivi' NatiiiiiH ilT',7), ncems 
Hignully ignorant an tu liiui. 



iiisToin ()!■ m;\v kuanck 

linwk rarito!!, Ii(> I'lmiid tlic villii,i,'i's ciitinly .li'scitrd ; tlir 
cliildrcii, woiiifii, aiul old iiicii liitd ln'iii jdiicid in safety 
in tli(' woods, and all the waniors had niairlu'd aj^'aiiist 
othtT nations, whih' awaitinj,' tlio issuo of tlio ni'^'otiations 
Ix'^'un l>y tli(> Ont'idas. Thoro were, ncxfitliiliss, sonu' 
ni^'iit skirniislifs lictufini our nii'n and ^loliawk lunncrs, 
Konic ol' whom were killed and others taken : not a Freueh- 
man was wonmU'd ; l)nt an oilicer and lour or tivo sol- 
diers were lost ou this t'Xj)edilion liy some unexplained 
aecidi'ut.' 

On his return, Mr, dc Cnurcelles fouiK^ the im'])arations 
for the exiiedition aj,'ainst the Oneidas and Mohawks 
^'reatlv advaneed. Six hundred soldiers of the ("ari;,'nan 
re}:;iment, a like iiumlier of Canadians, and ahout a hun- 
dred Indians of dill'erent i:ations, eoni|ios(il the army of 
Mr. de Tracy, who, in s])ite of his nion- than thri'iseoro 
and ton, rosolvod to commaml in jx-rson. Two tield-pieees 
constituted all his artillery; hut this was enough to force 



80 



1 (<(<(\ 



' For do ('i)iirr<'lli''H i-s]H'ditiiiii, 

Hi'i' lil'llltioll llr III NollVrllc Kninri-, 
nilii), |i 0; l.c Mrrcii-r, .lounml, .liiii. 
II. Uilili ; KdlliiT (!«• ('ii:-s(iii, IlisKiiii' 
<lii Mciiiirral I.MS.) ; Di' la I'ntlniii', 

Ilislnilf (Ir lAlll. Si'I'tcllt., ii , p. S."i ; 

A KcliitiMii 111' till- (ioviTiiDr ol Ciiii- 
uila, hi.'* .Mairli, N. V. Cul. Due, iii., 
II. IIH; I,.ttcr 1)1' <Jc>v. Nicdllii, 11.., 
p. 1;!;! ; ('oldrn'K Kivi; Nations, iili- 
tiiiii IT','7. p. ','2. The I'Xpiilil'hiii 
HI'I oiil frniii (^uiOmc, .laii. II, llU'ill, 
Mr. <1)' ('(iiiici'lli' ill rciiiiniaiiil ; <lii 
(iaH, \\\f lii'iili'iuiiit : lilHI ri'iriilai's, 
2(111 piDviiirial viilunti'i TK. All win' 
liicmnli'cl nil siiow-sliiH't*. ami Hiilliii'il 
giviitly : Urlalinii, llitlll. p. (i. lii' 
rcaclicil 'l"iir»'r Uivci-s nn tlii> Kith, 
atxl lift on the ISili. On tlii' -J'.itli 
hi- I, 11 [■"oil St. Lniiis with ."iiMlor 
(illll iiii'ii ll.i- .MiTiiiT, .louiniil). ami 
I'liri Si. 'I'c'iiwi iirxt iliiy ; lli. 'I'lu- 

IMIlll' lili llCf i- lint loUl. ( 'i.lllC' llr 

dfiH'mlcU on Algoni|uiu guides, Iml 



Do Trnry 

iiiiir'.-Iifs 

tlic >illllU 

I'iiiiU'li. 



i 



tlicy disiipiMiiiitrd liini: and he 

(•am II iifiir Scln ncitady, wlicrc 

111' Miipriwil luo Iniliiin raliiiiw. 
A skiniiish insiicd, in wliiili lour 
.Miiliawks ami i-ix l''r('ii(liiiii ii wiii' 
killril. iMrliiiiiiiir l.i' iiii'iiani Siciir 
Ai>,'iii'niorlr : I'frrot, .\lii'iirsi't('ciu«- 
tiiiiii!<drs Saiiviifjf's. p. 1 1 1. Sunday 
wan isix'nt ill roiifi'irmi' with lliu 
I)ut<'li ciiiiiiiiiiiidir ; and tnwardM 
rvi niii^r 111' liiTraii Ills liiiiiirwiird 
iiiari'li, on wliirli (iililiid olliunp'r; 
l.i' .MiTciir, .Icpurnal. Nliiirli IT. liilKI. 
His siirprisi' at liiidiiif,' ilii- iimniry 
ill the lialidsiil tlic Ijiglisli iloiilit 
liss di.-conci rti'd Ids plans. Tin' 
Kii;.'lisli acroiiiit «ays lii' lo^l clivin 
killi'il and sivni woumlrd. mid puis 
till' .Mohawk liisH at llii'.i' killid and 
six woiindi'd; N. V Dik'. lli-l.iry, i., 
p. •")(}. Till' .Mohawk and Omiila 
liriiM'S wi ri' cliii My away, tiioiifrh 
i' Ml II sM\s Van Ciiil' I diM rt. d 
lln-iii Iroiii following tin' Fruudi. 



J 



90 



1666. 



Ko-iilt (if 
his ixi'iili 



IlISTdHY OF NKW I'HANCE. 

any Irotiuois iiitrciiclmiciit. At Uic inniiu'iil nf liis niiinli- 
iiij^, lu'W (lc|iiili('s iciulit'il (^)mliic I'liiin tlir two (•.■inlniis : 
hi! rctiiiiit'd tlifiii lis jirisoiii'is, iiiid ut oin'i; put liis aiuiy 
iu motion, on tlic 1 Uli of S('i)t<'inlitr.' 

Mr. ill' ('i)Uirill(s It'll till' van, ronipoKcil of 400 men 
Mr. lie TriifV WHS with tlic iiiuiii lioily, liii\ in^,' witii liim 
till' Clit'Vtilit r lit' Cliatimnnt, anil a nunilur of otrii-<'i-s. 
Cajitains Soicl anil i'litiiiir foniniainltil tin- ifarj^'nard.' 
No provisions wn-o takm t'Xfrj)t i'non},'!i to rracli tlio 
cnu'mv's c'ountij, wluii' tiny cxi'i ititl to iinil siitliiitiit ; 
but as tlirir stork was not tcoiioniifally n)anaf,'t'il, tiu'y 
hail still a loii^' ilistaiui' to marih when provisions totall}' 
failril. Till' army was rraily to ilisliauil in scarrh of food, 
whtii it cnttTt'd a t-lu'stniit wood, whii-h •^nw thrm means 
of sulisistiii},' till they reaehed the lirst IriMnmis villages." 

The vieeroy had iniliil};ed the ho]ie of surprising theso 
Indians; but some Alj^oni|uins, who iiail in a disorderly 
mannei' taken the lead, ;^ave the alarm ; so that there re- 
mained in till' towns (Hily a small nundier of old men and 
wt>men,'wiio liad Ijeen unable to aieiimi>any the rest in 
their lli;;ht. The army entered the lirst town in order of 
buttle, standards displayed and drums '.leating. All tho 



' Kcliiliim <li' la Noiivillc Kraiici-, 
Kllili. )). S. Mnv •,'.">, 1(1(1(1. liciity 
Willi till' S>'ncii:h: N. V lol. \h,r.. 
ix.. |i. II. .Inly 7. KKKi. H In Illy 
Wii.- iiiiidi- «illi llic (tiuiiluH : .\. V. 
hue lli^tllry, i., |>. .">•.'. T'orl Si. 
Aiiiii- was 1 TiTicd nil uii ii^liiml in 
Laki' ('liiiiii|iliiiii, July, KilKi. uml 
mxpli alliT ill' Clm.sy. I'lc , were 
killi'il. l»ii tliis, til' Tiury iiniuiri'il 
for n iMiiM|i»i^m. On llii' liUi nf 
Au^.'iij't a fiiiiiH'il was Inlil, Willi 
(li-|intirs lioni all 'lir faiitmiH; yi'l 
tlf i'liu'y sil mil Si |)i, II. Willi 1,1(10 
nii'ii. anil "ii lln- :! I Oi'l. finally li'lt 
l-'nrt St. .\nin' ; l.i- .Mrnii r..limriial ; 
Hilaiinn ill' la N. K, KKKi, |i. f< ; I'lT- 
riit. Mti'iirs I'l IViusiunn's, p. IIU. 



• Till' litlali.in tlf ia .\. R, 1(1(1(1, 
)i. M, says Cliniiilily ami liiTlliii!'. 
Mr. ill' lii'iH Mii;:My rniiiiiianilril llii' 
plDvinrials 111' liuiliir. 1.1' Miiynu 
iliiisi' Df.Moiiiiiiil : M. .Marif ill' rin- 
caninliiin, I,fltii's, p. (lilt; Diillicr tlt> 
I'assim, llisl. 'Ii' Miiiitrial. 

■ .M. .Murii' lit' I'lnrariialiiiii, l,fl- 
Iri'sOi't. Kianil Xnv. 1',', |li(i(i; l.it- 

ll'i'S. |i. (i|;i; I'liiiix til' l.lllrrs, pp. 

;!'.'"i. ;i'".l. MiilliiT ill' t'assDii. llisiDirt) 
<li' .Miiiilii'al. flivis ili'lails as to llin 
siitliTilig caiiHcU liy Ihr want ol pri>- 
visions. 

^ Itt'lntion ill' la -Noiivilli' l''raiifi', 
KKKi, p. H: Dc la Potliirii'. llistoim 
(If rAiurriiiut' !si'i)ti'Utriuuul'', ii,, p. 

y4. 






I 



,f 



IlISTOKV or NKW llfANCK. 

Tn.lmns mnainin- |l„.,v wnv „ia,l.. piisonns, aiul |.n,- 
visioiis wnv loim.l in aI..nMl,iiKv. Tl.is cantn,, v.is (I,,., 
••'I'l""-''"tlv liclMT thai, it lias luvi. sii.ro. Tiirv f.mn.l 
w..il-l.uilt .•al.JMs la.ally a.l..nu..l. Womo wen, a liun.liva 
■•mhI Iwrntv iV.t l..n- au.l wi.l.. in |.n.,M.rtin„, all n.vmHl 
Willi lioanls witliiii and without.' 

Thr soMiris, sfaivhin- .,n all si.l.s, f,,,,...! also .Irposj. 
Un-H-s .l„^r in tl... -n.iuul in th,- Indian lashi..n, whirl, w.to 
.so stork...! with -,ain, that it wonl.l hav s..,,,,„rt...l tho 
cnl.Miv for tw., y..ars. Tin, first towns w,.,v >v,h.c..,l 1„ 
asln.s. Tl... two <,th..is w,.iv a littl.. Inithrr of,'; j.ut an 
AI-on.,nin s.,„aw, who ha.l l.,n^. i,...,u ,, ,1,.^^ i„ (hat nin- 
t..n, act..l as -ui.l,..- Tin- n.-aivst was also foun.l t.-nant- 
loss, and it was only in th.,- last that tl... ..ncmv was ilnally 
nu-t. Th..y had tVlt assured that tl... F.vi.ri. woul.l uut 
vonturt, to c-on... thith...- in s..ai-ch of tl...ni. and tluj (.xtni- 
ordinaiy disph.y with which th..y l.,.h..ld tl... l'r..nch ap- 
preai'li, ah.n.n.d thom. Not ih.iin- to await an attack 
lh..y tl...l to the shelt,.r of places wh..,e it was in.pu.ssihlo' 
t.. follow then.. The l.'..,.nch reveno.,! th,.n.s..lv..s on tho 
*-.i1m..s, an.l not on,, was left stan.lin- in the whole canton.' 
It is certain that if a i)auic ha.l n..t s..i/,.d th..se sava-es, 
th.> Fn.nch army would have found its,.|f in a wrv ciit?cal 
I'Hsition; Imt th.ir hea.ls were turned, an.l tl.,.v n..ith..r 
thou-ht of p.-otitin- l.y the advantage which the "situation 

' IiH..i„„ .1,. la N,„.v,.|l,. Kn.,„v, ,,r,.viMoMs. n,„I „■..„.,• i^luuk u,uU.. 

1., 1>. 4S, .M. .Mail,. .!.■ 1 Incanmli.i.i. ii K'.iiinl liciv. 
I<fttr<. Nov. l','. IC.Ki: .linix ,1,. I,,. I 



•M 



1 6(.r.. 



uiiil hail just liuriit 
,,.., , ...„, ,,., , , ,. 'w. Indian |..i.,„„.,s al tl,,- slak..; 

tr....<,|,. .!.'!». ll,.-vr..arlM.,l(l„.si,mn l{.l«ti„n ,1.- 1„ N K i,;,;,; ., ,, y 
"nS..T..r,.HaH,lay,.),„>l,r,-l.-,. U. .M„,i.. .1.. il„,,„.,m.i.,n, .'hnix \u. 



liaini- IS lint (jivi'ii. iicir tlmt n{ t|„ 
m-O'llil and third ; He la l'<illi, lir 
Hint d.. lAiii. Srpt., il.. s|. 

■ li.latioii il,. la Ni,iiv..|lr l"iaii(r 
llllii:. p. '.>. S. \. l)(»i.iiiri,tar.v His 
ton, i.. |i. ID. 

'This li.iirth K.wii I, ad a triple 
Jiar-Jadr tuniiv Ir.i hi-li, with Imn 



l-'i!f,.>, p. :i:ii .\, ,1,1, I,,,, ,,,^^._^ 
Aiidaia.pi,- (.\nda.-iif..ai. a foiiual 
"<•! "as iiiad..i,r tin- takiiifr p..sw«. 
si"ii "I liv.- Torts, (hit. •(! Oct, IT. Iiiin;, 
i"*'.' act, .\, V. |)u.-,rin.'iitaiv Hi, |,, ri- 



ll I., p. 



I . 1>. •■.!: .\, V, rolr.lijal Il,,r, 

l-;'p . Iiii-iincaii. lliluir.- d.. ril.,i,.j. 
ba«l.ou« i was well supplied w.ih tUoritio- uaiu. ihr.^. viJi«g«,. 



II.. did not 

si.i-u.'i; llio 

ci^iunlry. 



m 



1 



02 



I U,(\ 



\ ^ 



TllC COHrt 

iliir* imt 
\vi>li tliu 

CmIhIIV 

too greatly 

CXlUlllllil. 



IllSTOHV OF Ni;\V FliANCE. 

ami kimwlctlgo of tlic conntry iifloidt'd tliriii, nor ,.|' lunii- 
iuii wlmt grain llu^y coulil not earn awa}.' On tin- otlur 
hand, Mr. ilo Tracy did not dci ni it proper to maiif ^uro 
of tlu in liy a good fort : ho only wislicd to Inniililf thcin, 
and tcai'ii thenj tiiat tlu- Fr« lu-h were aide to hiiliduf tlitui 
if tlu'V c'host*, and iio siiccrt'ded. CVnivincutd, moreover, 
that !)}• means of the forts wiiieh lie had erected on the 
river Sorel, he had suiriciently sliiel(h'd tlic colony from 
inroads of the lro<iuois, he jndged it more advisalile to 
fortify and increase the esta'olisinncnts on the St. Law- 
rence ; and this was all that he could do with the troo])s at 
liis disposal. 

This was one of the jioints most ex])ressly recommended 
to de ('ourcelh's and Talon. "One of the things which 
has proved the greatest ohstacle to the ])eopling of Cana- 
da," said Mr. Colbert in the instiuctions which he gave to 
the Tntem^ant, "has heen, that the settlers planted their 
habitations where tlu'V pleased, and without taking the 
jtrt'caution of adjoining each other, to give mutual aid and 
succor. Hence tlieso settlements, l)t'ing scattered on all 
sides, found themselves exposed to the and>uscades of the 
Iroipiois. For this reason, the king, two years since, issued 
a decrei' of his council, which commanded that thencefor- 
ward no land should be cleared exee])t in the immediate 
vicinity of former clearings ; and that the settlements 
should, as far as )V)ssible, be reduced to the form of our 
])arislies. This deci'ee has remained inelVectual, because 
to bring the settlers into villages, would subject them to 
make nt'W clearings and abauthui their old farms. Still, 
as it was an evil to which a n^nedy was to be sought, his 
majesty left it to the )>rudence of the Sieur Talon to con- 
sult with thi' Sieur de Courcelles and the officers of the 
Sovereign Council as to the means oi" eairying out his 
wishes."' 



^ 






f 1 



' M Mai'uMli- riuiuruiiUim, Li'tlri- " CdIImiI lo I'ulou, N. Y. Col. L)oc. 
Nov. 1^, nm. ix.,p. '47. 



i 



^ 






I 



IIISTUHY OF NF.W FHANTR. 

It was iiiiil(tiil)toilIy <)l)joctit)im1ilo for colonists to settle 
tliiis in splits so icn itt' fVtmi cicli otliii' tliiit tlicy \V( in 
not witiiin ifiU'li to iiltni'il mutual assistani't; in I'ase of 
attack; Jjut tlic siiortcst inrtliuil of rcnicdyinj^ it was a) >- 
l)an'ntly to foitily the frontier of the c.Mintrv well a;,'ainst 
the actual enemies, and those whom it was easy to fmesee 
they ctiultl not fail to have soonei' or lattr to contend with. 
The rcf^ulation here sjioken of l)y ('iiliurt was rc-cnacteil 
lunre tiiaii once, lait al\ ays inelVectually. Interest, nioro 
powei'ful than fear, has often induced individuals to placu 
themselves in the most ex|)i)sed simts, wiiere advantages 
for trade lilindod them to the ]ieril, nor has tliu most dis- 
astrous experience tau;,'ht them wisdom.' 

To return to ^[r. de Tracy. Jle would have hm\ ;,dad 
to treat the canton of Oneida as he had just ticated that 
of ^lohawk ; Imt the end of Octolier approached, ami how- 
ever little he mi^dit defer his homeward march, he would 
run the risk of lindinj,' the rivers frozen, and lu'inj,' har- 
assed in his retreat liy an enemy whom he had ])rovoked 
\vithi>ut j,'reatly enfeebling. Already, even, the roads were 
bad t'nough ; the troops sulVci'ed much, and one ollicor, 
with sonii' soldieis, was drowned in i<ake Champlain." 

The Viceroy, on his arrival in (Quebec,' hunt,' two or thn>o 
of his prisoiii'i's .-is an example, and sent all the rest homo 
with the Flemish IJastard, after showini,' them much kind- 
ness.' A few days later he was iid'ormed that tiie Sieur 
de la Valliere, who commanded on Isle lloyal, ("ape J!ri> 
ton, was attacked by the English. This is all that I can 

' Kdilw ct OiilMMiiiincfO, i.. \>.'.]\. '■ Cape Hrcldii wiis ilisccivcrril liy 

• Hiliitiiin lie In Nniivcllr Kiaiicc. tin' Untmis at an tally date, ami 

lliCid, |). ;; ; M. Marieili riinaiiiaihiii, link ils naiiie rnpiii tliiiii. ll was 

Lcllrc Nov. 1',', Killfl, '11 Iliiir i'.>ii,staiilly visilid by I'niich vis-'els, 

lipst was a liciiliiiaiil, Sii ur de and a Hirl oi liailini: pnst was Icirm 

l.U(|Ues. iiialiitained liri'e. 'Ilie .lesiiils liad 

'■ He readied C^llilier NnV.."). Ililill : llli.-^iullr. lliele Imill 1(1'^'.) til lllidllt 

l.e Mercii r. .Idiinial. lld>iiMie: Itelaii'm, l'i:'i."i, p. I'^J . lb.. 

' .\I. .Marie lie riiirariialiiiii men 1(m'.i,|i. T. ll was iMihideil in t rnm- 

ti'ins llle hilll; IIlT ll ne .Sieliiile, \\ill~ 1:1:1111111 .\e;idui In T' lll|ile in 

ill., (i. Oti ; I'vri-ol, Ma'ui'tt, utc., p. il4. lUuO, n-Cugui/Ltl hy Cliarhm ii., but 



98 



i(,r,6. 



ill; 



J 



94 



1666. 



Mr. a.' 
Triirv ri- 
liirii> t'> 

Kniiii'i.'. 

1667. 



Cliitiiitc ill 
ullairs ill 
nx'iiril til 
ri'li^'iuti. 



HIHTOIIY (tF NKW I'UANCE. 

Iciiiii coiiccniiiin it. I only knon* tliat our scttlrinriit <m 
that island was tlnii iiisi}^'iiifu-aiit, and that it was intiiily 
alianihincd a (v\v years afterwards. 

As soon as navi^'ation was free, Mr. de Tracy saih'd 
liaek to I^'rance,' and tlie last act of authority which lie 
oxcrci.sed in America was to cstalilisji the West India 
t'onipiiny in all the rij;hts which the Coniiiaiiy of a Hun- 
dred Associates had enjoyed.' ^[iicii was e\|n'cted from 
tilt' former company; l»nt it did not take tiie interests of 
New France more to heart tlian the jirevious company 
had done, as Mr. Talon hail foreseen. Howevei', as tho 
rc-enforcenient received hy Canada in the last few years 
had been put on a pretty f^ood footing', it maintained it.self 
so for some time ; nor did it sulisequently relai)se into tho 
Htate of weakucss uud exhaustion from which tho king had 
just drawn it. 

The humiliation of tlie Tro(|uoiH was a favorabU^ con- 
juncture, of whii'h they mi^^ht avail themselves to induce 
that nation and all tlu; others to show docility to the in- 
structions of the missionaries; and policy concurred with 
relij,'ion not to allow it to escajjc ; liut manners chan^'cd 
in tlu' colony, as they deemed themselvi's more secure: 
that zeal for the conversion of the heathen which had 
hitherto seemed to animate all the settlers almost as ninch 
as the eviinf^'elical laborers, gradually cooled in the former, 
uor did the latter always liud now iu the authorities tho 



wn8 restored to Franec l)y tlic trruty 
of Uriilii, .Inly III, lti(iT: .MciiiuinH 
Kill- lis I'lis.-*! ssiiins. iii.. pp. ','!•',', .ViW. 
Driiys, Imwi'Vir. ('ciMiiiianiliil fur the 
Fii'iicli ill Kl.V.I (IJrliitiuii. p. 7); liiil 
Ki'iiiicc iliil nut rriiiviT (losscssiiin 
till KiTd. <l't'iilln,L'liiui, .N. V. Col. 
Doo.. ix.. p. 7r>. Airorilin).' to I'iclioii 
^.I'ttiTH ct Mi'iiKiirc.'i, pdiir sirvir a 
rilistiiiie ilii Clip Mnloii — I,ii liiivi', 
17(10. 1). 1 ), till' isliiiid WHS lir^t 1 hll.d 
Isli' ilii Cup, llicii {--li' ilii llavr. .'1 
r^Uiirloiei. Uuwu to lil'j it wui^ 



ciilli'd Ca]) Uri'ton ; it was tliru 
styli'il Isle Ifoyiilr, liiit tlii' old niiinu 
still lives. .\s to till' altaik on the 
Sii'iir lie la Valliire, I linil iiotliiiifj. 
' lie did Ilol leave tile colony till 

.\ufr. "Js, 1111)7 — nearly a year alter 
liis ciinipiii;,'!! : I.e .Merrier, .lournal, 
Aujf. 'Js. 111(17; .liielierean. llistoiru 
de riloteinieil, p. 1S7. 

• licip.i'le de .Mr. I.e Harioys a 
Mfrr lie Traey, Kditset Orili.nnatK'es, 
i.. pp. ."il-dd. |)i' 'I iiH'y s n;ii«i lit to 
llie lieiiurie is UutcU tiupt. 11, lUtiO. 



j 



niSToHY (»K NKW I'UANfK 



08 



Hupport wliii'li tln'ir pn licccssors h.id iihvnvN iiffDnlcd. 16^17. 
So tliiit thf.v ImIicM tliciiisclvcs uliiinst ndiict'd to ri'Lirct -^^ '^' 
tlidsc (liivs of storm iiiiil caliiiiiitv, win ic liff uikI lilinty 
lniii;^ liy a tlirciul, iiml wlicn tlirir hlooil, niiugliiiy with 
tlirir ^s\^l'llt, visibly iiniltipliid Clirisliiiiis.' 

IJcIaxatioii spiciul to tiic iit'opliytis, tlioii;,'li its pro^'rcss 
was at tiisl almost iiiscnsililc. Srvcial Indian towns maiii- 
taiiii'd tiicir piimitivi> fervor lis Ion;,' as tlii'V subsisted; 
|jut disease having soon depopulated some, others liavin;; 
Kcatti red witlioiit any nsceitainalile eauso, 110 steps were 
taken to restore them. Amon;; the French, at the time I 
speak of, piety liad lieen so well estalilished after the 
eartiii|iiake, some shocks of which weie I'cit in lliCi"), 
attended witli im-teois whicli always alarm the multitude, 
liowever natural they may he, as to excite the admiration 
of those who arrived from France in the following' years.' 

It was even remarked that, amon^ the new-comers, the 
most dissolute) could not huig resist the virtucms examjile 
constantly liefore tlieir eyes, and that at the end of six 
months sonu' were no lon;^er reco^nizahle, and did not 
reco;,'ni/o themselves. The soldiers spoke of the wai' 
against the Iro(pu)is only as of ;i holy war, on the success 
of which depended tin; conversion of tin; heathen. Two 
ecclesiastics and two Jesuits,' who accompanied Mr. do 
Tracy in his cx])oditioii, declared, on their return, that 
many conventual estal)lishments were not either Ixtter 
ref,'ulated or more edifyinj< than this little army had been. 



;u. 



' 'I'lic i lit roil net ion of « liody ol' 
BolllilTH, lllul of <'ololli^tS tllUi'Il up at 

randciiii, to(;ftlicr with tin- Imstili' 
iitiitiiilr of tliisf in imlhoritj- to tin- 
I'liTfiy, tcndcil III! to wcaki'ii the 
former jtiuty. Unuicr lasity wa." 
iii'iciiluii'il, and favoird li_v ilins<' in 
uutliority. 'I'liu tiivl liull in Ciiiiada 
tnok iilaiT Vx-h. I, KKIT. .\ i;vii,ial 
rilaxiilinii (•ii>ui'd, and •rinic in- 
cri'astHl : I'ailldii, iii., \\. lis;;. 
» Ui-lutii n. KJO.'), i>p. ','0-4 ; Lide- 



iimnt. .loiirnal, Nov.. Kitil. Avril, 
Kiii."); !.(' .MiTcicr. •loiiriial, 0<'i. 1"), 
KKKi. April 1:!, UlliS; .M. .Maiir do 
rincainalio'i. I.rttri' Si'pt. I. lUCpS. 

'I'lic i'liaplaiii> \s<x< I ho .\lili.' ilii 
l!oi>. an army rliapiain, wlio laiiio 

Willi till- ti p> Irciiii l'"iaiii'ii Lr Mit 

rill', .lo;iriial. .\ii>r. !'••. Uiti'i': liolliur 
do ( 'iiSMiii. uf Si. Sulpiio, Hiitliiirol a 
llir-l.iiy iif .Muiilii-al : .-iiid llio .li-Miim 
All>aiii'l and llatli'ix: Ifi'latioii do la 
Nouvt'llo France, lOUU, p. 0. 



, ■:».*■ 



06 



i6r,7. 



Hoxlrp 111' 

Kmii'liiry. 

'\\\l the 

ludiuJi", 



HISTOHY OK NEW FHANCE. 

And it Imd n lonlcr wlinnc Cliristiaii viitiUH would liavo 
doiii- lioimr to till' nidst perfect lelij^ious. lie lift inelViicc- 
al)l»! ijuiikn in New I'laiiee, ami an odor of pu't}", tlio im- 
pression of wliieli still sul)sistH.' 

The whole island of M(tntreal iVHemliled u relij^ious <'oni- 
munifv. From the outset, special caro had been taken 
to receive only settlers of exemplary piety. 'I'hey were, 
moreoNir, the most exposed of all to the inroads of tho 
Inxiuois, and, like tlio Israelites (.n their return from their 
captivity at l>aliyloii, they had hecn coni])elled, while Imild- 
inj,' their houses and clearing,' their ^'roiuids, to have almost 
always their implennnts in one hand and their arms in thu 
other, to defend themselves a;^'ainst an enemy who made 
war oidy hy surpris(>. Thus tlu' alarms which kept them 
constantly in fear, had sorved greatly to preservo their 
innocence and ri'iider their ])iety more solid.' 

Amid so many subjects of consolation, one thing gave 
the missionaries extreme anyiety. Nothing had ln'cu 
more imjiressed on Mr. Talon thiin the imi)ortanc(! of in- 
ducing those religious to instruct the Indian children in tho 
Freni'li language, and accustom them to our mode of life. 

1 hav(? heretofore remarked that the missionaries them- 
selves had eiitertainod this idea several years before ; and 
I add, that it was uot so much the dilHculties encountered 
in executing the i)roject as the bad elVects which they had 
perceived after the tirst attempts of this education, that had 



' \a) .MtTiicr, Jiiiiiiial, .Miircli 17, 
;ia, Aiifiiisl II. 17. Ifiiiil. Dolli.r <U' 
C'lis.*!)!. Iiiiiii iilxiut KiJa, hull liii'ii II 
ca|ilaiii in 'I'lirciiMc's lavalrv, wlicrc 
bi' ili«|ilayiMl a ciainif;!' (•(uml to IiIh 
iliiiuriitii' Mtri'ii<;lli ; Icir hi' 18 hu'kI to 
Lnvi- lii'i'ii nlili' to holil a man wntiil 
on each hand: ImmUoii, llistoirc di' 
la Colnnir l'"ran',aiHc, iii.. p. l.'il. lli^ 
t'anio to Cniiiiila i>l>oiii jlili.'). In 
KJTII lie iN|p|(M(il l.ak.thitaiin He 
vas Sii|»Tiof of till' Siil| illiiiis at 
Montival till Ui7<i. when ill h>'ahh 
couipelled liim to rftiiin to b't-niRO. 



On his recovery lie ri'Hiiiiied hisoHieu 
at .Miiiitreal.and dii'il Se|ii.'.i.l, 17(11 : 
Kiiillon. Vie de .M. lloiii-jreoys. i., \: 
Ixvii.etc. Hi.» History of Miiiiti'eal, 
CoverilifT the first thirty years, was 
written in ltJ7:). uiid is now 'n tho 
Mazarine I.ilirury. 

■ Dollli r de Ciissoii states that tho 
Montreal soldiers, as tlie most ex- 
pert, loriiied the van on tl eoiitwanl 
and the rear on the l.oiiieward 
iiiar<'h, lioth on de Coiiii ell.'S iiud 
on 'Iriuy's exiMilitioii : I'ailloii, His- 
toiro de la t'ol. Fran(,uiBe, iii., p. 14U. 



IIISTOUV OK NKW FllANCK, 



vr 



(1 
(1 

)1: 

!■• 
rill, 

thu 

tliu 

'X- 

iril 
ml 

h^ 
■ 41). 



imliici il tliciii fo iiliiiiiiloii it. Till ycNpliiiiH'd IIh'so irsiiUs 
to .Mr. 'raloii, wlicii tliitt iiia;^'i>triiti< cntiiiiuiiiitatril to tliclii 
tlic (inlt'is of tlio i-ouiii'il oil the Hiilijcct ; luit their ri'|it'<>- 
HfiitiitioiiH were ill rtTcivt'tl, mid usciilird to a iltsirc of 
lii'iii;^ soil) iiiuMtfi's of tilt) Indians, and tlicivliy ri'niUring 
tiit'iiisilvi'H always lUTcssary.' 

To show thtiii that liicy were not, the Inteiidant ro- 
Holved to do without tliiiii ill tile matter, and a|i|iiied to 
the nisliop of IVtriea and the et'ilesiasties of Moiitn al, 
ulio promised to do what tiie court desired; i)iit the I'riiit- 
lessiiess of their «'ll'oits soon justified the iiii>sionaiies, 
and tlie IManiuis do Tracy, in tile seipirl, contrilmted not 
H little to dispel tiie prejudices a},'aiusl them, witli which 
that minister iiad lieeii iiiilnied. He had lieard tiie project 
in (luestion spolven of when he was on tiie spot : he Iwid 
compreluaidcd as well as the Jt'siii did, liow inipractica- 
Ide and daii;,'er(ius it was; and althou^di Mr. de Courcclles 
and Mr. Talon persisted in their preconceived ideas, Col- 
liert, who at last .saw tlio injustice of it, sincerely extended 
his friendship to those missionaries, for whom he had 
always cntortaiiied a ci)r<lial estiem ; he dqclarcd himself 
tlu'ir jtroti'ctor on all occasions, and to tlu^ close of his life 
manifested a perfect conlidcneo in all that concerned tho 
exercise of their functions.' 

^reanwhile, Mr. Tidon was daily devisinj^ new means for 
making' Ni'W France flourish liy comnieri-e. This reipiired 
the lindiug of .oturns proportioned to the advances uiado 



\f>f>7. 



' CiillicrtV rorri'siMmdcnrc, N. Y. ccux i|ui soiit ciitrrH nu Petit St-iui- 

Cdl. I><ic., lip. ."m. .V.I. (!•.>; luit M'c iiiiiri', .MS, I/.\lii'illi., vol. ii.. No l:t, 

Dciioiivillf, ill., (i. '.iTT ; l»iis>i(Mix, i., No. 'Jil, 'I'lii' .Irmiits rfivivcd 

l.c < 'iiimil:i. |i :ll). soiiH' .MtriPiHinin^, the Siil|iiiiiiiiH iliil 

•' Tlir clliirts for the idiicatiim of the siiiiu', while the. I'lMiliiies and 

Imiiun youth havo alinosi always ('oiiiriefrallui Sisters umlertook llie 

fiiilcil. Ainlicrst ('nllei:i' is an es- simie fur the ^iirln: Itelution ile la 

ample. The I'etil Siiniiiaire, whiili Nouvi'lle Kratice. Uiiis, pp. ;l, ;;| ; M. 

ha« siiici' i;ro\vii into the liiivei-siiy Marie de I'liieaiiiiitioii. I.elireSept. 

Laval, rose from this attiiiipi It com ','7, lf>70 ; Kailloii, llistoire de la Col. 

nteiii-ed (Irt. '.I, Kills, with MX Huron I'ratii.aisi , iii., pp. :j;o-'-'8i : N. V. 
and eifilit French pupils; Soma de^Col. Doc., is., p. O'J. 

Vol,. 111.— 7 



Whv tho 
|.|.Jcot 
di'l nut 

Hlh'Cl'Uil. 



08 



HIHTORV OK NKW KHANCK 



if/17, to HUHfiiiii it, mid to tlif (i|iiiii<>ii of tlii' j,'()(i(liirsH cf tli'- 
■^ I "^^ I'liiiiitiv >\lii('li lif liail liiiiisclf j^ivni to tlif cniut. \lf liml 
lr..ii iiiiri.r.. «'M|irfiiillv lit licilt tllf iloii luilii'H, wllii'Il wdc siiiil to lie 
Vfrv iiliiiiiiliiiit, mill, on liis vova^^r Imck rroiii I'laiirc, lie 
liiiil Imiili'il lit (!iis|u'', ulirrc, on tlii> iiHHiiraiicc of Ho:iit> 
travrllrrs, lie liopi'il to tiiiil silvt'i' ; lnit lie was hooii iiiulr- 
(•i'iv»il.' Ill' was innri' surcisMrul in rcf^'iiril to iron. Jn 
till' niontli of Aii^Mist, llitili, III' hail Hi'nt tlir Sinii' ilo In 
Ti'ssi'rii' to till' I5av of St. Paul, wlirrc tliiil hiimr iliscov- 
ert'il a mine wliicli siciniil to liini vtTv rich : hr t'vcn 
lio|iril to fiiiil ro|i|ii'i' tliiTf, ami |u'rlia|is sihir. In thu 
journal wl'icli hr ni.uli' of his M>,vii;^r, he icinarkt'il that, 
wlH'i't'Vcr III' niMilc invisti^,'atioii.H, thu earth svuh iliNturlu'd 
l)^' till' I'lirthiinakf of Kililt.' 
\(,(,)H, !Mr. Taloii, havinj,' nturinil to IVanci' in KiCiS, indiit'i'd 

Colin rt to follow u|> tlirsc ilisi'ovcrics, and tin- Simr dr la 
I'otardirrc wiih sent to Canada with this vi»'W. On his 
arrival ,it (j)u( luc tlii'V iiri'scntcd to hini sincinirns nf two 
oris tli.it Mr. dc Conrcilli's had ordrrt'd from tin' nrij^di- 
liorliood iif Cliaiii)ilaiii and Cap di> la Ma^'drlaini', tw.) 
]iarislii's liclow Tlin I' llivirs. Oni' was sand, and tlu' 
othrr solid (ire ; la I'otardirri' wiiit to tlir spots, and on his 
ri'turii to (^)nrlpri' dn land that it was inipossililc to sro 
mini's wliirli ^'avi' luttrr proniisu fitlirr for the quality or 
till' ijuautitv of tlir iron.' 

Murli liopi' was also entcrtaiued from (i taimory, tho first 
fttttnipt of which had lu'cn crowned with pcrfoct sucft'ss. 
This, ji lined to the frocdoui of trade proclainit'd this sumo 



' 'I'lilcpii to till' Mini-iiT. OrtiiliiT 4, 
Hill."). .N. V. Ci.l. I>(M-.. ix.. pp. ;i(l-l. 
It was on Ills vciviip' ma from 
Frill"'!'. Mill lui,/,- I'roiii I'riini'c. 

• Till' n'|K>ii of lie In 'I'cuHrric, 
wliii'li I'lmrlfvoix mciiis to liiivi' luiil, 
(loc'H iiiil iippi'iir ill iiiiv colli I'lioii. 

■'■ I.a I'otiiiilii" ri s ri'piii-t is also in- 
ai<'i'ssili!r III siili s iIksc iinn iniiii's. 
till' ■Ic-'iiits culli'il iilli iitioii Id till' 
ttliitcipiarrics iiciir l.nk<'l"corg(.'(U<'l. 



ill' la Nouvclli' Kniiu'i', KKIS, p. 5), 
anil till' rop|H'i' niiniN ol' I.aki' Sii- 
prrior: Umirlirr, Ilisloiii' Vrritahli', 
I>. 1II.1; Uilalion, 111:0, pp. S;!-(t; 11).. 
lli7'.J. p. 'J. 'I'lilon ^ravi' a ixnui iiii- 
piilsi' to inaiiiirai'liii'rs. Iiv ini rutin- 
('ill); riiltli' iiiiil iiiiliirin:; tin' riiltiva- 
tioii of flax mill liriiip. as wrll ax 
spimiiiif.' mill xvrii\iii^'. 'riiiini'iii'H 
mill liiiwcrirs wiiT csiulilihliiU at 
(jiii'In'C anil Muiitri'ul. 



y 



ii 



iiisnmv t»i- m;\v iiiANCK. 



\)\) 



^1 



i 



..J? 



i 



(iiiiit'iii. 



your, IflC.M, iiis|iiri(l lliusc wlio took mi iiittrcst in ('.iiinil.v i(>f<)*. 
with vii'.it iii'|i('-.. N'T is it \( rv tiiH\ to iiiuli rstiiml uliat •"*''"~^ 
ilisHipati'il tiK'iii. It is at IcuHt ci'i'liilii Unit tlii'Hc iron niirirs, Kri-viMu of 
uliirli till' |ii) Ti-in^ I'M- III' Mr. ('ulliril ami tin' vigilance nf .limiKi m 
Mr. 'I\iliin liaii ili-^iiivni'il, aflir liasin^' ainmst I'lilin I_v 
(iisa|i|u',iiiil for nioii' than Mt\rnt_v juais, liiivr just Imtu 
iiijisi'iiMTiil liv Ihi' rai'f of thimn who now mi'iipv thiir 
|ihirrs, ami \\\\i> irxriiililu thrhi too niiU'h nut to ^ivo 
^'iiinmlH to liMpi' tliat tiicv will rntrr into tinir viiws.' 
Wiiilr thrsi' tiiinjis \vi 11' jiassiiij,' in tin- crntii' of tin- 

1 ' • I' II 1 I I w • v..>iiir. « In 

cojoiiv, iii'w niissmns wiri- toriniil towards l.aki' Snpt'iior. n.iwr.t 

iiikI ii>>rlli. 



Niw 



Vi TV sIioiiIn aftir tlir tiiliiiy;s of Father .Mi'snHril's lii ,itli 
I'carlicil (^>iii lice, till' .»anii- ( )ttM\vas w illi wlioiii tliat liiis- 
hioiiMiv hail M't out I'rtiirnril laiUn with fins; ami as they 
still |ii'i'sistril in tlnir design of attraitin^' I'lrncliiin'ii to 
tlirir country, in orili r to savi' thciiischrs llif troiililr of 
ni.ikiii;; MH'li loii;^ joiirni'vs, tiny ii;^'aiii iisknl for a .Ji'siiit, 
com inriil that scviial l''nnrliiiu'n wonltl lU'conipany tho.so 
Fat litis.' 

TIh' sail fati' of till' two fornior, Fatliors (iarrcini and 
Mi'siianl, who hail luin j^'ivcii to tliiiii ; tliu tinwortliy 
iiianiitr in wliirh lioth, ami rspifially tlii> lattrr, wiro 
known to havr ln'i'ii trratrd ; tlir sii^^'lit ho|i(' of proiliii'inf^ 
any itmiII ainoiij^ thi'Mi ; as wrll as tlnir niotivi' in niakin^( 
till' iii|iirst, should, it would sot'iii, Imvo jirci'lndcil tho 
Siiprriiii-dini'ral of the missions from listrnin^ to tlicni ; 
Imt apostolic iiii'ii arc not ahvays ;,'ui(li'd liy the rules of 
ordinary prudence; and as they are the instninieiits of 
(irace. which ne\er tires knockiii}^ at the door of hearts 
the most deaf and reliellioiis to its voice, they never ho- 
lil'Ve thcluselves pel'lilitted to ni';4lcct oci'asiollS of I'ori'iv 
spomlin^ to it ; they even liopu iij,'ainst all hope, tliiit it 
will triumph in the end. 



iW.5-7. 



' C'liiirli'vuis. .Iiiiiiiiiil. \>. ll:l. 'I'lic ■ 'riic_v i-.acli. (1 .Mcmtrcul .liilj- •,'(), 

mini' 111 iir 'riiiii' liiviTs wii;* wnikrd IlKi.') iliclalinn ili' la N. K , lUl'iJ, |i. 

I'Xtfllsivi'lv a li'W veal- lalt r Sic rr- Sl. Inlllc lulllllur nt 1(10 ; l.i; MtT- 

purt, liOU.M. V.Cul. iXic., vi., ji. Otil. ciur, Jutu'uul, Au^., lUUii. 



»: i| 



100 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



Clauilu 
AlKnU'Z. 






Snpersti- 

!.f tllO 



1665. Fatlii'V Cliiudo Allouo/, accordiii^'ly, offered to follow 
tlicsc siiva},^'H. His oflV-r was accrptod ;' and it was well 
that lio had prcparod liiuiKolt' for any i-vent. Ho conld 
scarci'ly have mot worso tvoatniciit at tho hands of his 
conduotors had ho boon thoir slavo ; those who had rc- 
coivod him into Ihoir eanoo, ono day ovon loft iiim cm tho 
slioro. But thoy wi ro ]nniishodon tiio spot. Scarcely had 
thoy re-omhaiki'd, when thoir canon ca])sizod and all woro 
drowned. Tho servant of (iod wonld have roclutnod as 
uau^,dit all this ill treatment, eoiild ho have suoeeeded in 
opening tho eyes of these heathen to their ridicnlons super- 
stitions ; but ho soon perceived that ho had to deal with a 
perverse nation, whose hardness of heart naught could 
soften. 

A barrel of powder, which thoy had broiight from Qnc- 
oituwiLs.' bee, having ono day caught fire, several were wo\in(led. 
In default of hnn..in remedies, they had recourse to tho 
sun. Tiio medicine-men assembled, and got uj) a kind of 
festival, which began b^- chant;., accompanied liy much 
extravagant action : ono v\ould have doomed them a troop 
of madmen. And this scene, which inspired an indescriba- 
ble horror, lasted quite a long time. At last, ten or twi'lvo 
of tho more considerable among them sat in a circle 
around a little fire ; they uttered loud cries, and con- 
stantly looked up to the sun, to which thoy Kcomed to 
ofler the flame or smoke of tlu' fire. At last tho oldest of 
the j)arty rose, and, turning towards that luminary, con- 
jured it with a loud voice to restore health to the sick." 

It was all in vain. Tho sun healed no one. Then the 
missionary, unable to toltM'ate this impiety, accnsted tho 
boldest of the party, and sjioko to him so plainl}-, that one 
of the sick was stiuck by his words, and at once invoktid 
the God of the Christians, recognizf-(g Him as the only 



'He B(>t out frdin Three Rivers ceiveil from liiiii for two years (Rel., 

AiifT 7, llWirid.i' Mercifr..Ioiirniil). or KHid, !>. Hi. iinil lie at la^t rcliiiiud 

rather .\ut;ust S: l!el:itinii lie la N. All;;-. -1, UKIT '. I.e Mer.-ii r, .loiun.il. 
F., lUUi', p. 4. iS'o lidiugs wci'u ro- " Ut'lftliou Ue lu N. V., lUUT, jj. 1. 



i 



1 

■ir 



aiKmmmmfm 



Mite 



inSTOIiY OF NKW i^RANCE. 



101 



divinity who was woitliy to ho iuvokod, and as tlio sov- 1667. 
tni.i,'!! MKister of lu'.iltli and sickness; hut the i(h)]ator -^ — - 
Avhohi th." missionary Iiad ai)()stroi.hizod, hroko out into D.nu'.rn 
such a fury a-ainst him, that one would hav.> thon-ht tlmt "lu'i'su!: 
he was -,,in- to sacritico liim to tli.> sun. Nevcrthtaoss, it m"k,';[:;:J 
I'lid.'d simply in hurnin- the canoo tinit Inid hrouj,'ht liim.' u);"' ;",';';„'," 

The fust of Soptcmhor they ivaclicd Sault St. :\rarit-/ 

wliicli, as has hofu ahvady ohscrvcd, is the stiait hy wiiich 

l.ak.,' SuiuTior fnipties into Lake ILuron. Fatlior AIloucz 

did not hah hero ; he spent tlio whole montli of Septemher 

in ."xploiin^' the S(utthr>rn shore of Lake Sui>erior. On his 

way he met several Cliristians, haptized hy Father Me.s- 

nanl, who w.'re delij,dited to .see him, and whom ho cou- 

tirmed in tho faith. Ho also had tho consolation of so- 

eurin,!4 l>y l'a])tism the eternal salvation of several dying 

children ; and on tho tirst of Oetoher ho arriv(>d at Cha- 

flouamiKon.'' Then^ he was received at a lar<,'e town, where 

they reckoned at lea.st eight hundred warriors of diflerent 

nations: he he.gaii his laliors hy erecting a ehapel there, 

wliich was soon frequeuted hy quite a hirgo iiumher of 

proselytes. 

Tlio first who sought and received haptism was the 
wounde<l n)an who, 01 the voyage, touched hy his remou- 
stranc.'s, had renounced su])ersutious n-medies, wliicii th(>y 
had h.>gun to apply to him. He had heen cured, after 
hivoking the God of the Christians, and he entertauied no 
doul.t that he was indehted for his health to Him alone. 
An assemhly was then held of ten or twelve nations, all 
understanding tho Algonipiin lang,.>-o ; and the ai)ostolic 
mail, who was well versed in that language, did not lose 
so favorahle an opjiortunity of exercising his zeal. He 
spoke at length of the Christian r.'ligion, in uu junmated 
and pathetic i;muni"r, suited, ht)wover, to tho capacity of 

' Itrliilic^i <!.■ Ill N. v.. KKiT, ,,. 7, |,,,„|,iv: Urlali.ir. dr la N. K., KKi?, 
He liniki' till' iiiisi^iomiiy'K carioc to p. ;. 

'"'■''"'■ "'• llr iuc;;,ii.iis tlic (■oi)|ici's..ii mi 

■' Vers lo commuucomeui do Siii- ih.^ way : IJolatiou, 1007, jip. S, U. 



^ 



p 

«rt 



loa 



i^r,-. 



|{cii,r„f 

tin: (Ittawn 



inSTOKY OF NEW FRANCE. 

his hearers. Ho vyas f^roatly ajipliiudcd, Imt this was all 
the I'niit which he derived I'loiii it.' 

IJesiiles the ohstaeh; to the efliciiC}' of the word of (iod 
raised l>_v tlu' harsh and fierce dis]>osition of the Indians 
of those jiarts, the missionary found them all as supersti- 
tious as liie Ottawas. He relates, in his letters, that pass- 
iiif^ om; day throi.j^li u villa<;(3 of tlio latter nation, he s.iw 
an idol erected in the middle of the stpiare, and all the 
jx'ople en^aijed in sacrificing doj^'s to it, to obtain the cnic 
of u contaf^ious dise.'ise, of which .sc'veral had already died. 
8onio also brought olVeiings for other uecessitit^s ; and be- 
sides tlieso public sacrifices, private ones were also mado 
in the cabins. I'ut the missionary does not expl;'in v!;;!t 
this divinity was, and perhaps ho could not learu any thing 
certain in regard to it." 

When the Ottawas are overtaken by a storm, while! 
ci'ossing tlu^se lakes, they kill a dog or some other animal 
and throw it into the water, saying to the god of the lake : 
" 15e ai)poased ; lieri" is my dog that I give thee." At first 
the n<'ophytes did the same thing in honor of the fruo 
Clod ; and it cost uo little pains t j ])ersuado them that Ho 
did not wi.-h to lie adored in that manner. Tlu> bliudj oss 
of thesis people went so far as to belicne that t'.e sun was 
a man, Ijut of a kind far superior to ns, and that the moon 
was his wife. Tlun' said Hie same of ico and snow, who, 
they ])retended, went during summer to reside in aiKjfher 
couutry." 

They also imagined that birds had a language of their 
own, which some men niiuerstood : their medicine-men, 
ai)])arently, making them btli(>ve that they possessed the 
key. Tlu'V said that the soul of a dead fish entered the 
body of another tisli. Accordingly, tlioy did not burn the 

' At tills iipscinlilv he ilcllviTid tliifd, cxhortiiifj tliriu tc ('iiibriici> 

tliri'c ]ir«'si'nts In tlic niiiiii' iil ilc riiristi;niit_v : Hclulioii, Hili"), ]>. !l ; 

'I'riicy— first, tliiit lu' w:.s i;(pin^- t(i HiflT, p. 10. 

]mnisli tlif IrixjiKiis; siroiicl, tliiil lie ■ Itrliitimi dc lu N. I'"., 10(i7, j). 12. 
would I'ui'cf tliu i^iuux to (loucu ; aud ■' ILi. 



k 



f 



wmmi 



iflpiSMBR 



HISTOHY OF NKW FHANCE. 



103 






bonos for f,.ar of ofrrM.lin- (l...ir souls, ,•,...! prcvciting tho .667 

Jisli In.ni allowing tli(.iiis..lvrs t.. !.,> tnkvu ii, tli.ir nets.' r— 

Tlu'V licld, al o, ill siMf,'iilar Vfiioration a ccitaiii ixtiaor- 
•liuary animal whioli several .Lclaiv.! tJiat thi.j l,a,l seou 
n. .l.va.as, l.nt the fi-uro of uhiH, tlu.y uciv ,i.ni.rtl,rl,.ss 
unal.K. to (lescTil).". S..i,h" confouu,!,,! it with Mirabidii 
tlic- (}o.l of tlu. Avatcrs, wi.oso fal.ulous and ri.linilons story 
varies aci-onlin- to the .iiir.Mvut nation- that re.-o-nizc it"' 

Th.. worship ,.oruK...t...l with this .•xtrava^-an't bolic.f, Ti„.ir .,„.„- 
a n.ost took the form of feasts, ehants, .lanees, d.^luiuches, /.'r^il^u'c:' 
obscenities, wiiere nothin- was veiled. Polv-amv, disso- 
lution of marria.yes, dei.aiieiiery hi both sexes, j.Vevailed 
among thes(. Indians to that extent tliat, far from blush- 
nig at the most crying excesses, thev evn gave them 
a religious import. When an Iiulian ask,.d anv thing 
from his familiar g.-nius, he fasted till lu' had had '.i divanu 
assuring him that he had obtained what lie desired. In' 
regard to diseases, the great prineii.l,. of their physicians 
was, that they com.-, generally speaking, from a neglect to 
give a baiKjuet after a hunting or tishing excursion.' S )nie- 
tiim.s, nevertheles,s, they attributed them to an evil genius, 
which had sprung upon the affected part, and be.m sent 
by an enemy. Tho medicine-man calle.l in to cure tho 
disease, after having made his reflections, and manv con- 
tortions, ordered a fea.st and retired, promising a speedv 
cure.' •' 

There were, also, at Chagouamigon a great iiumb,.r of 
Huron Christians, whose faith want of instruction and 
privation of the sacraments had somewhat corrupted, and 
whose morals had sutlbre.l still more from contact with so 
imuiyheatlieunation.s. Father .yhiuez labored earnestly 

' K_H»ti,.n (I,. la N. R. i,|,;:. ,,. |o. ,i,,„„,, ,, ,, ^•,, (,,. .^^ ,,_^||^^,^.^^ 

• 1-atIi.T AlN,u,v.nillsii ..xpiVNsly IliMoiiv ,1,. r.\,„ S.-pt ii ,, •; 
MKSHl.izi : lielation, 1007, p. !•>. I>,,-. |{,.|a,i„„ ,|,. |„ N. p i',;,'; „ ,.. 

rot rails i, -.U, j,,„„ Ti^.,,... M-atluT AIIou.v, ,I{..i„„„„ Uior' 

Mn>,.rs...„ ,,.1.,. S... «ls.. as ,o i,, ,, l;j, ,1,.,,,,.,,,..^ „„, ,v,HI;„uvv,; 

K.,a„„ns n,,ln..s i.. p. I IT,- IM,, „„.ui„.r o,' ,1,,. ali;..„.U pa,;, .ud 

10,^-J, p. 1,:. ; Kale m Lettivb Kdi- i-retfiulod cstimtii.g ..f a uiauitou 



':. ^ 



rJLM 



104 



HISTORY OF NEW FHANCE. 



i 



<t 



1667. to restore tliom to tlio true ])atli, and supcoodod.' Tlirco 
^-""r-"^ liniidrt'd routcoutitaiiiis also eaiuo froui tlieir islands, wliero 
Katiitr tilt) wliolo nation liad },'athorcd." As soon as tlioy arrived, 
tiic i'..iiie! the missionary visitrd tlieni, and was received with distinc- 
tion, tli()Uj,'h in (piite an odd style. In the first place, the 
leader of the l)aud asked him for his shoes : the Father 
gave them, and the Indian, after considering them atten- 
tively, handed tlieni hack, observing that it was among 
them a mark of respect. All charmed Father Allouez by 
their gentle manners, and the instrnctious which ho ad- 
dressed to them were not useless.^ 

Among them was an old man, dose on his hundredth 
y(>ar, and who was regarded in his nation as a divine man. 
He fasted, it was said, as much as twenty days at a time, 
without taking any thing, and often saw the Author of all 
things;' a term usually ein ployed by these Indians to ex- 
l)ress the true (n)d. He fell sick at Chagouamigon, and 
his life Mas soon despaired of. Two of his daughters who 
had been among the most assiduous auditors at the mis- 
sionaiy's instructions, and had been touched by them, re- 
jieated to him all that they could recollect, and urged him 
to si'ck instruction himself. He consented. Father Al- 
louez, notified by his two proselytes, paid him a visit, 
found him extremely docile, and, deeming him not long 
foi' this world, baptized him. 

At this juncture the time for the Feast of Dreams' ar- 
rived. The dying man called the missionary, and begged 
of him a blue Ijlanket. The missionary wished to know his 



' Hi'lntion <lr hi N. F.. KiliT, p. l~>. 

- Tht' Hi'Iuliuii (li> la N. F., KKJT, 
p. IS, diM'S iiiit tiliitc tliiit tlicy livi'il 
on i>liiM(ls. " Tlu'ir ci)\intry is in 
till' lake ol' ilic llinioiick." Their 
langimirr was an .\ltri)ii(iiiin dialect, 
iiKii-e ilitlii'iill to uiiderstaucl than 
till' Ottawa. Tlu'ir orifriiial loiintvy 
was the lower ]iiiiiiisiila of Miclii- 
gau. Iiom which ihry were driven 
an early as HiLi!): lie!., 10 10, p. o."). 



They then Settled on Huron island 
and the shores ol' (freen Bay: Hel., 
lOTO, II. ',).•>. 

•' Till' chief asked to look at his 
shoes from cuiiosity ; and when that 
was fcrntifii'd, replaced them with 
every mark of resix.'ct : lielntion de 
la Nouvelle France. 111(17, p. 18. 

^ Thi' Maker of the Earth ; liel. 
dela N. F., UitiT, p. IH. 

■' See Perrot, yy. \i, 171, 



1 



J 



U9 

iiat 






HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 

o})j('pt in iimkiiit,' tlii> rcimcst. " Tjcpauso," Ik^ r(>))li('(l, 
'• liltit' is the color of IlcavcMi, wliitlu-r I lioix' soon to f^o, 
and of which iilonc I wish hcuccforth to think ;" auil ho 
(lictl a few (lays after, sayinf^, with pi-cat fervor of sj)irit, 
"Lord, I have bc^nm very hito to love thee."' Father 
Allonez prepared to inter him according' to Christian nsago, 
but was greatly surprised to si>o himself anticipatid, and 
that thoy were burning the body. As this was not usual 
among tho ])eo])le, he asked the reason of this novelty. 

An Indian, with a very serious air, ri'i)lied : " Becau.«!o 
the deceased's father was a hare, who one day said to his 
wife, that he would take it amiss that his childri'U should 
bo put in tho earth after their death, since thoy were oi 
kin to the snow, which has a heavenly origin. Ho added, 
that if they ever acted contrary to his intentions on this 
point, he would pray the snow to fall in such gi'eat abun- 
dance, that there should bo no spring that year." This 
reply at tirst made the missionary laugh, but when ho 
endeavored to make those pri'sent see how absurd it was, 
all his ctl'orts were unavailing.' Tho two daughters of the 
old man, wlio had so great a share in their father's conver- 
sion, received the same grace from Heaven, and persevered 
to the end in the practice of Christian virtues.' 

Some hundvid and twenty Outagamis,' two hundred 
Sakis," and eighty Illinois," about this time came to Cha- 



105 



' Alloui'Z dooa not say timt tlii' 
Indiiin tiskcd liim, Imt Hi'iit iinmnd 
tbioiitrh till' l(Hlf;rS to jri't it. lie is 
Bili'iit iiB to till' convi-rmition ; Ht'l. 
de la N. F., I«li7, \>. 1!). 

'■' Allout'/. (loos not cay that lio at- 
tciniit'.'il toirivcliiin Imrial ; Hilaiion 
do la NnuvoUo Fninco. KKiT, j). li(. 
As to Miclialiou, tho (inat llaro, wo 
I'orrot, !>. !i ; !)■■ SiiictH ()iof,'oi\ .Mis- 
sions, )). oW ; Do la I'otluiio, ii.. p. ;i. 

' Holatiou do la Nnuvollo Franco, 
KiOr. p. I'.l. 

1 Uolation do lu N. F.. KjiiT, y. 'Jl. 
The Outagamis are tho Foxes. They 



call llionisolvos Miii«|uakloR (R<h1- 
oartli); Wisconsin Hist. Coll., iii.,p. 
\27 ; Chailovoix, .Imrrnal, p. 188. 
Allouoz o>tiniato(l tliom at 1,(100 
wnninis. 'I'lioy xvoio inland, south 
of l.aki' SuiH'rior, and had no canoes, 
y,.,, |>,.rrot, p. ','():|. 

' Tho Sakis or Sa<s woro orifrinall y 
noar tho Potroii rivor: Hoi.. l(l7(>-7, 
p. 4!t ; It;?;!-!), p. 2'j ; N. V. I'ol. Doc, 
ix., pp. liil. '»,i:i. 

'• Allouoz gives tho nanio Uli- 
ninui-c. See Wisconsin Mist. Coll., 
iii . 1). l'.!s ; Torrot, p. iM; Charle- 
voix, Joui'ual, p. 18b. 



ir.r,- 



i 



^ I 



1 

J 



100 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



i 



1 



if 



1667. ^onniiiifi;f)ii, and lind sonic sliaro in tlio lilcssin^s wliicli 
^--^r—^^ Heaven sIkhI on tlio labors of tlic apostolic man. Tlio 
Tiio (in«pei Illinois weio already spoken of as a nation almost do- 
tL^l'vi'mi stroyed by the Irocpiois ;' nevertheless, fifty years after- 
wards, it still numbered forty thousand souls.' Father 
Allouez saw also at the same place some Sioux ;° but ho 
was ublo to treat with them only by moans of interpret- 
ers : and the same thiuf^ happened to him with several 
other nations, wliose iiauK^s I find only in his memoirs. 
"W'v, perhaps, now know them imder other names, given 
by the tribes which lie nearer to us.' 

The Sioux informed the missionary that their country 
was the extremity of the world towards the north ;^ but 
they apparently included under the name of Sioux all tho 
nations who speak dialects of their lanj^aiago, es])ccially 
the Assiniboils." On the west they had as neighbors 
the Karesis,' beyond whom they said tho land was cut oiY, 
and nothing was to be seen but Fetid Water, a term by 
which they designated tho sea.' On tho northwest they 
are bounded liy nations that feed on human flesh, and sell 
it raw." There is m the neighborhood of tho Assiniboils 



The 
coiiiitry of 
tliu Siuiix. 



' Ri'lation ilc In N. V.. 1007. p. 02. 
Alloui'z hill' ^'ivio till' I'iirlicst ae- 
cimiit of tilt' nmici' i>t' the C'liliiiiut. 

■•' I'liarli'Vdix, .IiHiniul, i>. \H-'t. 

^ lie says thi'.v lay wcj-t. nrar the 
pri'at riviT .\Ir.s8i|ii, -Kl or .'SO lunfriics 
tnmi rln'udiniffron, on tin- jirairii's, 
livini; in tents of Kkins, and siibsist- 
inj; 1)11 '.villi rioc: liul., 1007, p. '-ii. 

■* This is on error. Besides the 
trilie.-i niiiued hy Charlevoix, Allouez 
mentions only the Assinipoiialac 
(.Assinilioins) and Nipissiriniens (Ni- 
pitisiiifxs). 

^ lie does not bay "towards the 
North," hut "as they express it:'' 

Re!., i(;t;7, p. '::). 

"■ He mentions the As.'*iiiilioin« 
luuler the name Assini poiialac: 
Rel, 101)7, ]). 23. Bee Perrot, p. 233 ; 



Ciiarlevoix, .Journal, p. 184. Pounlnc 
(Ottawa, Hwaii) was the name tor 
the Daeotas, and .\s>ini means Stone. 

' Kiirezi : lielation. 10(17. ]>. 23. 

- Hiliition de la \. F., 1(;07, i>. 23. 
Indians hud an avei'sion to salt. The 
Wiunelmfios f,'(pt their name, wlu?h 
was translated Fi.'tid (I'uant), tVom 
their havinj; come from tho salt 
water: Wisconsin Hist. Coll., iii., p. 
137 I De la Potherio, ii., p. 08. 

" The Helation si\ys nothiufr of 
cannihalism. " Heyond the north 
and west is found a nation that eats 
mei't raw, eontentini; theniselves 
with holding it in their hands and 
presenting it to the fire:" 11).. )). 23. 
Lower down he mentions a nation 
bordering on the .\>siiiipiuialac, who 
nte men and lived on raw meat. 



I 



HISTOHY OK NKW FliANCE. 



107 



lit 
V- 

i.f 
rth 



[uul 
IIS. 
■in 



a natinii of wliicli tlio Hamo tWrnf^ is said : biit many pooplo 
perish ill that comitrv In- the tcftli of ii kind of bear of 
cuornioiis size, with extrenu'ly loU'^ chiws." 

Thu Kilistinons or Ciistinanx, whom rnxr Canadians call 
Ci'iciui's/ at that time made exenrsions to this t-xtri'm- 
ityof Laiie Superior, and Father Allonez, who saw several 
thtiri', ih 'lares tliat the}' wcn'ship tin; sun, saeriliein^' to it 
do^'s, wliieh they Iiaiiji; on trees:" ho adds that these In- 
dians are ^'reat talkers, and speak verj' fast, eontrary to 
the custom of all others of this i-ontinent ; our voya^^eiirs 
for this reason eall them the (iusinKs nf (Jdiiin/ii.' Their 
lanj,'uaf,'u is an Alj^'outpun dialect, closely rcscmblin}.,' that 
of the Attikamej^aies." This, with the fact that tho latter 
name is that of a fish commonly called the whitefish, very 
aliundant at the nortiiern part of Lake Huron, nniy induce 
us to think that these Attikamegues formerly dwelt near 
the shores of Lake Superior.' 

At the lieginning of the year 1007, Father Allouez learned 
tiiat the Nipissini^'s, in great nund)er, had retired to tho 
shores of Lake Alimipegon,' wliich is north of Lake Su- 
perior and empties into it. Tldther he proceeded, arriv- 
ing early in June : he found tl ese unfortunate fugitives, 
who were nearly all Christians, iu tho same state in which 



1667. 



Tlio Cris- 
tliiuux. 



' Relation di' hi N. F.. lliCT. \k 24. 
Allouc/. ri'pri'sini.s it us all nd. 

- Now calU'il <'ircs in Kiiiflisli. 

■' Hilalimi df la N. K.. Ultii. p. 'ii. 

* The Hilatiim, HmS, p. 21, 1'i villi's 
till' t'rri's into Alimil>cj;oUfk, Kilis- 
tinons of Ataouaboiisi'atoHi'k Uny, 
Kilistinons of the Nipi.ssinfrs. and 
tlin NisilHiuronnik. 

■' Hi'lalion ili' la N. F., IdiiT, ]). 21, 
ailils till' Inilialis ot' 'railoussjic. 

•^ Till' .\ttikainciriirs, wlu-n known 
totlio Frt'ni'li, iif-iilril liark ot'Tlirri' 
Hivirs; Hdation di' la N. F., lil:l(:. 
J). 37; Hill, p. ;i2, I'tr. Hanipi, in 
his Otcliipwc Kn,irli>'i I'iciionai'y, 
givuH Atikumug t'ur Whitu Fibh, uud 



Viirioiia 

excursion* 

iif KiltllLT 

AUmicz. 



calls till' Cri'i's Kinislitinon. House, 
in his (i laminar of tlii' t'rrc Laii- 
guafri'( London, isi-li, p. 'J, saysihrir 
national name is Nihi'lliownck — 
I'Xart ln'iliirs or jH'opli'; hut this rx- 
pri'ssion, Mun, is no coiniiion that it 
cannot he considrrrd tlu' nanu-, cacli 
trilii' hnviiii; anothiT. Iriniwi'k or 
Iliniwrk (Indians in Chippiwa and 
Illinois) hri-onii'S in Cri'i' Ktliiniick, 
which is till' main wurd in Nclnllio- 
wink, 'riicsi' Ci-iis inhaliit tin- ti'i'- 
ritoiv iiraiiiid tiy tlu' rivers cinpty- 
u\ti into Hudson's liav: IIousi', ]i. ;i ; 
Hi'lation, liKil. p. 12 : I'l rroi, Ma'iirs 
ft ('oiislunii's, pp. ."il, ill. 

' AUiuibt'goug: Itul., lUOi 11. 'io. 



.^ I ' 



j 



w 



w 



I 



108 



HISTORY OP NEW FHANCE. 



1667. li(' loniid tlio Iluions : and iiltliou^'h lio wns ('xtrcuidy 
"^r^ fnti<,MU(l witli 11 jounioy of fivo Imiuhrd loaf,'ui'H tliat Iio 
liiul iiitulc with two IiuliiiUH, ho at oir-o put his hand to 
the work, and had the consohdion of not lahorinj,' in vain.' 
Thcnc'o Jk' icsunud Ids coiirst! to Cha<,'oinn},'on, and liav- 
ing fornu'd the design of tstablishiug u fixed mission here, 
ho joined a great eonvoy of Ottawas, wlio were going to 
carry their iurs to ^lontreal : tlienee he jnocecded to (Que- 
bec, where he arrived in the mouth of August of the fol- 
lowing year." 

H») renniined there only two days, and set out again 
with Fatlier Louis Nieohis, wliom lie had induced to ac- 
company him and share the hardships of liis painful mis- 
sion, a brother, and four mechanics. At Montreal they 
found the Ottawus, who were about to de])art ; but w hen 
they ])roposed to embaik, these savages woidd ri'ceive into 
their canoes only the two missionaries, who did not hesi- 
tate to abandon themselves into their hands, alone, with- 
out provisions, witliout any prospect of deriving aid from 
their conductors, and witli little to rely ui)on but Provi- 
dence. We shall see in due time the result of their voyage.' 
Meanwhile, the Iroquois cantons of Mohawk and Oneida 
the " had at last deemi'd that the wisest course for them was to 
"''""'*■ make terms with the- French. Soon after the departure of 
the Marquis de Tracy, they sent to Mr. do Courcelles dep- 
uties, who made their submission to that general, and 
solicited missionaries.' He obtiviued this favor for them, 



Mission- 
urics among 



M \ 



' He set out Miiy 0, 1C07, and 
rcin-'hcd the NiiiisHiiifr town iin tlic 
liikc, .liiiH' !5: Kflution du lu N. F., 
KICT, 1)].. 'J.VO. 

• Kriution de lu Ni)uv«')l(' France, 
1607, p. ^(i, thoiifrh liC Mcicicr, in 
bis Jdiirnul. cuv^^ Aii-r. t : M. Marie 
du rinciirniiliiiii, l,.ltns. |>. (J'Jl. 

' KeliitiDii de la NmivelU^ Fnmce, 
lC(i7. p. >(). Fiitlicr l<iiuis Nicdias 
entiTed the Soeiitv ipf .li>Us. In I'.ie 
pruviucu of Touluube, Supl. lU, 1004 ; 



arrived in Canada May 1, 1(504 : la- 
liorcd in tlie West and in New York, 
and returned to l" ranee in 1(175 : 
Martin in Carayon. Documents lu- 
editri, xiv., J), llo. 

* Tlie diimties urriveil July (i, and 
made tlieir (irescnts on the Stii: 
l.e Menii r, .lournal 'I'liey were 
received liv de Tracy (lielation de 
la Nnuvelle Fiance. Il)(i7. p. ^'^), 
who did not >a\\ till Aiij;ut-t 'M: 
Le Merciui, Juuruul. 



« 



J 



IlISTOHY OF NKW FRANCE. 



100 



hKIidu^Ii it liftd not yot beon pi-nnttul to tho tlirco otlior i(>(>>i. 
(•.•iiitciiis, iiiid tlic clioico fell (111 rulluTs Briiyiis tiiul Fru- 
iiiiii.' i'litlu'T (iiiniicr, who was soon nftw si-nt to their 
assistaiKM!,' having' gone to visit the Christians at Onou- 
(hif,'a, was retained by Oarakoiitliie, who Imilt hiin a oai)iu 
ami a chapel, and made him jaoniise not to h'ave liis eau- 
toii till his own retnin from (^iielau', l'(jr ho was about to 
f,'o tliere to solicit missionaries for his own canton, and 
that of Cayuf,'n. 

lb', in fact, sot out," and returned some months after 
with J''atlier de C'arheil and Milet.' A eoiisiih'rable num- 
ber of Iro(|uois, including many Christians, had settled at 
the western extremity of Lake Ontario, and the Bishop of 
Petiiea deemed it his duty not to leave them without pas- 
tors : ho accordingly sent to them Messieurs do Feuelon 



' .laiiHH Hnivii" iirrivi-il AuiriiHt 
!j. Illiiil. and nt'iir a Icm^ iiiitt- 
finimrv ciiriMT iliiil iimoiijr liis Iro- 
(jiiiiiH coiivi'ilsi at S;mlt St. Louis in 
171,. He wrote much ou tlir Iio- 
((Uoin lau^'uaKi'. H'm liailiccH Ver- 
li.iri'iii Ii-oi|ii,i iiruni, or liaciiics Af;- 
n'h lis. was |ml>'.islii'il at New Vork 
ill Isti','. .lames KiiMiiin arrived iu 
l(i."il. and was eiii|.liiye(l in CajH' 
lireton : lu' was iit Oiiondajia in 
Ki.")!!. He dii'd at l,!uel)ee .luly H), 
Klir^. John I'ierron came .June UT, 
l(i(!7, anil retiirued in KITS: Martin 
in t'arayon, xiv., jip. 114-5. He had 
Boiue Hkill in paint injr, which he 
usi'd to ailvanlafre ; liel.. Itili'J, p. "J ; 
M. Marie de llncarnation, I.ettres, 
1>. 27-4. Father .lolm I'ienoii is omit- 
ted liere liy t'liurlevoix. These mis- 
sioimries set (uit July 17. Iiiil7, and 
were detained a month and more at 
Fort St. Aniu', in Lalte C'humplain : 
Hehuion de hi X. F., U;()7, p. 'J8 ; I.e 
Mercier. .lounial : Jiicliereau. His- 
toire <le rilotel Dieu, p. Isl iStrupas 
misprinli >! lor liniyus', h aviii'i it on 
tUo 2ud Au({. ; Kulaliuu Uu In ^. F., 



Kills, p. .1. They first reached Onn- 
daoiia;;ue (CautrhnawairH, tlie plai'o 
olJofjiies' dealli), ami then |iro(eeiled 
to Teoiinontoftuen (Fort Hunter), 
capital of all that country, rebuilt 
about n ipiarter pi' a league fruiii 
that destroyed by de Tracy. UruyuH 
imx-eeileil to Oneida Sept., 1(1(17. For 
their labors, see Uelation, KiUy. |ip. 
■l-Ki: M. Marie do I'liicarnation, 
Lett res, p. (i'.i.'i. 

• Julian tiarnier was sent April 
21, lUti.s. He came tu Canada Oct. 
27, 10(12, completed hii* studies, nn<l 
was ordained at Quebec. He was 
long on the mission, and died at 
Quebec in February, 1730. 

' (farakonthie reaeln'(l Quebec Au- 
gust 20, ItidS. See Kelation de la 
N. F., l()(is, p. 17, tor his presentH 
a-id the rejily to them. 

* Uelation de la N. F., lOllS, p. IS ; 
M. .Marie di' llncarnation, Lettres, 
]>. (127. Stejihen Carheil came Aug. 
ti. 1 (!(>(), and after many labors died 
July 27, 1720. Peter .Milet came in 
1(1(17, and died at Qui'buc Dec. lil, 
ITUB. 



II 



A 

'8f 



110 



UrSTOHY OK NKW FHANCE. 



f. 



i 



\()f>S. and Troiivi'.' Tims, witli the ('x<M'])tion of Hio Sciicoft 
^'"'Y"~' ciiiitDii,' t'll'uits Wire iimdi! to Cliristiiiiiizt" nil this imtioii, 
wliicli/inoit! tlmii any other in Canada, it was important to 
gain to Christ and disjioso favorably to tho French nation, 
both on arconnt of tlit^ rcjjutafion which it had actpiircd 
for arms, and of the position of their country, which, in 
that direction, separated New France from tho English 
colonies.' 
Wlmt As I lind the liajipiness of liviii",' with most of tliose who 

iiif lonvir labored most fre(|Uently to till that portion of the Lord's 
vineyai'd, which, notwithstanding' their care, has remained 
wild and in its native state, I often intpiired of some of 
them what had prevented the seed of the Word from 
taking,' root amon<,' a ])eople whose intelli},'ence, f,'ood sense, 
and noblt! sentiments were so much vaunted ; all assured 
iiie that what did the greatest evil was their vicinity to 
tho English and Dutch, whoso want of pietj-, Cliristiaus as 



timt liutiuM 



' l{( liitidii lie 111 Nniivilli' I'rniicc, 
Kifis, |)|i. •,'(!, :',0: I.citrix clc MisHiiPii, 
in l-'uillnii, llirttiiirr, iii., \t. Id,!. 
Friim.iiiK Siiliif^^nacdf la Mniii' I'liic- 
lon 1111(1 Clinidi' 'I'roiivi' wire Sill 
|iitians. Till' t'ormcr Iiiih liri'ii con- 
toiiiKliil Willi liin illiiHlriiiiis lirolluT, 
the A^^■lllli^'ill)|Mll'('rtIIll)I•lly. CIuikIi' 
'J'rimvt' wan of tlii' dioccsu rif 'I'cmrN, 
anil caiiii' out witli l'"inil(iii .Iimic 'i', 
KKii. 'rrimvi' was oiil.v 8iili(lcai'<in, 
but wuH oiiliiiiird prirst August 11. 
W. Marii' dc rincarnation, hiMtrcs, 
p. (i.VJ, |iruisc.i Imiu'Iiph's liiiiiiility in 
tliUK bfi'dniinj; subject to a younger 
cliTfrynian. 

■ Krciniii Bet out for tlii' Silicon 
country Ironi the Muliawk, October 
10, l(i(iS: Hel. de 111 N. F., p. IW. 

'■' Tlie Indians at (.^iiiiite May were 
a jxirtiou of tile Ciiyiiirii trilie who 
moved across the lake to avoid llu' 
Audastes: IJelation de In Nouvellc 
France, 1008, p. 20. The hmgunge 
of the Helntion would imply that 
Juiiuil uiiHiiiuuurieH hud I'or twu yunro 



hiliored at Keiiti- ; but no stntetiient 
is Iliiide elsewhere as to the lact. and 
Mr. Failliin denies it. mid eNpliiinM 
it as an allusion to .Menard's liuiiier 
laliors at (nyiiga. wliicli is n^i pnili- 
alile. lie also denies that the Siilpi- 
tinns found any t 'hristinns at Qninte : 
Ilistoire de la ( 'oloiiie t'anadicne, iii.. 
\>. 101, n. Mi'ssrs. Fenelon and 
'I'rouve rencheil the vilhige of Keiite 
Oct. 2S, Kids, nnd begnn their In- 
bor«. The next yenr, biiiii; joined 
by Frnncis Satiirnin liiiscnris d't'rl'e, 
son of the Mari|uis dl'rl'e, niiil a 
descendant of the (I reek La.scnris' 
(Fnillon, Histoire de la Col. Fr., iii., 
pj). 1H!»-1!I()), they established niin- 
sions also at the village of (inndnse- 
teiagon and tiaiiernske. Messrs. 
deCice and .Mnriet, also Siilpitiaiis, 
joined lllelil Sllliseiiuelilly, lull I'Ven 
Mr. I'aillon fiills to giveditiiils as to 
tlieir sucress. See Dollier de ( 'as- 
siui, Ilistoire (111 Montreal, .Miivge 
de 111 .Mis.-i(Ui de Kciiti', Marie do 
rincarnutiou, Luttru Sept. 1, llJUU, 



1. 1 
i' 



IIISTOHY OK NEW FHANCE. 



Ill 



(lii'V prnffSHcd to Ih", liad iiiiidc tlicst* Iiuliaiis coHHulor i(yf<ii. 
C'liristiaiiity as iiii optiimul ii'lij^ioii. 

We know, mori'ovt'r, timt as tlio Iroquois ft-lt Huro of 
Iniiiv,' Mi|t|>orti(l \>y their iifij,'lil>ors, mul of Ix'iii^' aMt> to 
draw from tiu'iii all they lu'fdi'd, as often as we slioulil 
attack tliciii or they took a i'am-y to break oil' poat'o, they 
never (^'iive themselves umeh ecmceru about retaining our 
alliance; hence it eamo to pass, that fearing' \is but little, 
they never showed any f,'ieat docility in matters of reli- 
gion. Till* same missionaries added that strong liipiors, 
which these Ii'dians piocui'od openly in New York, had 
also always bt'cu an insurmountable ubstado to their con- 
version. If we judge justly, that hen tics are guilty of 
fui'iiishing by this trade so great an obstacle to the l>rog- 
ress of Christianity, what reproaches do not Catholics 
deserve, who by the same nu'ans havi' corrupted it among 
neophytes, and discredited it among idolaters! 

New France then iiijoyed profound [leace, which it I'm^rrisi of 
tasted for the tlrst time sinco its settlement. Those who 
governed it, and to whom it was in a great measure in- 
deljti'd for this, neglected nothing to jirotit by it, and to 
give this colony a solid form, in order to render it worthy 
of tho attention which the king continued to give it. Tin) 
beat })art of tho regiment of Carignan Salieres had re- 
maineil ; and at tho dose of tlu' Irocpiois war, almost all 
the soldiers had become si'ttlers there, having received 
their discharge on this condition.' Two years subse- 
quently, six conqianii'H, ovcu of tho same ri'gimi'ut which 
had accompcnied Mr. do Tracy on his return to France, 
were sent back, huih to re-enforce tho garrisons of the most 
important posts and to augment tho iiumbor of settlors." 



lliU colc.li/. 



' p;ach soldier received 100 francs come over, mid tlml there had lieen 

(or TiO livrew), witli |irovif<i<)n» lor ii 03 iDnrriiiffcs in a yciir iit CJiieU'C 

jeiir: a HiTi,'cunt 50 cniwiis (or 100 nlcme. Tlic cinmis liir KifiO, t;iivt) 

tViincs), witli H year's [irovision : He- li.llS wuils ; llmt oriiu;?, J.Iir,' ; ilmt 

liitidii, Kills, ]i. ;t. of Kills. :i.s;(l. nut incUiilinj; Tl'J sol- 

■ Till' liilatioii, KKiS, p. ',', says diern ; I iiuuda Dm., 11.. I., p. U4 , N. 

that more than 300 families had Y. Col. Doc., ix., pp. 57, 01. 



;i!! 



V ;!; 






1l 



112 



IlIHToHY OF NKW FHANCK. 



i 



r t 



i6fi8. Miiiiy of til*' f'nicciH had olitiiilinl IiumIh, witli nil llic li^'litM 
'^"r"^ iif Scimuuis ; (lit-y nlinoHt nil sctthd in tlio ctmiitrv, wlicm 
tlicy imiiiicd, mid vlicrc their poHtcrity still HidiMistH.' 
^I(mt nf them Mrii' f^'ciitlciiK M Imhii ; and, accoi'diii^^ly, Ni-w 
Frnncu lias more of tlic old noliloHHo tlian any other four 
colonieH, and, iK'rha])H, than all tho rcHt together. To ron- 
chide, wherever they eleiired the /^'round, the Hoil proved 
HiMid, Mild IIS the new httllerH were Hliniuhiteil liy t'lnulii- 
tion to etpiid the virtue, iiiduHtry, and love of lahor of tho 
ohU'r, all were Hoon in a ('ondition to sulmiHt, and tho colo- 
ny, as it limit i| (lied, had imt to deploro a dccliiic in moral- 
ity and reli;,'i()n. 
Comet, In tho month of April, tliirt same year, tlioro appeared a 
nkkiiivh. new comet at l^uebee. Jt was lance-HliKped, reddish, very 
loii^;, and liery ; one of its extremities wns hidden l)eiieath 
the horizon ; it followt'd the Hettiii),' sun, and disiippeared 
as soon as the moon rose. The people thought that it 
nimounced some shocks of eiirtii(|iiake, which were felt 
Borne tiiin- after ; and siikness, whicii prevailed the ensuing 
fall.' As usuid vvitii the iioipiilace, when oiiec! alarmed, 
tln'y did not nit tiieir fears to this, and ent( rtuiiied great 
fours for the harvest : but no niali{j;ii inllueiice ajiproached 
the fields, and the harvest was one of the most aluindant. 
A ll<'>piiiil 111 the month of May, the Hospital iiiiiis of (^iiel)ec met 
iii'ti'iV .'ni.r with a loss, in which all the public shared their regret. A 
oixauctiiy. yj^jj ^^j. jIjI^ liouse, Mother Catharine of St. Augustine, died 
after tilling all Canada with the odor of her sanctity, nor 
has time even now diminished in aught the veneration felt 
for her in her lifetime. Mother Catharine of St. Augus- 
tine was tho daughter of James Simon, Sieur of Longpre, 
and was born May 3, 1(!;>2, at Saint Sameur-le-Vicomte, 

' Sixty concfKsions, cliiitl.v tn otH dc Ih (Vilonir, iii., p. y43; Dussicux, 

ccr», wire iiiikIc in Oct. nnd Nov., Lu Cunadii, p. 111. 
I(i7'.i : S'ifiiioiiiil (iiu'Ntiiiii.'i, A, p. ' l.c .MiriiiT, Jounml, April 13, 

(if<ii ; <'. II.. p. ;i;i. Aiiii)ii;r the olli- l(i(i8 ; M. Mnrit'dc riiiiiirniitldn, I.ct- 

CtTs «ir<' Sorcl, ( liiniilily, Cdiitn'- trc Srpl. 1, |i;(iS. .IiicIiitpihi, His 

Cu'ur, Vi'icliii'cs, llipisliriiiiu. Si, Ours, ti)ii'i' dc 1 Uotcl-Diuii, p. KO, liitn- 

DuruiitujH', Sueur. Bee Kuillou, Hist, lions that of 1005. 



IIISTOKV OF NKAV FKANflB 



ii:j 



cux, 



ill till' ilioccst" of ('oiltillliT. Oil tlif -Mtll nf Octulirr, ICiKi, \(<!>^, 

hIh> t<mk llio i»'Ii)^ii)us Imliit iiiiion;^ tlic llciM|iitul iuiiih of — '•-"^ 
Uii_v»'iix, wlicii) slit' liiul ulrnuly an dIiUt Hintt r, licr j^'iiintl- 
iiiotlii'v, a ^rciit aunt, and ii uouhjii ; tlu^ last iiaiiicd, tlio 
foundress of (he ('(Uivfiit. rioiii tin' outset of lier luivitiato 
slie, with j^'i'eat eainestnesM, soiij^'lit peiniission tt) pass 
over t(» New rraiif*', and siie olitaiiied aiitliority fioiu 
her Hii|iei'iors ; liiit as it was ^'iveii siilijeet to the f^ood 
ph'asure of her i)aieiits, it lus-anie unavailing,', as her father 
not only refused his consent, Imt ohtained a decree of tin* 
rarliaiiieiit of Normandy furhiihling tlio novice to leavo 
tlie province.' 

A short tim(3 after this pentlonian fell sick, and I'rovi- 
deiice permitted that a llelation of the captivity, siiller- 
in^'H, and death of ]''atiier Jo^uoH should fall into his 
hamls. He read it, and what must, one would think, con- 
llrni him in his tirst o)<iiiion witli rcKii'd to liis dauj^htor, 
made him adopt just the contrary.' 1 tind, in very au- 
thi-ntie documents, that ho went to s(>o her, addrossud her 
as a man touched and charmed at the resolutimi wiiich 
she displayed in desiring to proceed to a country where 
there were so many hardshi})s to uuderj^'o, and such f,'ri'at 
daiij^ers to encounter : that as ho beheld her nion! thni 
than ever in her desi{j;n, he told her that he would williii;,'- 
ly consent to what she wished, if one of Iht sisters, v-oun^,'er 
than herself, ami also u novice in the same monastery, 
consented to accompany her : that tho condition was ac- 



' ISn^juciicnu, Iji Vii- di- la Mrrc 
Ciitlic'riin- ill' Saint Avfrvxliii, \M\- 
fi'icusc llcispitalirrf di' la Misir'unrd'' 
«li' (jucIhi' rii lu Nimvillr Kranri', 
I'^mii, I'liri.H. niTl.pp. HI, :!•">; Marir 
(I'orrstit'i) dc St. Bdiiavfutiirt' do 
Ji'HiiM, Lcttri' I'ircidairi' in \M. do la 
Nouvi'llc France. Kills, p. Hi; .luclit!- 
rcau. llistnire dc llloti'l Dii'U do 
QuiUoi'. p. 70. 

■' |{aj;iioniau. \'w di' la .MT lo C'atli- 
frino, p. 41 ; Hoktiundu laNuuvelle 

Vol.. III.— 8 



Fraiu-o. lOOH, p. :):i; Uriali.m, 1(118, 
p. :!. 'J'lio lliispllal nuns uf Dioppo 
cxiwtod a« far back aH r.'.'iO. In Illi'J, 
tliiir c<invrnl was dr.-<lri)yoil li_v tho 
('alviiiihtrt. and tlioir anliivis pir 
ishod. Tlioj- wore rosturod xinn\ 
altor, and in lll'.T) orjjanizoil unow, 
OH tho " ('(.nprogation of tho Mercy 
of .loMiiti," which I'dpo Aloxaiiihr 
VII. appriivod liy liull, .Inly I!). 
KilU: .IncJKroau, Hint, do I'lliilol- 
Diuu do Quoboc, pp. 107, 1U8. 






i ' ,1 



I I 



'r 



•m^ 



114 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



■{ f 



1668. copied at first, fnul that ho immcdiiitolj desisted from liis 
opposition." l?ut there is no aUusion to these cireunistiiiiccs 
m the printed Life of 8t. Cutlmrine of Augustine, although 
it is there stated that she had two sisters, nuns, with her in 
her convent at l?ayeux. It is there stated simply that Yvc. 
do Longi>re having fallen sick, believed that God was 
chastising him for his ojiposition to the designs of God as 
to his daughter, and that he consented to licr voyage.' 

She accordingly sot out for Nantes, where she had ap- 
parently been told tliat they were to endiark, and on tho 
4th of May, having on the day i)revious (Altered on her 
sovcnteenth year, she made her vows in the hands of Fa- 
ther Vimond, wlio was returning to Canada Avith a new 
re-eiiforcement of missionaries, and who had been dele- 
gated to receive her profession as soon as she attained tho 
ueeessary age.' A Hospital nun of the convent of Diejijio, 
and another from that of Yannes," had also proceeded with 
her to Nantes, whence tliey were obliged to go to Kochello 
in search of a vessel. Thej- emljarki'd on the '27th of May, 
with Father Vimond and all his party, and on the I'.ith of 
August, they arrived at Quebec, after exiieriencing very 
bad weather, and a coutagiotis disease, which brought our 
young professed to the verge of the grave.' 

She was received as befitted her courage and the high 
idea conceived of her virtue ; but they soon perceived that 
she was one of those privileged souls, on whom CJod de- 



' Ri'ltttion (Ic 111 N. F„ 1018, ]>. '^. 

'■ Hiijriiincau (Vic ilc lu MTrc Cuth- 
('■riiic, pp. 10, 4'.!) uUi'.lcs to tlu' ntid- 
Ing of the Hcliitioii, but stutiM that 
till' niothrr went to the foiivt'iit to 
announce' tlio fotlicr's consont, im- 
plyiiifr tlint lio dul not jro. 

' Slif t(Kik simple vows April 'J."(, 
l(i4S, nt HayiuN, and soli'um vovh 
in till' ('Impel of Our I.ndy of All 
.toy at Nantcii. May 4- Hufrnencaii, 
Vie (le la Mi're ('uthi'riiie, pii 4;!, 4."); 
Jucliereau, Uisluire de I'llocl Dieii, 



■* Mother Anne of the Assumption 
of Dieppe, and Mother .lane Thomas 
of St. Agnes of Vaniies ; Ragueiieau, 
Vie de la MTre Cathrrine, p. 4.5; 
Jucherenu, Ilistoire de I'llotel Di<n, 
p. 7;i ; Relation de la Nouvelle France, 
l(i4S. p. 3. 

■' Rngueneau, Vie ch' la Mere Cntli- 
erine, pp. 47, 4!); .lucliereiui. Ilia- 
toirede I'llotel Dieu, ]i. 74 ; lielution 
di' la Nouvelle France, l(i4S, ]). '.>. 
I'or a descriptimi of tlie convent at 
Queliec, see de la I'otherie, i., p. 
25'2 ; Charlevoix, Journal, p 70. 



i ^ 



« 

\ 



i 



mmmiHWtlf 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



116 



I 



li^'lits to pour fortli witliout limit all tlio tieasnirs of His 
f,n-ii<'o. Nor (lid the rcpntation of hw sanctity roiiiaiii long 
coutiiicil witliiii this cnclosuro of her monastery, tlio whole 
colony was imbued with it. There took i)lace in regard 
to her, indeed, -wonderful tilings, whieh the innocence of 
her life, an lu'roic fervor, that, notwithstanding her al- 
most continual sickness, accompanied with the most acuto 
])ain, sought whatever was most painful iu the peculiar 
exercises of her vocation ; her profound humility, her ol)c- 
dicnce to the least sign of her Superiors, and her docility 
in following the advice of the Directors of hcv conscience, 
prevented from being regarded as illusions of a mind de- 
ceived.' The holy Bishop of Petrjea, who examined her 
with the most scru])ulous attention, nnd who had himself 
a practical science of the most sublime ways, and Father 
Ragueneau, who was long invested with her direction, a 
man iMuinent for his apostolic labors, and his experieuco 
as a director, approved her iu all things, and uidiesitathig- 
ly regarded her as oue of the favorite spouses who com- 
pose the most precious part of the fold of Christ. Still, 
her ^ife, wi'itten by the same Father Ragueneau, did not 
meet with univei-sal approbation.' The reason is, that in 
God's conduct with regard to souls, to whom ho imparts 
his most intimate conununications, there are hidden mys- 
teries, wiiieh it is useless, and sometimes dangerous, to 
unveil t<j the public eye. Moreover, few persons are capa- 
ble of understanding them, and it is not iu books, but in 
the school of the Holy Ghost, that they can bo learned. 
Hence they often become scuuil)ling-bIocks to those to 
whom the Alnughty has not given a comprehension of 
them. Man cannot, as the holy guide of Tobias declared, 
proclaim too highly the works by which the Almighty 
vouchsafes to manifest to the world his power and good- 
ness ; but there are certain secrets which ho reveals, rarely 

' Ratrivni'iui, ViiMl.-hilMcivCath- Foi, p. ."ill) nH^;^ny it, in liis <m- 
t'rini', )iiissiiii. sliuifrlit upon thu surifs of Jesuit 

' Lt) (-'lercq (Etablieseuieut ilu la imbliuatiuus. 



1668. 



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116 HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 

i668. and exclusively, to souls in ■\vliom he sees fit to establish 

^■"^y"^ his kiiif^dom in a most mystic mannei", wliicli it is not, 

generally speaking, ex])edient to divulge : " For to hide 

the secret of a king is good ; but to reveal and confess tlio 

works cf (rod is an honorable tiling." (Tobias, xii. 7.) 

Employ- Towards the close of summer, the Senecas sent to (^uo- 

missidii- bee dejmties to solicit Mr. do Courcelles to obtain for 

tiie tiiem a missionary, and that governor indnced tlie Su- 

roquois. pgj.j,jj..(-j(>jj(>i.{^i Iq grant them Father Frt'min, who was 

succeeded in the Mohawk canton by Father Pearron.' 
Although the Iroquois generally did not siu'in strongly 
disposed to embrace Christianity, there was, uevertlu'lcss, 
much good to bo done in their towns. Had they merely 
succeeded in softening them, in accustoming them to live 
with the French, and iusiiiring them with an esteem for 
the Christian religion, it was much ; but I have already 
observed that there were everywhere dying children to 
baptize ; slaves of various nations, who were usually found 
more docile ; sick persons, who could not resist the im- 
pression made on them by the assiduous care of an inex- 
haustible and disinterested charity. They discovered, in 
fine, from time to time, some of those predestined souls in 
whom God renders sensible what St. Paul says, that ho is 
no acceptor of perso is (Rom. ii. 11) ; the greatest miracles 
of his mercy being often wrought in favor of those who 
seem to call down rather all the lightnings of his justice. 

The Mohawks had always h^^a the most avoAved ene- 
mies of the Christians; they were the most fierce and 
haughty of the Iroquois ; they had manifested at all times 
an animosity against the French nation, which seemed a 
part of tilth' natiire ; thus far they alone had imbrued 
their hands in the blood of the ministers of the Gospel ; 
and we cannot doubt but that to something beyond a more 
savage hate was to be ascribed much of that fuiy which 



? 



' Soo Rclulion dc, la N. F., KKiS, wliiK' the Seiuca envoys did not 
p. :{2. KatUrr Kifniin had MX Mo- roach Montnal till Xov. 10. Ilia 
Luwk I'ur thu beuucu ciuitou Oct. lU, tiuccutisor wati F. Juhu Piorrou. 






Os^s* 



HISTORY OP NEW FRANCE. 117 

we have soon thorn oxfirciso nj^ainst pastors .and their 1668. 

flocks. Yet it was in this very caiitou tliat the Gospel ^~"~y— ~^ 

made most rapid ijrogress and the iut)st abundant harvest, iroqnois 
All iiiTii ipp missit.na in 

A church was soon beliekl there composed ot fervent neo- CuimUu. 

phytes, who subsequently fcmnded those flourishing mis- 
sions at Sault St. Louis' and the Mountain," so fruitful in 
saints, and from whicii the colony has derived such great 
advantage. To conclude, it was this same canton that 
gave to New France the Genevieve of North America, that 
illustrious Catharine Tegahkouita, whom Heaven continues 
for nearly seventy years to render illustrious by miracles, 
whose authenticity will bear the test of the most severe 
and critical scrutiny."' 

The Oneidas were then much less docile than the Mo- cimrnotor 
hawks ; and the Cayugas, who had till then appeared so opinioiiH of 
well disposed, corresponded but poorly to the care be- uriiui'i.'' 
stowed by Father Stephen de Carheil to Christianize them. 
They treated him, however, very well, and rendered justice 
to his superior talents and eminent virtue. Nothing shows 
more clearly that the holiest men, most estimable for per- 
sonal qualities, are in God's hand but instruments with 
which he can dispense, and mere useless servants, Ihan 
what befell this missionary, whom I left at Quebec in 1721,'' 
full of vigor and vivacitj'. He had sacrificed the greatest 
talents which can do honor to a man of his profession ; 



' Tills inission was fbuntled at La- 
prairie, oppositi' Mdiitnal, in lOTO 
(Hel. 1U71, p. 12), Hiui rcmiived in 
1(576 to Sault St. Louis or Cauglinu- 
■\vaga, below tlie rapids. 

'' 'I'lie mission of tlie Mountain was 
I'ounded in KiTT, \>y Mr. Uejinont, of 
St. Sulpice, and was reni(ive<l to 
tsauh au Hecollel in ITdt, and to 
tile Lube of the Two MoMntiiiii* in 

i:m. 

'■' lielaiion de la Nouvel'.e Fnince, 
1(1(10, p. 2(1; MuO. p. ■^;!, iVe. : lOTl, 
]). l;i; KiT-..', p. 18; Vie de la llonni' 
CatLuriuu, Mb. ; Cliuluuuc, Lultrtw 



Etlifiantes ; Kip, Jcs. Missions, p. 1 15 ; 
Do la Potlierie, Hist, de I'Aniuriquo 
Septentrionalo, i., p. 3.51. 

■• Father Stephen de Carheil was 
born at Vieune, Nov. 20, lG;i;i, en- 
tered the Society of .Jesus, Aug. 30, 
1(''')2, arrived in Canada Aug. 0, Kidfi. 
lie lal lured first at tlie Huron mis- 
sion, then at Cayiiga from IfiliS to 
ItiSI, then on the Ottawa mission 
till till' early part of the next cen- 
tury. He wrote treatises on the 
Huron and Irotpiois languages. He 
died in Canada -July 'JT, 172(!; Cara- 
yon, Doouuiuut'j Inuiiits, xiv, 



ill' 



V 



Iil 



III • 1 



1^' ' t 



118 



i668. 



Fiitlicr 

Steplicii do 

Carlicil. 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 

ami iu hopes of a fato like tliat of many of his bnthroii, 
Avlio had bodowcd Canada witli tlicir Ijlood, he had ciii- 
liloyod a kind of violouco with liis Snixniors to obtain a 
mission, whoso obscnrity sheltiTod him from all ambition, 
and ollbrcd him only crosses. TIicul' he labored iiiitiriii.^ly 
for more than sixty years. Ho spoke Huron and Irocjuois 
with as much case and elegance as his maternal tongue. 
French and Indians (incurred in regarding him as a suint, 
and a genius of the highest order. Yet he accomi)lislK'd 
few conversions. For this he luuubled liimself before God ; 
and this humiliation served to sanctify him more and more. 
He ha., often protested to mo that he adored the designs 
of Providence in his regard, convinced that he would have 
imperilled his salvation by the success which ho might have 
claimed on a mt)ro distinguished stage, and that this 
thought consoled liim without price for the barrenness of 
his long and toilsome apostolatc. I have deemed it proper 
to cite this example, that those who enter on the evangelic 
career may understand that their time and toil will not be 
lost, if they become saints ; that tht) comiuest of s(mls is 
solely the work of Grace; that not only natural tahnits, 
but the sublimest virtues tin mselves, have no efficacy for 
tonclilng the heart except when God vouchsafes to impart 
it, and that when their labors are fruitless, they must re- 
member that the ministering spirits, who draAV from the 
very bosom of the Deity that heavenlj- fire, one spark of 
which would suffice to inflame the whole world with ui.iue 
love, and to whom the guardianship of kingdoms and indi- 
viduals is es})ecially committed, are often compelled to 
moiun over the blindness of the heathen, and the har- 
dened ob' *inacy of the sinner. 

But the most precious fruits reaped from the peace,' now 



' The vague Btatement licrt' seems disappeared, and could not resume 

not based on any ilocunientury evi- their old wntB. The upper Algon- 

deiice. See vol. ii., ]). S, note, lor quins were cnnstmitly sliiftinir, liut 

the iMisitioii of llie Alf;-onqnin triln'S iiiiule no gniud muvimeut ill this 

proper. Tliese hud iu IOUl' almost time. 



ft 



tftai 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



119 



universally iirevailiiif:?, were the discovery of soi cral great 
couutries, and tliu establislinient of several missions anion" 
nations of the Algonciuin language. TIk'so Indians no 
longer dreading the incursions of the Iro([U(jis, had almost 
all returned to their ancient seats. Tlii.s (jl)liged the mis- 
sionaries to separate, so that no one should be left hi'lpless. 
Fortunately, re-enforcements just received from France put 
them in a condition to supply all. Father Dablon and 
Father Marquette went to take post at the Sault Ste. 
Marie, to which the present name was then given.' 

The Saidt Indians,' who had attracted them to the spot, 
al-^o showed the same eagerness for instruction which they 
had displayed nearly thirty years before, and at first all 
wished to receive baptism ; but the sequel showed that 
they had good reason for not yielding to their entreaties, 
which were influenced almost exclusively by interested 
motives. Nevertheless, tliey took advantage of tlieir good- 
will to baptiico all the children in danger of death, and to 
instruct adults. A snniU number were faithful to Grace, 
wliicli profi'ered itstdf to all : it rendered the rest inexcusa- 
ble before God, and justified his providence. 

About the same time, Father Nicolas, whom Father Al- 
louez had taken with him to Chagouamigon, brought down 
to Quebec some Indians whom we know only by the name 
of Nez-Percez — Pierced Noses." They are a small Algon- 



1668. 



Scverul 

iiiissluns 

[■.-ta'.ilishc'd 

ainiiiiir tlio 

Alj.'i'iic|iiiii 

IllltluUS, 



V !! 



' Clmmplain calls it Sault do (fus- 
ton ; tlie Jesuit Hi'latioiis. simply 
The Sault ; but in KiTO (Uol., p. IS), 
tlu'V founded the mission of Ste. 
Marie du Sault. Ileuntpin, Dcs- 
cript. de la L. (l(!S;j), p. 00, I'errut, 
p. 128, La Ildutan, i., p. 121, say 
Sunt Sie. Marie. I.a I'othcrie, ii., 
p. ICI, saya Saut de Ste, Marie. 

■' Tlu'ir projx'r Indian name was 
Paliouitinjr^ai'U Irini. whd nunilnred 
l')0 souls, and they comprised, be- 
Bides, the Noucpiet on the south shore 
of Lake Superior, with the Outchi- 



bons(('hippeway,'< proper) and Mare- 
megs from the north shore : Hel. 
KiTO, p, TO. The lirlution (l(i40, p. 
34) calls them I'aouichtiijoiian ; that 
of 1(I4S, ]). (;3, the I'aouitairoung. 

•' This descent of F, Nicolas is not 
nu^ntioned in the Helalions. which 
are silent as to his labors. M. Mary 
of the Incarnation states it in her let- 
ter of Sept. 1, Kills, and the last entry 
in the Journal of Li' Mercier. June 
01, lll(l>i. '.K'irins with his name; and 
here, unfortunately, we lose tlie gui- 
dauci! of these contemporary jour- 



l:sil 



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120 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



1668. 



M'l 






Tnlon 

returns to 

Fruuci'. 



quill natidii, in wliieli l)otli nion mid Avomon liavo the cus- 
tom of pit'i'fiii^ tlio nose, in ortlcr to liauf^ IVoiii it wainpinu 
beads, and other like tiitles. After coneliiding their trade, 
they returned to Chagonaniigon, wheuee tliej liad started.' 
The missionaries not findiiij^ liero enough to occupy all 
their time, Father Allouez proceeded to establish his post 
in the bay of Lake Michigan'' (what is called tlie l>ay des 
Puants).' There he labored assiduously ; but, during the 
first years, ho reajied but little fruit of his toil,' 

This same year Mr. Talon returned to France, ' and was 
relieved by Mr. de Bouteroue," who was especially coun- 
selled to moderate wisely the excessive severity of cunfes- 



f! I 



nals, wliicU cover from 1045 to 1008. 
The sul)st'(iiicnt journals were in the 
luindrt i>f Will. Hiiiiili, till,' hislorian, 
mill liHVf iK'ViT since iipiiriircd. Tliis 
viiluiiic was tlirnwn into tliii wtreet 
as rulibisli. but fiirlunati'ly jiickiMl up 
liy one wlio suw its vnliie. F. Nico- 
1;\!< returniil, ni'Ciiinimnii'd hy an- 
otlicr TatluT and .. lav-lirotliir: M. 
Rlary. 'riiese wire e\ idiiiily Father 
James Marquette and lirotlicf l.ouin 
le Uoesnii'; Ifelatinn tie la NmiviOIe 
France, 1008, p. 20 ; 1009, p. 21) ; 
1070, p. Ti». 

' The Relation (1008, p. 21) snys : 
"Some of tlii'iie nations have ajv 
peaved tlii.s summer in our settle- 
liieiits, to the nuiiilier of OOD." It 
does not give any name, and would 
seem to imply that the llotilla was 
made up from several Irilieti. M. 
Mary of the Ini'nrnution does not 
call them Nez-l'eici's. She sayt* a 
tribe of Indians who had never seen 
Eurojieans, and who all had their 
noses 1 lie iced : Letter, Sept. 1, 10(i8. 
The tiilie was apparently that of thi> 
Amikoulk or Heaver. The missioii- 
ariis among the llurons in lOoO, 
SlH'iik of till- Beaver trilie us Nez- 
PeiT.'s UJel. 10;iO, 11. i)2). They lay 
on the mainlaud, north of Mauitou- 



line. See I'errot, Mocurs et t'ous- 
tumes. \\. 20. 

■' Lakr Michigan is calleil, in the 
earlier iiciMiunts. Lake of the Illinois 
(Hel. 1007, p. 18; 1070. !>. i)2): al- 
though the name Machihiganing is 
giver Ml the Relation 107O, ]). !(7, 
and Mitchigiinons in Relation 1071, 
p. 2.'). Till' simpler tonii. Michigan, 
is lilinois. ami means tJreat Lake 
(.Mitchigami) ; Lo Bonlaiiger, Uic- 
tionnaire. 

■' The Bay des Puants is (ireen 
Ray ; and was .»o called from I'uants, 
the name given by the Algoni|uins to 
the Winiiebngoes. See note, ante, p. 
10(i. The helots among the Xatcliez, 
so called, Were iierhaps a conquered 
Dakota tribe. 

■* Father Allouez left Sault St. 
Marie for his lirst visit 10 tJreen 
Ray Nov. ;i, lOOil ; Rel. I(i70, |i. <J2. 
French traders wire already there 
when he reached it, Dec. 2. Ho 
then ascended Fox River to the lake, 
and began his labors among tho 
Sacs, Foxes, Miamis, and Maskou- 
tens. 

•'' Relation de la X. F., 1008, p. ,3. 

•^ See lioutel'olle's Columission, 

dated Aiiril 8. lliOS: Edits et Or 
donnances, iii. p. 38. 



HIHTOHY OF NKW FFiANCE. 



121 



Rors mid of tlio bisliop. and io nuiiiitaiii ii -jood niidcr- 
stiuidin-,' aiiioii^- all tlic chv^y in the cnnntrv. This last 
artii'Ic in his instructions was not founded on any coniijlaint, 
thorc bcinj^' a porfcct union anioiif,' all the bodies that con- 
stituted the secular and rej^'ular clerj^'v : nor did any thing 
odifv the people niort^ than this conciMt. But many oom- 
l)laiiits had been made on the first subject ; and we shall 
soon see what f>;ave rise to tlioni, as well as the remedy 
iipi)lied to this pretended evil.' 

Mr. Talon did not loavo New Franco with the view of ( 
never returnin.tj; ; and in the course of a few years wi' shall 
see him resunu! his oilice. Domestic atl'airs re([uired his 
presence at Paris, and he had had some matters of dissat- 
isfacticm in Canada, which made him desire to leivo it for 
a time. It is certain that ho complained to the court of 
the manners of Mr. de Courcelles towards him. That !j;en- 
eral, among very good qualities whicli rendered him one 
of the most ai'complished governors who ruled New France, 
liad some; faults, the most striking Ix'ing an occasional 
want of activity, with an indisposition to luvve it remedied 
by others when necessity re(iuired it. 

On his side. Talon thought it his duty to go his own 
path steadily, without communicating to tho Governor 
many things where lie dreaded a delay prejudicial to his 
majesty's service and the good of the colony. It seems, 
too, that Mr. de C'ourcelles was not always easily ap- 
proached, and that he disajiproved tho conciliatory policy 
■which some seemed to use with the clergy, against Avhom 
he had allowed himself to be somewhat prejudiced. This 
ap])ears from a letter addri'ssed to him by Colbert in KiTO, 
for he informed him that he should bear with more from 
thosfi with whom he had to live ; that in time ho would lie 
able to see fewer faults and more good qualities in Mr. do 
Bouterouc, who was highly esteemed at court ; that that 
Inteudant was praiseworthy for showing dt'ferenco and 



1 CM. 



Imriiclorof 
Mr. do 
'oiiruclk'S. 



*• :' 1 






*■ h- \\ 



' Theso Instruftioiis liuve not beeu I'ouud iu recent rcseurcLes. 






,« 1 

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122 



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1668. 



Erection of 
the cliiircli 

(if t^iH'lieo 
iriKi a 

bi.-ilni)irio. 



r f 



"' 1 



HISTOHY OF NEW FKANCR. 

consiiloration for ihv Bishop of Pt^trivii and tlic Jesuits ; 
1111(1 tliiit tlifii' wiis no (^qoiuul fur ffiiriiig that he would 
lot himself 1)0 riiU'd by thorn.' 

It was in this same yoar, 1G70,"' that tho matter of tlio 
erection of tho eliureh of Quebec into a bislioprie avus cou- 
snniinated. Tho afVair had been prolonj^'ed for such a 
leiif^'th of time by tlie discussion tliat arose as to his iiii- 
luediato depoiidenco on tho Holy See, a point from which 
tho Popo Avould not recede. This does not, however, pre- 
vent tho bishoj)ric of (Quebec bein^- united in some sort to 
the French ch'r},'}-, like tho Bishoj) of Puy, who also de- 
jx'uds iniiiiodiatol}- on Piomo. Tlie kiiif,', to endow the now 
bishopric and the chapter of tlie Cathedral, united to it 
the two revenues of the Abbey of Mauboc ; and Mgr. do St. 
Valier, successor to Bishop Laval, also obtained bubso- 



• N. Y. Colonial Doc, Ix., p. 02. 

'^ In the year KKii) occurred n niis- 
sionury pxiicditidii which explored 
Lidie Krie. 'I'lic Siil]iitiuiiH were 
pager to enter mi the field of '.iidiau 
missions, and after lieiriiiiiini; tlieir 
missions iimipn;; tin' IrcKjiiois north 
of Lake Ontario (ante, \i. lOil), sent 
M. Kdllier de Cnsson to winter, in 
lOliS, with the Nipissings. Tlie 
chief Nitnrikyk had a slave, taken 
hy the Iroquois from some south- 
western tril)e. Lasalle, who had 
olitained tlie seigneurie of St. Sul- 
]iice from the Sulpitiaiis, at tlie same 
time heard of the t)hio and the Mis- 
sissippi, and it was [iroposed at once 
to jiroceed in that direction. Ac- 
cordingly, .Inly 0, l(i(i'.), Kev. Mr. 
Dollier de Casson, with do (falinee, 
a deacon, l.asalle and a party of 
Frenchnii'n, niiuiliering in all 2'J 
men. started from La Salle's seign- 
eurie opiHisite Saiilt St. l.ouis, in 
Bcveii canoes, guided liy some Seiie- 
cns. and jnocecded to the Seneca 
country. At 'I'l'naoutoua tliey met 
Jolliot, and received from him in- 



formation as to the west, which en 
abled them to draw a map. Hern 
Lasalle and his party refused to 
Jiroceed on various pretexts, and re- 
turned to the St. Lawicnce, wliere, 
as they hail lioasted that tlii'y were 
going to Cliina (La Chine), a laugli 
was raised at tluir expensi' ; and La- 
salle's place got the nameof Lacliine, 
which has remained to tliis day. 
Dollier de I'asson, with his small 
party (nine in all), set out from Ten- 
aoutoua Oct. 1, 1611!). and reacliing 
Lake I'rie wintered near the mouth 
of Oraiid liiver on tie' north shore; 
and on March :.'5, IfliO, drew u]i an 
act of jiossi'ssion. They then ceu- 
tinned tliiir voyage, hut losing some 
of their effects in n storm, resolved 
to abandon their project and push 
on to tlie Jesuit mission at Saiilt 
Ste. Marie, wliiidi they re'iched May 
2.'>, having been the lirst to sail 
thrfiugh Lakes Krie and St. Clare. 
See their voyage detiuled and ma]) 
given ill Faillon, Ilisloire de hi Col. 
F.iuk;., iii., \>\>. 2S4-liUI) ; Talou'b 
lU'ixjrt, N. Y. Col. Doc, ix., \>. GO. 






IIISTOUY OV NKW FRANCE. 



rj.'j 



t'l'i'lJl tlio 

kinit. 
1670. 



qnciitly tlio union of tlio Alilicy of Ijcncvont, partly to tlio i^'^'S. 
liisliopiic and partly to tin- chapter. Want of money to ' < ' 
l)ay for his hulls, ol)lij,'e{l the new hishop of (Ju(>boc to go 
to France luul ask the kin^'^for nieims to meet the cxiumso, 
and he did not actually receive them till 11)7 1.' 

>Souie chan^'es were also made at this time in regard to Tim 

.1 ji-'tril'^ri'vr- i- (invcriior 

tlie government ot Montreal. Mr. de Jlaisonncuvo liavuig of .\i..Mtaiii 
desired to retire, Mr. de Brctcmvilliers, Superior-General ccm'iiiis-i,',,! 
of the Seiiiin;ny of Saint Sul[)".ce, legally nominated as liis 
successor ]\Ir. IVrrot,^ who had married the niece of ^\v. 
Talon.' This new governor considered that a commission 
from a private individual did not give him a character be- 
coming to a royal ollicer, and he feared perhaps that the ser- 
vices he might ri'udi'r in thatotlice would not be taken into 
account. He accordingly aslcod and obtained a commission 
from his majesty, in which it was expressly stated that they 
weri' granted on the nomination of Mr. de Bretonvilliers.' 

Meanwhile, Mr. do Courcelles paid as much attention Mr.doPour- 
and showed as much warmth when there was question of voviiiic' to 
war and Indians, as he displayed inactivity and a suspi- ,.,„X, and 
cious and ditlicult temi)er iu whatever concerned the m- "'' "''•)'''-''• 
ternal administration of the colony. Thus, learning that 
the Iro(pu)is had sent presents to induce the Ottawas to 
bring their peltries to them, that they might sell tho furs 



! 






r (III 



' La Tour, Mum. di> Mr. de Lnviil ; 
Mr. Bois, Es(|uissL' dt- In Vie, j). (i;! ; 
Fnillon, Ilistoirc de In Col. Finm; , 
iii., ])!>. 4','(J 4;i(l. Till' Hull whs 
issued hy Clcniciit X.. Oft. 1, l('7t : 
and on the Slid Ajiril, l(i7(l, .Mgi', do 
LiiViil took his until of lidrlily to the 
kinj; iis liislio)) of (|>u(lirc. 

' Mr. de .Muisoiiiieuvi' did not nsk 
to retiri'. IIo wns .scut to Finncf liy 
Viscount de Tincy. without iiuy ex- 
jdnnation, iu Kill.")-. .\ntc. ]<. s:i. 
Tnicy coinuiissioiifd .Mr. du I'uys 
ns f;ovcnior ; liut in ilili!!, .Mr. de 
Mni.sonni-iivc luiviui.' I'csiL'ni'd liis 
utlico, aud tlio btiUiiuur/ haviug 



been restored to its rifflit, Mr. do 
nrctonvillicrs appointed M. Mario 
I'errot. cnptuiu in tlie .\uvcrj;iio 
regiment, by letters dnted .lune 3, 
Kilil) : Fnillon, Hist, de la Colouio 
Frnni.iiisp, iii., ])p. l(i;!-4. 

■ .Madeleine de I.airuide. Talon 
liini.-^elf recpiested Mr. de Hreton- 
villicrs ton]ipoint Perrot, lie liiinself 
beini.' about to return to Cniiada as 
Iii'.eiidant. Oil their voyage tiiey 
Were shipwreclved. and Tidon, with 
Mr. nnd Mine. Perrot, escaped liy 
clinging to a iVagmeiit of a uuist. 

* Tliis royal conuiiissiou wiw dated 
March 14, 1U71. 



I 



m 

i > I 






i 



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I 

1 • 


It 


r 


'X 



12t 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



W 



1670. to tlu! Eiijjlish in Now York, ho porociAcd llmt tliis ]iro- 
jcct, if siurossful, would ruin, l)('3oiul nil Iiopc, tlic coni- 
niori'o of Nt(w Fiiinoo. Ho even ctirri»'il his vit'WH furtlur, 
and did not douht liut tliut, could tin' t'lintons once dctiicli 
till) nortlicrn niitiouH from our alliani'i-, they would .soon 
renew hostilities, which nothing' but fear of the Frt'uch 
nrniH, HUiJjiorted by those of our allies, had repressed. 

To divert this stroke, he resolved to show himself to the 
Iro(piois, and his voyage had all the success which ho 
anticipated. He even deemed it best to ascend tht? river 
St. Lawrence, which is extremely iuterru])ted by falls (uid 
rapids from the island of Montreal to (juite near Lake On- 
tario, because ho wished to teach these savaj^es that tlio 
French cotdd go in boats to their very doois ; a thing im- 
practicable by the Sorel lliver.' This expedition, it is true, 
considerably aflected his health, which obliged him to ask 
his recall to France, in order, as ho said in his letter to 
the minister, that, if he had the hapi)iness of recovering 
his health, he might go and lose his life in the king's ser- 
vice, as all his brothers had already done." 

But what then more seriously engaged the attention of 
he ministry in regard to New France, was the settlement 
of Acadia, which had just been once more restored to 
France, in pursuance of the treaty of Breda." It was con- 
sidered at court that to give that province a degree of 
solidity, that it had always lacked, it was necessary to put 
it in a position to bo speedily relieved from Quebc But 
to understand the design of the ministry in this matter, 
we must go back somewhat in our narrative. 

' Do Courcello's visit wrb in con- 11). ; lU'ltitidti do la Nouvello Franco, 

BO(luonco of royal (lii-oction. tSoe N. KiTl, i>. !i. 

Y. t'ol. Doc, ix., pp. (i^, 70. For his 'None of tlio rccrnt ('aniidian 

voyago up till; St. Lawnni'o, sio writors throw any li^lit on iho por- 

Dollior do Casson'.s Narrutivo of sonal history of C'ourcollo. 

(}ov. do Courcello's Voyaj;!' to Lake ■' .hily "^l-ol, HKiT: Monioiros dos 

Ontario, Now York Colnnial Doc, Conimissaircs du I'oi s-ur los Posscs- 

ix., pp. 75-8H. 111! loft Montiral sions on Ann'iiciuo, ii.. ji. LIS; Act 

Juuu \i, lUTl, and rutiu'uud the ITth : uf Coiibiun, ib., p. 2\)'i. 



Acndimi 
ulluir:-. 



IlISTOHY OK NKW KFIANCK. 



125 



The Frfiicli, cxix'llid fioiii Acidiii mid all the soufliorn '^'3-70. 
pint i)f New rniiicr ill l()l:;, hy tlic Hiij^'lisli, in tilt! niiiiiiuT ""^"^""^ 
that wi) Imvo hcoii,' nmdo at thti tinic uo attoiiii)t to vorovor Ainiiun 
it. And hU1i{)U).,'1i it was abandoned alniowt as soon as it 
was invaded, and Mr. do Potitiincoiirt, who niado a voya^o 
tliitlicr till) next yrar, fonnd no ono there in a position to 
f^ainsay him, iiad lie chosen to settle thero a^'ain, — the few 
settlers whom he had left thero heiii;^' even ([uite unmo- 
lested, — clni^'rin at the si^dit of his ruined labors, and fear 
that in ease he should at new expense be^'in to rebuild 
Port ]{oyal, tho Enj^dish Avould come to dislod^'e him l)o- 
fore he had timo to fortify himself there, induced liim to 
renounce it entirely.' 

At tilt! i>nd of a ft>w years, thoy seemed to awaken in tho 
court of London to the beauties of this country, ami wo 
have seen' that in 1021, James I., khif:; of Great Britain, 
had bestoAved it u])on tho Earl of Stirliuf,', who nevertho- 
less did almost nothinj^ to avail himself of so imjiortant a 
grant. Tho French, accortlinj^ly, rtuiiikined there compara- 
tively unmolested till tho war of Ilochelle ; but then the 
English seized all tho posts which they occupied, except 
Cajjc Sable, which is the southern point of Acadia. Thero D 
gentleman uamed la Tour ctjuimauded a fort, which he heki. 
with great glory, iu tho manner that I am about to describe. 

His father being at London during tho siego of La Ro- 
chelle, I do not know on what business,' thero married a 
lady of honor to the tjueen of England, and in considera- 
tion of this marriage, had beeu honored with the collar of 



;! il 



I 



' Ante, vol. i., p]>. 2T!)-80. 

'' Lesciirhcil, Ilistoirc dc lii N. P., 
rUition KilS, II, (ISl. His win Hicii- 
I'ourt, ut'tci'wurcl!* ciillcd I'liiitrin- 
cimrt. ri'miiiiii'd in Aciiilin. ami ilir.l 
thi-iv iu lU'J:) iir lli'JI: ('liiMn|iluiii. 
VdViifrt's, (m1. t6;i'3. |i. -IxX ; Lrttrr nt' 
In Tour to I.ouis Xlll., LAbcille, 
vii., No. II. Ill' lilt as Ills dcviMM' 
Cliarli'S .\niadiii' dr la Tniir, uhnsi' 
Fun iSt. Louis, vtaa at Oupu bablu, 



Dcnys, i., p. 08 ; Chanipkin (Ed. 
l(;:!i), p. 207. 

' Anti', viil. i, p. .'iO ; Mcmoiri's des 
Coiumissairi'M du Ifoi, ii., p, li);j. 

' Claude 'I'urnis dr St. Klunnc, 
AvhiJi' on his way from France to 
jiiin liis son. was taken in one of 
de I!iii|ueiiiiint's vessels and carried 
11 prisiiner to Iiondon. In 1(1:1(1, won 
liy Sir Will. .Mexaiider, lie sailed to 
iadut;u Ills buu lo yiuld. 



I, A 



Ji. 






U 



H !, 



« I 



120 



IIISTOHV OF NT'W rnANCK 



Kxpl.iit iif 
Hli'iir ilci 
liiTiMir. 



161 1-70. ji,,, (ji, ,.],,,._ Wlicilicr lie liMil iilninly j^ivni tn tlml rdiirt 
' "^ '""■ ])lc(l^,'cH I'oiitriu'}' to liis iliity, or tliiit Iiin new ili;4iiit\ iii- 
Vdlvcd his ^,'iviiif,' tliciii, it in t't'itniii tliiit lie iiniiiiiMi'tl tlio 
kin;,' of (iii'iit l^itaiii to put llir I',ii;,'Iisli in iiossi'ssinn of 
tilt' post iiclil \>y lii.H soli ill Ai'iidia ; ami on tiiis assiiranco 
two Mliips of war were givt-ii to liiui, on which ho cinltaikfd 
witli Iiiw new wife' 

On anivin^' o(V Capo Halilc, he had liinistlf put ashnro, 
and proct'cih'd alone to nirrt his son, to whom he drew a 
splendid idetiireof his influence at the Kn^'lish coiii't.aml the 
adviinta^'e he expected to derive fioni it. Ife added that it 
rested with his son to olitain as ;^'i'eat advaiita;^'(! for himself ; 
that heli'.ou^dit him the collar of the darter;' and tiiat he was 
cnii)owered to contirm him in his p^overiimeiit, if he wonld 
declare for His 13ritanuic Majesty. The youn^' comman- 
dant was equally surprised and shocked at this lan^'ua^'c. 
He assured his father distinctly that h(> was mistaken, if 
he supjiosed him I'apalile of dcliveiiiiLj up his )ilace to tla; 
enemies of the state; that ho would hold it fur (lie kin;,', 
liis master, an lon;^ as ho had a hreath of life; that he 
esteemed hi;,'hly the honor that the kiiit,' of Kii;,'land wished 
to confer on him, lait that he wnuld not i)uri'liase it hy an 
net of treason ; that the prince whom he served was pow- 
erful enou^^h to reward him in a way to ;,'ivo him no reason 
t(t reptret the olTers ma(h' him ; and that at all events, his 
fidelity would i)e a sulHcient reward. 

On receiving this unexpected reply, the ..i.licr returned 
on board, and the next day wrote in the most tench'r and 
ju'cssing terms to his son ; but this letter also failed to 
produce any eil'ect. At last he assured him that he was 
able to carry by force what he had been unable to obtaur 
by entreaty; that when he had laiuh'd his fl-o()])s, it would 

' Di'iiyH, DoBcriiitioii (irufiniphi- tinns. i.. |i|), l!07-;iO!). An iHtHi-cn la 

que lira Costt'S, I'ti'., i., p. (111. 'I'dur iinil irAulniiy, Driivs ahviivs 

' III., p. TO. Dfiivs was iviilciillv (-peaks liittfily of tliu liittcr wlm 

iiiisiut'oniii'il lis tci tills. I,a 'Pmii' Iiad wi'(iiii,'('il liliii ; iiikI pi i'lm|i8 

was iiuiili' a Baimut ufXnva Srolla. Iimi ciisily citiHi.iI ilc la 'I'luii'. See 

iSt'f I'uunt iu llu/.urU, Hist. t'uUuc- (.'huuipluin (Eil. W62), p, iitiU. 



IliSTOHY OV NKW FHANCK. 



127 



lie too lati' to rc;^i(l liiiviii;j; rcjt'i'tcil Iiis lulvimtiifjcniis 1^)70. 
olt'ci'H, mill tliiit lie cDiijiiriHl him iih u fiitiu r not to cniiipil 
liim to Hit as an riicniy. 

Tlirsi' tliirats iicif as iiiiav iiiliii^,' as his snlii-italioiis ami 
]iroiiiisi's hail Inni. Thi> tlilcr hi Tour wishril to carry 
tlicm out, ami tho Kii;;lish huvin^ i\uu\v their iipproaclicH, 
thr (•oiiiuiamlauL maiU- sui'h a vij^orous ihlViirr, lliat, at 
till' ('Mil of two (lavs, tin- I'ln^^lisli ^^Turral, who hail not 
reckoned on the slij^'htest resistance, ami hail ah'eaily lost 
Hiune of his l)est soldiers, thou^;ht it unadvisaMe to push 
tile sieM|. any further. On liis announcing' this, the elder la 
Tour was in u tcrrilile dilcinina. llelurn to Kni^land ho 
durst not, much less to Fi^anco ; iiiid the only course left 
to him was to throw himself on the clemency of his son.' 

lie lnoached tlui matter to his wife, and told hertiiat Im 
had felt assured of rendering' her happy in America; but 
that as untoward fortune had hlij^hted his prospects, ho 
was unwillin;^' to require her to live there unhapiiily, and 
that he left her at full liberty to return *o her family. Tho 
lady replied that she hud not married him to abandon him ; 
that wherever he chose to take her, and in whatever condi- 
tion he might be, she should always bo his faithful cminian- 
ioii, and make it her happiuosH to alleviate hi.s disappoiut- 
ineuts. La Tour, charmed aiul afl'ected by this great gener- 
osity, besou<j;lit his son to allow him to remain in Acadia." 

The young man replied that lie would not ex])ose him 
to lose his head on an English scall'old ; that he would 
clieerfuUy give him an asylum ; but that ho could not 
permit either him or his wifi^ to enter his forts, lliat, 
moreover, he pledged his word not to let them be in want 
of any thing. The condition seemed somewhat hard, but 
he had to submit to it. With the consent of tho English 
commander, la Tour and his wife lauded with all their 



' Driiys, l)i'si-iii)tioii(ii'o};nii'hiim(', Srutcli rulnnists in I'orl Itoviil. Ilin 

ill's Ciisti'S, I'll'., i., i))!. 70-4. wm wus nlicvcil liv tun shi|is imdiT 

■■' lb., p. T."). Till- ililrr la 'I'mir. ('apt. .Miuol, ami liaviim li.rii, in 

al'tur his rt'pulst', ri'tiivd with his Fob., lUJl, iiiadu Lt.-Hfii. of .Vcailia, 



mi 



I ii 



m\l 






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'ii-' 

I 



III 



I:; 



I 






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128 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



1670. 



projiorty, two valets and two cliaiiibormaids, and tlic two 
sliips sailed baek to England. La Tour built a suitable 
liousc for his father at some distance from the fort, agree- 
ably situated on a fertile spot, and took care of their anp- 
port. The Sieiir Deuys states, in his " Descrijitiou of 
North America," that he met them there in 1G35, and that 
they were quite comfortably situated.' 
All that the English had wrested from us in Acadia and 
^,'i- 'f?" °" ^'^® neighboring coast, during and before the war of 
Rochelle, having been restored in 1-G32, as previously 
stated," all that part of New France was divided into three 
provinces, the government and proprietorship whereof were 
conceded to the Commander of Eazilly," the younger la 
Tour, and Mr. Denys. The first had for his share Port 
Eoyal, and all south of it as far as New England ;' the 
second had Acadia, properly so called, from Port Eoyal 
to Camctaux :' and the third had the eastern coast of 



l>r(iviiK'i's 
lluil c•on^^i- 

tiitc 
tilt* (Ki\'L'rii- 

IllCllt 

of Acii.lia. 
1647-70. 



Fort St. Louis, Port dc la Tour, hi; 
wrote to his t'uthcr m'{;ing hiiu to 
ri'turn toliis <luty. ('liaiiii)lain(llj:)3), 
p. iiH. 

' Denys, Description Oroijriipliiciue, 
i., p. 77, snys " nboiit Kjii.")." Tlie 
Scotch left at Port Uoyal liy the 
elder de la Tour, were all killed by 
till' Indians ex<'ept two, who joined 
the Freneh. Ferland, i., p. "^4^. 

'•' By the treaty of St. (ierinuin, 
March 2i), MV.Vi : Menioires des Coin- 
niissaircs. ii., j). 5 ; Denys, i., p. 2^8. 
Ante, vol. ii., p. 613. 

■' Itiaac de ]{a/illy, Knijrht and 
then Coimnander of the Order of St. 
John of .Jerusalem, was related to 
Richelieu, and was first Captain of 
the West. In l(i21 he distinguished 
himself against Kochelle. In 1(128 
lie got ready a scjuadron of seven 
bhips to relieve Quebec, Imt as peace 
was signi'd with England, sidled 
against Morocco, thus eiialiling Kirk 
to capture Quebec after ])eace was 
declared. The next year he was 



Royal Commodore off Brittany. In 
1U;;'2 he was Lieutenant for the 
King and Cardinal Richelieu in 
New Franco, and as such received 
Acadia from the English, llt^ was 
then made Lieutenant(>eneral there, 
having under him as subordinate 
commanders his kinsman, Charles 
de Menou, Seigneur d Auliiay ilc 
Charnisay, and Charles de la Tour. 
He ilied at Fort La Ileve in l(iU0-7 : 
Ferland. C(uiis d'llistnire, i., p. 2."),"). 
As to his earnest etl'orts at coloniza- 
tion, see Denys, i., ]>p. .'54, !).'), lOL 
lie had Capuchins. II)., p. lOll. 

^ His concession on the St. Croix 
River, is dated. May 1!), 1«;{2. Mem. 
des Cominissaires, ii., y. lUl. 

' The concession to Charles de St. 
Etionne. Sieiir de la Tour, was on 
the St. John River, Jan. 1.5, 10o5 : 
Menioires des Commissaires, ii., p. 
■1!);). On Feb. 10, l();i8, he was mado 
Lieut. -<ien. on the coast of Acailia, 
trom the miildle of the main land 
of the Bay of Fundy to Camceaux 



HISTORY OP NEW PRANCE. 



129 



Canada from Cixinooanx to Gnspi''.' Yet tlio first sooms to 164- 
liavc had at iir.st a riyht over the wliolo of Acadia ;' but 
that ho made arrangements witli ]Mr. de la Tour, and lio 
ccrtaiidy made a settK'Uient at Tort do hi Heve," whieli 
■was then and subsecjuently in tlio district of the latter, 
■who, on his side, did the same on the river St. John. These 
gentlemen very prol)ably made a friendly exchunjijo of do- 
mains with each other, at least in part ; for Fort Pentagoet," 
which had been built by hi Tour before the war, remainei 
to this comnuinder, during whose life the good understand- 
ing between the three governors was unbroken. 

After the death of Mr. de llazilly, Mr. d'Aunay de Char- 
nise succeeded to his rights by an arrangement which he Civil wnrs 
made with the brothers of the deceased,' and lie obtained, "Kreudi."' 
in 1017, a commission as Governor of Acadia, which is 
ajtpareutly to be undei'stood only of that part of the pe- 
ninsula which bore more properly the name of Acadia, as 
I have alreaely several times remarked. " The first thing 
that ho did on taking possession of his government, was 
to abandon la Heve, which is undoxibtedly the best port, 



(lb., li., ]). 4!).')), mid secured in piissos- 
gioii (if l'"(irt St. Johns, but I'xchidi'd 
from \.a Ili've iind Port Royal (II)., i., 
]). Hi). Louis XIII. to d'Aidiuiy, 
F('b. 10, 10;38, L'Abrillc, vii., \o. I'l 

' On till' oOlh of .lanuaiy, Hi'ii, 
Nicliolas IH'iiys was made governor 
ill all the I'xtcut of tin' Groat Hay 
St. l.awrcnoc. and the adjacent isl- 
ands, from Ca]ie Caiiseau to Cap des 
Hosiers: Mem. des Com., ii,, ]>, oOU. 

'■' La Ueve was in the conc'essi(m 
made in UI!i4,of La lleve, Port Royal, 
and Sable Island, to the l)rotlier of 
the Coinmander, ('apt. Claudede Ita- 
zilly. 'I'lie Commander's own district 
extended from the middli' of the 
mainland of thi' 15ay of Kiindy tow- 
ards Viriiinia, ineludins Pentajroet. 
All this passed to d'.\iilnay; lb., 
ii., p. '195. ],etter of Louis Xlll., 
L'Aheille, vii.. No. 1>. 
Vol. III.— It 



■' Penta^oet was on a iieninsuUi 
on the east<'rn side of Penobscot 
Bay, near the present Castiue : Wil- 
liamson's Maine, i., |). ;i08 ; Maine 
Hist. Coll., vi., p. 1011. 

■* U'Auliuiy administered La HeV(^ 
and Port lioyal in tlienamecpfClaudo 
de IJazilly, brothiT and heir to tho 
Commander, and in Kil'J, ae(]uired 
all his riu'hts by purchase; Ferland, 
Coiirs d'llisloiie, ]). o48. 

' 'I'his commission, dated Febru- 
ary, 1047, recites his zeal for the eon- 
versiim of the Indians, his establish- 
ment of Capuchins, his recovery of 
I'eiitayoei from the l'"u,:;lish. liis re- 
duction of llie liirt on St.JoIin liiver 
rebelliously hel<l by la Tour, and 
makes him (iovernor and Lieuteu- 
anl-(ieneral from the S*. lyawrenco 
to \'ir;iinia, with very ample pnwers : 
Mumoires des C'ommis., ii , i). ^7'J. 



*^1 



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'■!( 



i:, 



130 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



!i. 



i 1 


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1647-70. and the best soil in the avIioIo ponntiy. Ho transferred 
all the inhabitants to Port lloyal, where ho began a great 
establishment.' 

But Avhether Port Eoyal belonged to Mr. dc la Tour by 
virtue of the exchange he made with Commander de P»a- 
zilly, or that the two governors Avere too close to each 
other to remain long friends, a misunderstanding soon 
arose, and they were not slow in coming to arms. After 
some unimportant acts of hostility, Charnise learning that 
de la Tour had left his Fort St. Jean with the best part of 
his garrison, thinking it i^ favorable opportunity for seizing 
it, marched thither with all his troops. 

Madame de la Tour had remained there, and although 
surprised Avith a small number of soldiers, she resolved to 
defend the place to the last : which she did so couriigeous- 
ly for three days, that slie compelled the besiegers to draw 
off ;" but on the fourth day, which was Easter Sunday, she 
was betrayed by a Swiss, who was on guard, and whom 
Mr. de Charnise succeeded in corrupting. Yet she did not 
deem her case hopeless : when siic learned that the enemy 
were sealing the M.'ill, she rushed forward at the head of 
her little garrison to defend it. 

Charnise thinking this garrison stronger than ho had at 
first sui)])os('d, and who feared a rejndse, proposed to the 
lady to give her terms ; and she consented, in order to save 



Uinvortliy 
coniliiot 

of lie 
C'lmruisc.'. 



' He tnmsl'crn'il from La lli'vc to 
Port Kovul the ;!() or AO fiiiiiilics s<'t- 
tli'd by C'oiiiuinndi'r tic Uiizilly. Di'- 
iiys ifiiys : " IJ'Aulimy fcarid tluU tlio 
country ..•oulil be settlwl. IIi' took 
nil the iiiliabitants from \.a. IIi'vi' to 
Port lioynl, iiUvays hoUliii;^ them ii.S 
slaves, and allowiiii;' tlicm to iiiak(^ 
noprofit ;" l)('S('ri]itioii,utc.,ili's('o8tcs 
di' rAmt'riiiiii' Sr|iti'utrionali', i., p. 
101. D'Auliiay luul, too.a fortoiitlio 
eastern shore of the Penobscot (Pen- 
tufioet). Oenys, i..]). 2'2, mar the pres- 
ent t'asline, and a post on the Kenne- 
bec. Having- brought over Capuchin 



friars about l<ll;>, these had a house 
at Pentapiet, the ll<is|iice of Our 
Lady of licjly Hope ; and sulisecjuent- 
ly, it seems, one (ju the Kennebec. 
'J'hey seem to have been carried off 
in 1049 or 1()."iO: Historical Mafra- 
zine, viii., p. ISOl. After his death 
his daufrliters endeavored to <ibtain 
compensation from the court for his 
losses: Canada Doc, iii., pp. l:,i(i, 1 JT, 
'' AVilliamson, History of MaiiJ, 
i., pp. Iil8, ;)'J0, is in error in repre- 
sentinjx Madame de la Tour as twicn 
attacked liy d'.Kulnay in 10-15 and 
1017. See note 1, next page. 



IIISTOKY OF NEW FRANCE. 



131 



.^ i 



f 



the lives of tlu^ iVw l)riivo men wlio liad si) well suppovttHl i65+-70- 
li(>r; but Chiirnise hud no sooner entered the I'ort thiiu, 
ash.'uned of Imviufj; nnide terms with ;i womiui who hud 
met liim only with her cour!ij:;o and u handful of men 
pieked up, he complained of having been deceived, and 
deeminj,' himsi'lf absolved from the articles of capitulation, 
hung all Madame de la Tour's men except one, whose lifo 
he s])ared on condition of his acting as hangman to tho 
rest ; and he forced his prisoner, Madame de la Tour, to 
■vvitni'ss the execution with a ropts around her neck.' 

Ml. Denys, who relates this tragic event,' does not givo 
the date or the sctjuel ; ho ctnitents himself with stating 
that, after the death of do Cliarnise,' one lo Borgno of 



'Dcnys, Ocscriiiticm (M'ogriipliique 
di'sCcwti's (U' l'Anii'ri(nii', ftc, i., ])]). 
08-!). Clmrluvoix Uuh lii'ie greatly 
coiifiisi'd miittiTS. In lO^lS, as wc 
have seen till) ilivisiou was* mack', 
till- bounilary being the niiildle of 
the niahiUuid of the Uay of Fiinily 
(Clugneclo Hay). February IJ, UiU, 
d'Auluay obtained an ordei to ar- 
rest la Tour and send him to France ; 
his commission lii'ing revoked Feb. 
21, Kil'', and a new one issued to 
d'AuUiay next day: Canada Doc, 
II., i. La Tour invoked tlie aid of 
A\inthro|), Dovernor of Massachu- 
Betts, and April 10, 101:!, entered 
Boston harlior in an armed vessel. 
After long and bigoted deliates, he 
was allowed to raise volunteers: 
Winthrop's New iM-gland, ii.. p. 
lOT ; Ilulibard's History, i., p. lot). 
V\'ith tills aid he forced d'Aidnay to 
raise the siege of Fort St. .bihii and 
retire to I'ort Hoyal (Winilirop). 
Here he imrsiied him, doing some 
damage. In Sept., Id II, liolh .Ma- 
dame de la Tour, and Mr. .Marie, en- 
voy of d'.Vulnay, wen' in Hoston, and 
the latter coiicluled a treaty with 
(iovernor I'hidicot : iiulil)ard's New 
Fnglaiid, 11. -1^'S ; W'imlirop's .lour- 
uul, 1). oO(. Mttdame do lu Toiu- 



succeeded in reaching her husband's 
f,)rt on the St. John in three ships 
with supjilies, but was invested there 
and taken in April, 104."), as stated 
in the text : Denys, Descrii'tiiin, etc., 
i,, p. 1311. .Maiuime de la Tour died in 
three wc'eks after. Her husliand, 
who liad lost ','.")(l,0(IO crowns, retired 
to Sir David Kirk, in Newfounil- 
land, and in Aug., Ki-Ki, to Quebee: 
(.)es. .Journal). D'Aulnay then forced 
Massachusetts to a new treaty ; Hub- 
bard's New England, p. 41)0. 

- Ferland ^I'ours d'llist., pp. 317- 
S'h)), gives a clear account of these 
transactions. Willianison (History 
of .Maine, i., pp. ;)0r-:i'J4), with all his 
research, mars his work by the (ic- 
tion, that it was a religious war, 
W'hereas the insincere, captivating 
la Tour was certainly a Catholic ; 
anil the same seems true of his wife. 
This leads him to draw a picture of 
what the Capuchins, with d'Auluay, 
taught the Indians. The only evi- 
dence extant is to the efl'ect that 
they did not atteniiit any Indian 
mission, and the absurdities ascrilied 
to the friars are simply inventions. 
' lie died in lll.")l), three years after 
the commission mentionc'd on p. 129, 
u, : Canada Uoc, 111., i., p. iii'i. 



' ) 



igl 



:i^.;l 



i 



:i 



h 

'I ' ij 



li 



132 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



,' i : ' 



1654-70. Eocliollo obtfiinocl a docreo of the Parlinmcnt of Pari.s, in 
^"""^ ' piusuiuu'c of wliifli lu) took possession of every tliiiij,' in 
Acfulia that had liclonj^ed to that gentleman, whose eredit- 
or he was. lint J lind in anotlier memoir, tliat Mr. do la 
Tour, who had apjiarentlj lost his Avife soon after th'> re- 
verse above related, married his enemy's widow : that he 
not only beeame oner more master of the I'ort on St. 
John's liiver, but that he also, for some time, held that at 
Pert Eoj-al, Avliere his second wife, who survived him, had 
a very tine establishment some years afttn-.' 

On his side, the Bieur Ic Borgne omitted nothing to 
divisions of give foreo to the decree which lu. had olitained from tho 
contuuie'l. parliament, and assumed to be Lord of Acadia. He even 
imdertook to ex])el Messieurs de la Tour and Denys from 
their domains ; and he began by the latter. Learning that 
he had arrived at Cape Breton with a commission from 
the AVest India Company, to settle inhabitants there, he 
dispatched sixty men with orders to carry him oft". The 
commander of this detachment, on landing, discovered that 
Mr. Denys, after si'tting all his people ashore to begin a 
clearing, had gone to visit Port Saint Anne. He thought 
it a favorable opiKntimity to di'stroy the ncAV settlement 
without anj' risk : ho surjuised the nu'n at work, who did 
not suppose they had enemies to guard against, took them 
all prisoners, and seized the ship which brought them over, 
and which had a cargo valued at fifty thousand livres.° 



D'Aulnny had been 17 yi-nrs in Aca- 
dia. His soiif, by a liist wife, in- 
ti'ivd tbu aniiy mid were killed in 
tlie si'rvici'. One, .losi'iili, in Hi'>S, 
Bought a Cdnlinniition nt'his father's 
patent : C. 1)., II., i., 1.. -Jl^O. By his 
sec'iind wife lie Imd 11 diuijiliter wlio 
became ('anoness ol' I'diitisay ; Fer- 
lund, i., ]). ti)."). 

' Denys, Deseriptinn. euv. i., \>. ','A. 

Chaiies Ai!>ad()i' de la Tour, aller 
tlu, dciitli of (I'Auliiiiy, was iu:ii!e 
iioverneiand Lieiiteiiaiit-<ieiiei'al for 
tliu kiug ut' Nuw Fraucu, uu tliu coutit 



of Acadia. See Cana»ln Docninents. 
II., i., J). 200. After Ins fort was 
taken liy Sed^'wick. he ol]tained, Au- 
gust 9, l(l.")d, tVoiii Cromwell, a grant 
to Idmself, Thomas Teini)le, and 
William Crown, of Acadia, and i>art 
of Nova Scotia: Memoires des^ Com- 
mi.sxaires. ii,, [i. ."ill. ]>tit over- 
win Imed witli debt, he sold out to 
his co-ijroiirietor.s. an<l ilied lieforu 
the treaty of Ure'^a, leaving fivo 
young children liy his -{'cond wife, 
Dame .Jiiue Mdtin : Fi'iliiud. p. -197. 
' UuuyB, Dcborijjtion, i., pp. 4-5. 



I 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



183 



Ho tlu'u sent twenty -five men, Avi'll armed, on the rniul 16,4-70. 
that Mr. Denys would have; to take on returning from Saint ■ 
Anno, witli orders to lie in ambush on the road. Denys, 
utterly unsuspicious of danger, found himself surrounded 
when he least expected it, and carried off to Port Royal, 
where he Avas eontined in a dungeon like a criminal, with 
his feet in irons. Ho still had a fort on Capo Breton, culled 
Fort Saint Pierre. Of this, too, le Porgno got possession 
the next year, placing in it a commandant on whom ho 
could depend. 

Nor did ho stop here. La Hove, sinco Mr. de Charniso 
had retired from it, had recovered cpiitc prosperously, 
Put this party, who had carried of!" Mi'. Denys from Cape 
Breton, passing la He^ c, by lo Borgne's order, set tire to 
all the buildings, not even sparing the chapel. The loss 
was estimated at one hundred thousand francs. 

Some time after, the Sieur Denys recovered his liberty 
and proceeded to France, to lay his com[)laint before the 
king and the company. His representations were hoard, 
and ho obtained a new commission, which was confirmed 
by letters patent of his majesty, and which restored him 
to all his rights.' Armed with these documents, ho em- 
barked in 1054:, and, on his arrival at Capo Breton, the 
commander of Fort Saint Pierre surrendered the place to 
him.'' 

Lo Borguo received tidings of this just as ho was pre- 
paring to surprise Mr. do la Tour in St. John's River, under 
pretext of carrying him provisions, being aware that that 
gentleman was in absolute want. This project ho deemctl 
more expedient to defer to another season, although he 
was already on the march. Ho turned back towards Port 
Royal, his project being to seize all the papers of the mes- 
sengcn' who came to notify him of Denys' commission and 
the king's orders, so as to follow it up by falling upon that 



' Jan. ."0, IC.-) 4 : MomnirLS tUs Com- -' Drnys, r)fS(Mii)tiou U^ographique, 
iai6t>aiit»j, ii., p, oO'<i. etc., i., pp, 4-7. 



■1 
■I 

! t 

I 'iii 



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:i ' 



■( !i 



134 



niSTOUY OF NEW FRANCE. 






II f 



1654-70. <f()V('rnor, wlioiii ho hoped t(i fiml entirely oil' his <i;nfiril.' 
'--^' ■ Ho hiid not yet reuehed Port lioyal, when the English 
U))peai'ed before the fort on St. John's lliver and snnin)on- 
ed Mr. do hi Tour to surrendi'i it into their hands. 

"Want of provisions compelled him u, yii'ld, and tho 
cneni} thin proceeded to Port lioyal, Mhero they sum- 
moned the Hieur lo Borf^aus as they had done Mr. do hi 
Tour. He replied at first (piito stoutly, and the English 
having landed three hundred men to attack him, he dis- 
jiatcJied his sergeant Avitli part of his force against him. 
They engaged, and tho French fought quite bravely till 
the sergeant fell dead, when all his soldiers took to flight 
and reached the fort in disorder. 

Le Borguo now found himself in great ]ierplexity. Ho 
had only one hundred and Mty men, inchuling the settlers, 
but there was not a singl, one ea])ablo of taking command : 
he himself knew nothing of war, having never served. 
Thus with a very fair garrison and aimndanee of ammuni- 
tion and stores, in a place which the (>i;emy was not in a 
condition to carry, he deemed it best to surrender ou 
terms. 

The English promised much, and thou made sport of 
h'.m, not deeming themselves bound, they said, to keep 
their word with people who had shown so little courage.'' 



u 



' Di'iiys, Description (ir()grai)lii(iue, 
ptc, i., p. '(". 

'-■ II)., jip. 8-0. Pdi't l?oyiil •surren- 
dered Au>r. Ki, Km! : Capitiilulion in 
M"Mnoire:j des ('(iinniissiiires, ii., p. 
.lOT. In tliis (liicunient, made be- 
tween Mr, de la \'i rdnre, captain 
coniniandine- t'nr tlie kiiii;-, and guar- 
dian tit' d'Aulnay's eliildnn, and 
Sedirwick, le liiirfjne is meiitidned 
only as claiming tlie Cliateaiirort, 
with its cargo and some goods in 
the fori. F. Lednard dv Charlres, 
Viee-j'refect and Custos of the 
(.'apneliin mission, willi his lellow- 
rulitfiouB, wcru to liu ut liberty to ro- 



niain or return to France: Th., pp 
oO!!, olO. This Knglis'i expedition 
was commanded by Robert Sedg- 
wick and Caiitaiii .lohn Leverett, 
and contained a detachment of \ew 
Kngland troo]is. It was raised to 
reduce Xew Netherland, but on 
peace beinjr made with Holland it 
was turned against .\cailia, although 
I'',ngland was.al peace with France: 
Hutchinson's Massachusetts, i., p. 
101) : Halibnrtou's Nova Scotia, i., 
ji. ill; (.)'('alhighan's New NettuT- 
lau.i, ii., |i. ','5!). As to Sedgwick 
ami l,e\eriil. see TaU'rey's New 
KiiglttuU, ii., p. 'Jb4. 



' ( 



HISTORY OK NEW FHANCR. 



185 



Pontapoi't sdoii sliaivil tlic f;ito of Fort St. .lolm and 
Port Itoyal ; tliiis all Aciuliu iiml the southern part ()f Now ' 
Friuici' for tht! third tiuio foil into tho hands of tlu' Enj,'- 
lish. Sonic tinio after, the son of tli(> Sienr le ]}or<j;MO 
returned to Acadia with a Itochelle merchant, named (inil- 
bant, whom he had taken into ])arfni'rshi[), entered Port 
111 Heve, and threw up a stockade fort. No sooner wero 
the ICnj^lish aware of it than tlusy marched to La Hevo 
to dislodj^'e the French. On their apjiroacli, le J'.orjj,ne, as 
unwarliko as his father, tied to the woods with some of liis 
men; but this did not prevent (inilbant from making; a 
vi^'orous defence. Several of tlu; English wero killed in 
tlio tlrst assaults, inchidiug their commander, and this 
forced them to retire.' 

Ni'vertheless, they wero preparing to renew the assault 
when Ciuilbaut, who had no interest at l^a lleve' except 
that of his property, proposed an arrangement. This was 
accepted, (inilbant agreed to surrender the fort on con- 
dition that every thing belonging to him and his men 
should be restored to them. This was done. He in- 
tended that his partner should bo included in this treaty, 
but the English not finding le I'.orgne in his fort, obsti- 
natt'ly excluded him from tiie c.apitidation, and as ho was 
soon forced by hunger from his retreat, ho was forced to 
put himself in the hands of the victors, who carried him 
oif to Boston a prisoner. 

Hero they retained him (puto a time, after which they 
enlarged him, and made a treaty, not over well observed 
on their side. This caused many hostilities, the details of 
which arc not very interesting, and would take up too nmcli 
space. It is enough to state that the Ihiglish retained 
their new conquests till the treaty of Jireda, of which I 
shall soon speak. Sieur Denys, dtdiverod from all fear of 
the elder le Borgne profited by the interval of calm to 



i^'vi-- 



r.u.l laitli 
(il tic 



' D<'nys,Dos('rii)tion(M'oirni)iliiqU(', ■ Lii IIi'vc wns mi tlic riibit siilr of 
i., pi>. U)-ll. Ho wntc(j (iuill)iuilt : ii river tluii siill hiars ilio iiuinf, in 
lluliburtou's Nova Scotiii, i., p. 02. Luuciibdurg t'ouiity, Nova Scotia. 



'J. 









i >■ 



I 



! i! 



I,' 



136 



niSTOHY OF NEW FHANCE. 



(I I, 



Fi 






r ' i. 






> 



1634-70. rotricvo his losses in part, and to stirnf^tluMi liis ]iosition 
"^■~Y— "^ against tlic Englisli, from whom lio eouUl not cxi)t'c't bcttt'i' 

treatment than liis two colleaf,'ues.' 
''^of sieiir"** "^^'^^ interval was, however, sliort, and although tho 
l)on}». enemies of the State did not think of disturbing him, his 
condition was not more favorable. He oceujiied quite 
poacefiilly a fort which he had erected at C'hedabouctou,' 
on the eastern coast, when a person named La CJirau- 
diere, who had by false statements fraudulently procured 
a grant of tln^ port of Caniceaux fron' the West India Com- 
paii ;. , arrived in that port, where he knew Mr. Denys was 
hourly exjjecting a vessel loaded with provisions. The 
ship actually arrived, and la Giraudicre notified tho cap- 
tain commanding it of his commission, forbade him to 
deliver any thing to Mr. Denys, and sent to summon that 
governor to surrender Chedabouctou, with all that he pos- 
sessed as far as Cape St. Louis, as being comprised within 
his grant. 

Mr. Dt'nys replied that the Company had been imposed 
upon, and that it was not likely that th(>y would give to 
another what tluy had sold to him. La Giraudiere re- 
plied that he had a commission iii due form, and that if 
Denys would not give up his fort with a good grace, ho 
had means to compel him. At the same time one hun- 
dred and twenty men, who were with Sieur Denys, learning 
of tho seizure of his ship, and seeing themselves thus on 
tho point of running out of provisions, asked for their dis- 
charge. He told them that he did not pretend to keep 
them by force ; but ho induced them bj* encouraging words 
to complete the work actually in hand ; and when he saw 
himself in a position to entertain no fears of La Girau- 
diere, he transported them all to Capo Breton except 
twelve, who would not abandon their governor." 

As soon as La Giraudiere was informed of their dcpart- 



' Denys, Dcsoriiition, etc.. i., \). 13. euiiics tin site : llaliburtou, i., p. 93. 
' The town of MancLestur now oc- '' Douys, DL'scription, etc., i., p. 15k 






niHTOHY <;!<' NEW FHANCK. 



137 



uiv, ]i(^ prcpai'oil io vcilucc Cliodabouctoii, Imt lio wasi not i(,;^'-o. 

a little siiri)iis('il (,> lliul the ^'ovcnior well intrciirlii'd — ^ ' 

tlioii:), with I'aiiuou iuul swivtls. Ho, iicvoitlicU'ss, iigaiii 
Bumiuoiu'd liiiii to sunviidcr his fort, assuriiif^' him that lio 
was most uiiwiso to risk liis HlVs in dclVni-o of a post that 
he eoukl not hojjo to hold. Mr. Di'uys nplliHl that ho 
W'onld risk more in attackiut,' than in defcndinp; it, and 
tliat tlie jnstic'o of liis ciuiso would combat on his sido. 
La (iiraudierc, wjio had hoeu joined by do J]ay, his 
brother, remained oil' the fort for throo day<. doin^' noth- 
ing but move around it, to discover a we ,,t where ho 
mij^ht attaek with security, but finding i, ,.,-, retiretl.' 

Some time after, de Bay went alone to Chechdiouctou, 
and asking to parley with the governoi-, told him tliat his 
brother had taken Fort Ht. Pierre, on Cape Bretim, and 
proposed to liim an arrangement which, after some dis- 
cussion, was at last settled. TJie conditions wen;, that la 
Giraudiere should restore Fort St. Pierre tcj Sieur Di'iiys, 
who, on his side, would surrender Chedabouctou, and was 
then to bo taken to Franco, where both were to submit 
their mutual rights and claims to the West India Com- 
pany, and abide by its decision.' 

To this Mr. Denys . onscnted. Tlio company declared 
that it had" been imposed upon ; it revoked and annulled 
its grant in favor of la Giraudiere, and restored Denys to 
all his rights, but it did not indemnify him for the damago 
which this affair had caused Iiim, and which amounted to 
fifteen thousand crowns. To crown his misfortunes, this 
governor having retired to his fort St. Pierre, in order to 
repair his losses by the fur trade, was completely ruined 
by a lire, at the moment when the arrival of a great con- 
course of Indians assured him of great prolit. After this 
blow, he was no h)nger able to undertake any thing of 
moment, and this was a great misfortune for that part oi 



' Di'nys, Description (u'ographiquo, 
etc., i., p. 10. 



■•' Donys, IX'seription Oi'ugrapliiquc, 
etc., i., p. 17. 



li 



I. i 



M 



1 • 



i;^ ■ 



in 



i\c 



I, .< 



ins 



HISTORY OK NEW FIJANCE. 






All tlicso 
|>riiviiic'i!s 
ri'>liiri;'l to 
Kriiiii'ii liy 
till! tnaty 
of lire. la. 
1667-70, 



16:14-70. Now Fmnco, which never hiul 11 iiiom citpablo or attentive 

-^ >~'~-' c'oniniiUKhiut.' 

Tlio treaty of 13ri>(hi, at last, in lfi07, rcHtored to the 
Fniich all that tht^ Kii^'lish had wrcstiil iVoiii them in 
North Aniciica ;' hut this restitution was not aetnally 
made til' KmO. On the 7th of July in that 3'oar, Sir 
(Thonias) Temple, witli ^lowers from the King of Cirt-at 
Ih'itain, and IIul)ert d'Aiidigny, Chevalier de Gnind-Fon- 
taine, plenipotentiary of the ^Jost Christiiin King, signed 
a doennient at Boston, whieli sceured to France all tho 
country extending from Pentagoet to the island of Ca))0 
Brt^ton inelusively. 

As the whole htid l)een compristnl in the treaty unch'r 
luider the name of Aeadia, under whieh the neighboring 
coasts are often confounded. Sir (Thomas) Temple, it is 
true, refused to give up Pentagoet, whert; he commanded, 
on the ground that that jilaee was not in Aeadia." He was 
right, but as a very good understanding then existed lie- 
tweeu tho two mouarohs, he was subsequently obliged' to 



b ' 



I 



' Dt'iiys, I)t!sci'iiition<li'<ii;nii)lii(|iii', 
oti'., i., lip ly-19. 

'Till" Innty of lirciln, .July III, 
KKiT, restored " tliccoiinliy wliicli in 
ealli'il Aaidin, lyiiifr in North Aiiiiri- 
ca. wliicli the said Most Cliristimi 
King did formerly enjoy :" Mi'iiioires 
des ( 'oninnssaireti, ii., ]i. ;!.'!. The net 
r " ''ession, l''eli. 17, l(i(iT-H (il)., p. 
2iir>), names '' I'entaj;oi't, St. tlohii, 
Port Hoyal, la Ilevc', and Cap <le 
Snl)h' ;'' 1/a I'ondiiite des Kraiii;.. p. ill). 

■' Tliere is strong ground to infer 
that the government of I'entagoCt, 
of wliieh Sir 'I'homas Temjjh' was in 
])osses.si(in ul the Peace of Ureda, 
comprisi'd also Acadia and its lisli- 
eries, since it is stated tliat merely 
from till' fees which he derived from 
the Knglish, lie made )S(l,Oli(l livres 
nniuially : diinli i-nir. See 'Pempti's 
order to Walker, July 7, 11170; Me- 
moires des CunimiggaireB, ii., p. 10 ; 



Act of Hestoralioii, 111., ]i, Dl!). lie- 
sides the fort containing guurd- 
house, slorehiuise, and cliaiiel, tliere 
was an outliouse, and a garden con- 
taining .")() or (10 fruit tre(s. Act of 
surrender of Port Oeiuisick, on the 
St. .lohn's, and of Port lioynl, to 
I'ierre .loyliert de Soulanges, Aug. 
27 and Sept. ',>. 1(170; lli., ]i|i, :;2:!, ;)2."). 
■■ His letter, Nov. 2-1, KitJS, says 
that he refused to give it u|) in con- 
formity with a letter of the Uing, 
dated Aug. 1. He adds: " Thosi! 
parts and places named in my first 
orders, were jiart of one of the colo- 
nies of New l'",ugland, Pentagoi^t be- 
longing to New Plymouth: .Mem. 
(lea C'ommissaircs, ii., p. 2!)!(. In his 
letter, Nov. (1, 1111(1, he takes the 
ground that some of the jilaces are 
in Nova Scotia, inid th:;t Acadia only 
is mentioned in the tf'aty of Breda: 
111., pp. 303. ail. 



IIISTOUY OF NEW KHANCR. 



i:y.) 



to tlio Clicviilii r (Ic (ii/iiid-Fontaiiic a post wliicli, as tlif 166--70. 
Kii^'lish (liciiisclvcs avowed, Inoii^lit liiiii an iiicoiiM' of "—y—^ 
HO.OOO livi'cs.' 'I'lic I'oiiniiissioii, lpy\irtuc of wliicli (lio 
French ^'ovenior was put iu possession of tliis plueo, 
Ix'ais date March .">, KmO," and f^'ives the hniits of Ins f^'ov- 
crnniiiit IVoni tin.' Quinil)e(|ni 1 Kennel)ec) to tlio river St. 
Lawi'ence, accordin;^' to tlie act of taking' possi'ssion dniwu 
up in lt;:!l), hy ('oniniaiuler de ilazilly, iu tlie name of King 
J-onisXlII. 

^Nfatters liein^' thus arran^'ed in repaid to Acadia and 
the Provinces l)oi(h'ring on it, and the court of Frunco 
having' rcc();,aiizcd tlm uoci'SHitj of faeilitiitin<,' the (hiiving 
of any assistance to bo had from (^uehec, in onh'i' to i)nt 
them heyoud ivaJi of a lU'w invasion, it was necessary to 
open a convenient road between tiifit capital aial Port 
I'loyal, or Penta<j,oet ;' for at first thiy confiued tlu-niselvea 
to tlu! restoration of tliest' two pos's; ]\rr. de C'onrcelh'H, 
in the same letti r to Coll)ert in wliieh Iu; solicited his recall, 
iiil'ormed tliat minister that, but for his ill lu-alth, ho would 
himself have already carried out this project. ()u his 
failure to do so, :\[r. Colbert, who had its execution much 
at heart, sent Mr. Patoulet, Commissary iu the Navy, to 
Acadia, with order.s to visit all the posts, and ^'ive him au 
I'xact accouut. The visitation was performed with all 
])os.sible care, but the pr(«j(>eted road was not made, and 
Acadia has ever .siueo remained in the same lanj^niid state, 
tVom which they .seemed so d(^termiued to rescue it. The 
EngHsh have contiuu(Hl to conduct abundant fisheries 
there, which have enriched New England,' and that at the 
tinu3 when men were asking in France of what nse that 
province could be V And yet this was only the least of 
the advantages which it might afford the province. 

' Onl(M-of('liarli-sII., All,--. 0. lOCi): ■ .V 111. di's ('oiiiiiiis.. ii.. ,,. •J!|f). 

^''7.i;- •"•'• ' '1 ■• l>lvv.Mlt tlir l.cyisliiluiv fl-oill 

'■' '•''" mmissidii iirodi 1 to ini-j^ctiing tlir tishiiii; intiTcsts, ii 

'I'diiplr, Imiv dill,' .Inly ■.'•J, KKIK: W(i(»l,.n cidlisli lias long Imim-' in 

>h-nu>\vw dcs C()mnii.ss..my Uu Uoi, fli,. l„tll of iLc Masbuchubciu Lo-i,s- 

U.,p.317. lature. 



il 



''I 



tr 1 



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n\ 



— I 



140 



I f>70. 



Alliiir« III' 

KfH I'miiikI. 

Inrhl. 



' '■■■ 

L ,1 ■¥ 



I ' 



HISTOItY OK NFAV PIIANCE. 

Tlic isliiiid of Ncwfoniiillnnd Imd not been lews ji(';,'l»'<'t»'(l 
lli.iii Ac.iiliii, 1111(1 thr Kiii^' also wislicd proiicr iiii'iisiins to 
Ik.' taken to Hrcinc tlif itortof Pliiccntia, and all llic s(Mitli- 
orn coast on wliicli tluit jiort lies. Speaking' of tiiis island, 
wlinc tlic I''i(iicli h.'id an < stalilislinicnl, mar ('ape ILicc, 
as early as l.")(l|,' we stiippcd at tlie vovaj^'c of Sir Hiini- 
beit Ifnnifrev/ who had taken posMession, in ISHK, for 
(^iieeii I",liza1i< til and liiniself, that princess liaviiif,' manted 
liini the dciiiain, The vessel on which lie was reliirninj^ 
to Eurojie, having licou wrecked on Sahlo iHlaiid, where 
Bonie have declared that he lived two years,' liis ])rojects 
and iireteiisions perished with him, and the I'rciich llslier- 
lUL'U continued their iishcries on Newfoundland, as they 
had done for a century back, without dreaming of fortify- 
ing their position. 

In KiO"), John Cliiyas, of Ilristol,' r(>vived the ])roiccts 
of the Chevalier llnnifrey ; he began an establishment at 
Conception Uay, which was afterwards removed to Saint 
John; and the English Hubso(iuently formed several others 
on the East coast, from Conception 15ay to Cape llace ;" 
but beyond that, the right claimed by that nation over tlio 
whole island was never recognized either by virtue of the 
first discovery by .lohn and Sebastian Cabot, under lleiiry 
VII., nor liy virtue of Gilbert Huuifrey's taking po.ssessiou 



' Si'c Ant.', vol, i., p. ion. Till' 
first Kni;lisli voviifif was in I.VJT, in 
the l)i)iiiiiiUH A'dliisi'iini : lliililiiyt, 
iii., p. l'J!l. Si'i', tiM), Aiidri noil's ('(I- 
loiiinl Cliiircli, i., ]). S. 

■ Mr Iliiniplii'i y (iillxTt, hnitlici- 
in-liuv of Sir NN'ultcr Itnlcifrli. Sio 
I'litciu ill Iliilvluyt, iii, |i, l.'!"). 

■• His expedition consislril nl' tuur 
vessels— tlie Delifilil, (loldeii Hind, 
Swallow, and S(]nirrel, mid nticlieil 
St. .lolin's, NewroiiiidlaMd, in .\ii- 
gnst : llaliluyt, iii., |i. Is. 

^ Alter takinjr possesion in tlie 
Queen's millie, and ereelilii^ llie Klifr- 
liiih uruiu, he suiluU on, but tliu Dii- 



liglit WHS lost, niid Sir lliiniiilirey 
liiiiiHelC went down on the wallow: 
IliiUhiyt, iii.. |). l.")T. Whii Ixjiiriie's 
Discourse ol'Newronndlaiid, I'edley's 
History of Ni'wronnillaiid, p. Hi. 

' .lohntiiiy : I'liichas, Pil^nini, iv., 
p)). IsT'.l, ISHO, issi ; Wldtbonrne's 
Discourse of Neu iiiinilland ; Wliiie's 
Newfoiindlaiul ; Voynf^es uu Nord, 
ix., Ji. mil. 

'■ Aiiionjr these was the settlement 
of Lord Maltimore at I'enylaiid. in 
Avaloli. in Ki'i'^ : W'liite, p. illil ; 
\\'liitlioiniii.''s Discourse of New- 
foiiuillanil. i>p. riU-Tl ; Purchas, iv., 
pp, l^',\), 16S8. 



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I 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



141 



under that of Elizabeth, tho more especially as both wore i66g, 
clisput<'(l by the Basques, Bretons, and Normans, for tea- ^— r-—^ 
sons -which I have elsewhere explained.' 

The French, at last, be<>iui to settle in Placentia Bay, 
where they found a commodious harbor, one of the finest, 
formed by nature, in North Americ.i. It is indeed 
oidy a port, and th(3 most essential necessaries of lif'. 
can be ol^taiued only b}- importation : but as the cod- 
fishery is extremely abundant, and the place affords every 
facility for drying tlio fish, tliis consideration should alone 
apparently sutHco to induce those whose affair it is to set- 
tle xVcadia, to give all their care to the cultivation of tho 
soil, which is excellent ; these two colonies being iu a posi- 
tion to aid each other easily, and by their mutual corre- 
spondence enable both to subsist and defend themselves 
without dei)ending on aid from France and Quebec, 
which has almost always failed them in tho moment of 
nee>u 

Placentia Bay is eighteen leagues in length, and the oe.or.ptioa 
port is at the extreme end. The entrance to the bay is a °''^'];;';^"t'* 
narrow inlet, affording passage for only one ship, but the 
largest vessels can enter. The port can hold one hun- 
dred and fifty, .sheltered from every wind, and there they 
can fish as trancpiilly as in a river.'' Before the inlet lies 
a roadstead, a league and a half iu extent, but not suffi- 
ciently sheltered from the north-northwesters, which fre- 
quently blow on this coast, and are almost always violent. 
The channel of the inlet is rendered narrow by dangerous 
rocks, which must be left on the right, and above which 
we had built Fort St. Louis.' The currents there are vio- 
lent, and rush over a bed of rock, so that they can be 
ascended only by towing, by means of a hawser which is 
fastened on the great Grevo.' 



' -^n'''' ■^■"1- '■• P- l'"J- foi-i'f 11 vessel nlonj,', by huuling in a 

■' Dc 111 I'oiliorie, i., p. 15. cnliie nttui'lied t<i iiu anclior, wliifli 

» Lii lloiitmi, ii., 1 . -.Vl is ,.i„Ti,.,l Cir alien,! i„ a bcint in tlio 

* 2'ouvr or iiwiiUr a la tuaii in to dh-octioii in which it is desired to 



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142 IIISTOUY OP NEW FRANCE. 

i66g. TIio fnrt ivas at tlic foot of a mountain, a little over one 

Imndri'il anil twtjnty foot liijj;li,' on wliicli a rrdonht Lad 
been Imilt. The great Greve, which was a lea<,'uo in ex- 
tent, lies between two other vorv steep mountains, one of 
wliieli, that on the south-southwest, is separated from tlu^ 
Greve by a little stream which issues from the inlet, and 
forms a kind of lake called the Little Bay. Quantities of 
salmon are taken hei'C. The great Greve can hold at once 
a cargo for sixtj- vessels. There is a smaller one for the 
use of the colonists, Avho fish along the land. On both 
these fish can be dried without any risk. They are 
beaches covered Avith galots or flat stones. 

Along the little stream just mentioned, were subsequent- 
l}- erected a kind of cabins of fir leaves and branches, called 
seaflblds, to dry the codfish in rainy seasons.^ The houses 
of the settlers were quite near, and formed a street which 
constituted the town of Placentia. Fort St. Louis ren- 
d(a'ed us masters of all the southern part of Xewfoundland, 
and of the islands of St. Pierre," which lie off it, and are 
inhabited, as well as Chapcaii Rouge, and sonu; other 
])laces on the coast. The St. Malo men fish a little far- 
ther on at a jilace called Petit Nord. The fish are sr.ialler 
here than in Placentia Bay, but are better adapted for the 
Mediterranean and Levant Trade.' 

Authors who have treated of this island, are far from 
agreeing with each other ; some aver that the sky is almost 



m 



go. Tlifsc ciiblcs arc oftUivc strands, 
anil arc calli'il nu^Kii /■(>!. They say 
(ii'i'vc in Anu'virii : the French word 
is (iravo. — Clinrh nd-r. 

' IV In l'i)tli('ri<> siiys 1:!0 toiscs. 
H<'i', as to thi' t\V(i liii-ts licrc. Whiti''s 
Ni'wr.iuiulland, Vciyayrs an Nord, 
ix., p. ys:!, and la lldiitiin's [ilan nf 
Ln (ii'andi- Bayi'dc Plaisancr, vn). i., 
|i. 31 : tiii-thi-ir |ii-rsi'nt .■■lati'. rii>liii|i 
Mullcick's Lcctnns cm Xcwl'ouiiil 
laud, p. \'i. 

'' De la Potherie, Hist, de I'Auit'- 



riquo Spiitcnti'ionalt', x., \i\i. l.j-l(l. 
This authiir ji'ivrs a view of a si'af- 
fold, as well as of a lioiise with a 
slu'C]) ]iaslun'd on the roof. 

■■ This liltk' island and that of 
Miqiiclon now const ituti' all that '.s 
left to Franci' of tho vast possessions 
whose histor\ i'harlevoix uives in 
these volumes. 

^ On l?ellin's niaj), l.e Peiit Xord 
seems applii'd to tlie whole western 
coast : Canada Uocunieuts, UL, ili., 
pp. 8-9. 



Puuile an. 
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Carte des 
Bayers, Rades et Port 

DE Plaisance. 

dansl'isle deTen'cNeuve 

* ~! '%<lrr-" d&i Carter, Plwh'! ctJrnmaaj: de la Afartnc---' 
ParyB Inmufii^ '^'^ ^^ ''^ '^ <^' ' f/aruw . 

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IIISTOHV Ol'' NKW KliANCK. 



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ahviiysi sorcno, that tlicn> iirt^ fiiK' forests, fields cov- 
cri'il witli flowers and Htrawhcriics ; tiiat tlic Imslius 
arc almost all rasphorries, \\illi fruit of iiiarvillous 
tasto;' that tlio water is {^ooil ; lliat there are ferlilo 
valleys; that it produces spontaiicoush- a khid of l)arlev, 
wiiich is \fvy nutritious; tliat p;anie swarius on all 
sides, and that wild animals, such as caribous, moose, 
stags, hears, I'oxtjs, dciT, anil beavei', are found by tlio 
thousan(h 

Others, on tlic contrary, represent Newfouullaml as a 
fearful country, and say tlnit this island is almost every- 
where a moss-covered rock; that in t!ie lino season a 
(|UMntity of strawl)erries and raspberries arc^ j:,athered ; but 
that it ))roduees no other fruit; that tlie wood is g(jod for 
nothing, and lumting, excejjt for partridges and river 1j1 /ds, 
im]iracticablfc, on account of the precipitcms mountains 
that cover the country ;" that the fogs of tlic Great 
Bank extend to the island, and that it rarely enjoys a 
fine sun ; and when the sun does ap])ear in sumiuer, 
its ardor is intolerable, and burns the tisli on the 
Greves. Finally, that for six mouths of the year the cold 
is excessivi>. 

To reconcile these two opinions, we have only to distin- 
guish the dill'erent quarters of the island, which have been 
frequented by Europeans. It is true, that the southern 
and cjistern shores have not usually a very clear sky, and 
I have elsewhere ol)served that this conies from its vicinity 
to the Great Bank, where an almost eternal fog prevails. 
But this is uot the case iu the uorthern and western sec- 
tions, where wintm' and summer are very serene. As to 
the interior of the island, that cau be spoken of only from 
conjecture ; for it is alnicst impossible to penetrate far 
inland ; and I could never hear that any person had ever 



iM< 



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' Di'lii Potlirrit'.IIist (li'TAiiu'ricnic '•' I.ii Tlontmi. Mimoircs di' rAme- 
Si'pt., \.. ]< M); Wliitu's Ni'wlouiul- I'uiUL' Si-ptciilrkiuulu, ii., p. iJl. 
land ; Vovuf^os an Noi'd, ix., \>. lioi) 



I 



144 



\6ftc). 



If> t aluo 
ilihitbituiiis 



Y 



nrSTOHY CF NEW raAM'E. 

y(;t (loiio it. Ainon^' tliosc wlio li.ivo iidviiiiccd fiirtln'Ht, 
it iiiiiy l)i< tliiit sonic |)('i<'(iv('il tliu' viillr\s, wiiilc oIIk is 
iliscovurt'il only iii't'cii)it()us rofks. TIutc ai'o no niouii- 
tiiins without vull('>s, Imt tin sc vallrvs urn soinntinics prn- 
cij)icos, or filled with I'oi-ks and stcrih; sands. ^loifovi r, 
iu 80 extonsivo a country, it is iniitos.siblo Imt that thoro is 
Honio variety. 

In the ni'i^hhorlinod of Iho jiort and l)ay nf Placentia 
there are ponds and fitrtaiiis, whieh attract (piantities of 
game ; but it is almost iniposHible to Iniiit wild aninnds in 
l)arts so little frciiuentod, and almost impnietiorhle. Heneo 
they must multiply intiiiiicly, and no oni? can jirofit by it, 
except rarely and by accident. Nor can the cold fail to 
l)e very sevi're in that island, not so jinich on aoccmnt of 
its situation between the Kith and ")"Jd de;^rees of north 
latitude, as on account of its mountains and woods, the 
wi'st and north wind wliicli often ju'evail, and especially of 
those monstrous iceboi'^'s, which, comin.t,' from the northern 
seas, are arrested by its slioivs and loii^' remain there. 
Finally, it is not surprisin;^' that tlie heat should '>e ex- 
treme in open spots where the sun darts its riiyt a bare 
rocks and beaches covered with pebbles, which reflect them 
(Ui all sides. 

Nor do writers better ap;roe as to the native inhabitants 
of Newfoundland, than on the eharactt'r of the interior of 
the cfaintry. From the exj)iessioiis used by some histo- 
rians, they lead us to infer that they believed it inhabited; 
but accoidin ■• to the more common opinion, it is not in- 
habited by any sedentary nation. On the coasts none are 
seen but Esikmaux, who })ass over to it from the mainland 
of Labrador, in order to hunt and to trade with the Euro- 
peans ; but these Indians have often spoken of other tribes 
with whom th(>y have commercial intercourse. They in- 
termingle, it is true, much that is fabulous with all that 
they say about it, as I have elsewhere remarked, and it is 
ditlicult to conceive now ^\■ll(Jl(> nations i an keep them- 
selves so shut up in the centre of an island, however ex- 



s.< 



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IIISTOIIY OK NEW KIJANlE. 



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tensive it iimy 1)0, tliut no iiidiviilual beloiigiiiy to it hIkiuUI 
oviT l(e seen on tliu const.' 

Till' <"lmiiiii!l wliicli scpiirntes tho islniid of Newfonnd- 
liiml I'l'oiu tin) coutinciit of Aiiiciiv'ii, is iiillrd tlir Strait of 
13i He Islo ; it runs llol'til^v^•^it ami soiitliwcst, AftiT jtass- 
iiif^ it, (lesceniling Houtliwartl, you find ut "jil on the nuiin- 
l.ind of Labrador, a j^'reat bay, where we liave a fort tliat 
bears tlu^ name of Poncliartrain. 'I'liis post uow l)elon^'rt 
to 'I'illy d(> Cinutemani'lu',' a Canadian tj;entlt'man, a Nor- 
mnn by orij,'in. Tlie eodtisjiory is abundant; but there 
is no profit to be mado witli tlio Indians, wlio arc tlu) most 
intractable of all men, and wiiom they liavu despaired of 
ever improvinj^. 

Yet wo have, on tlio wlio!(\ turned Newfoundland to 
better account than Acadia, whicli is not, lii,,,. ver, nnich 
inferior to it in the f,'eneral fishery, and witli wliieh it can- 
not enter into comparison in oilier respectn ; but thi' profit 
was actually visible, and did not retiuire a f,'reat capital ; 
noi- were settlements required, which need concert and 
resolution, but simply a four or five months' voya;^'e, at 
tho end ef which they return to the bost)m of their 
family. 

Much stress, too, was laid on tho oonvoniouce of tho 
port of Plaeentia, which was deemed a necessary stoppinj,'- 
place for ships retiu'iunf^ from tlio French and Spanish 
isles in the West Indies ; as thouf^h Acadia did not oll'er 
jiorts as connuodions nuich nearer, nioro easy of access, 
and where they could be supplied with stores that they 



' A century bus not gettled this 
(|ucstiiin. It is Htill a niuttcr of 
(Idulit who ai'o till' native inlialiit- 
aiils (if the i>hintl, niid wiiat are 
their niiiMliei'S, etc Ak to tlieso 
Hoiillis, or Red ludianK, gi'e Rir-lion 
Mullock's Leetures on Newfound- 
lund (ISIKI), p. !l; and I'edleyV IHh- 
t"i'y of Newfoundland (IS(i;|i, ii]). 
^'■,'r, :!;jS, 4v,>,,-,uy; L'lmrlevoix Jour- 
nal, p. ITS. 
Vol. m.— 10 



\(i^«). 



I'ho (irunt 
11»). 



• See Canada Documents, II., x., 
]). 4.V.i ; Ki'i-landV Lalmidor. ]>. ;>U"» ; 
Hind's l.aliradoi', ii.. p. l'.3S. Xiar 
St. I'a\d's UiviT in tlie ]iort of Hi'est. 
frecpieiited in .hu'iuu'S ( aitierV day, 
and represented aliout KiOO as the 
chief jiost in New France: Holiert's 
Oietionary of ( (ininu'rce. It is tlie 

I'll '..(■ /'"'/V nil tlie niai> of Newfi 11111(1 

land in tliis volume. Tlie old Ksipa- 
luaux fort was on St. I'aul's Hay. 



1 \ : 



II 



t 1 



fi 



11' 
f' 



i 



) I 



rin 



\M<). 



First 

GovciMcir ( 

I'liici'iiiia. 

1660. 



Y 



TIISTOIIY <»K NFW FUANf'K, 

coiiM Mill i'\|H'ct to fliiil at Pliicnitiii, Still tlu' liij^'h cHtl- 
iiiiition with wliicli tlu'V wt'ic prcpoMSfKHcil in I'.ivur of tiii-i 
last poi't, wliicli it was indct'!.! of f^rcat iiiiiiiiitiiiicr I'di' iis 
to |in'si'i'v»>, lias caused it to be visited from time to timo 
1)}' royal Hijiiailnms, and thn iiei;^lil)oiIiood of tli»> Kiip,'liHli 
llilH given rise to seveial (>N|)editioiis, roilnuildiii;^ tu tlio 
^'lory of our nation, as wo shall see in tho Hocjuel of this 
history. 

Tlioro \n not 0110 of theso posts, which thoso aiinoyinjj; 
neij^hhors havo occupied there, from \vhi<'h wo have not 
driven them more than once; our hrave Canadians havinj,' 
found tlie secret of j^atlierin^' laurels in the most arid coun- 
try in the world, and almost always amid snow and ice. A 
stroke of the pen has deprived us of the fruit of so numy 
victories.' The island of Ntswfoundland, larj,'() as it is, 
could not contain all our fishermen and those of Kii^'laml, 
as Sii'ily of old could not satisfy the amliition of Itoiiie and 
Cartha^'e ; yet with this dillereiice, that Sicily reiiiaiiii d 
entirely in tho hands of those who wrested it from their 
rivals; while Newfoundland has been left to those Avho 
were always heateii llieiH.-. 

JJefore the year 1(1(10, tho court of France h.id interfered 
but little in the a flair- of tho island; it h>ft almost all in 
the hands of iiidivi(bials, who, at their own cost, litted out 
tishing vessels to send tlioro. At last, this same year, 
Sicnr CJarm'ot obtained from the king a grant of tho port 
of Placontia, with a commission as governor." Ho met 
great o])])osition to his taking possc'ssion, and he was ap- 
parently oblig(,d to desist at lirst from his rights, and 
maintained his title of governor bnt for a short timo ; for, 
aftiM' a few years, tho Sicur do la Poy]io having been sent 
to riacentia with a royal commission to take possession, 
in the king's name, of tho fort ami settlement at that jjlaco, 
and rouiain there in tho character of governor, it was laid 



' Fiuncf pivp 11, Nowfoundluml t.'iiniiuis., ii., p. 1"J7 ; ■; ID, of Treaty. 
l).v the treaty ol I'lrrclit: Mum. ik'8 '' fanudu Doc, 111., iii., \i. 13. 



lIlSTitltY Ot-' NKW FIIANCK. 



Ii7 



tlowii ill liix iiisfniclioiH : Tliiit liis iimjcHty Iwid boon in- 
(liiciil to srcuic tlint M|)ut, and cMtiililish a culony tln'rt> to 
liiuiiitiiiii his Hulijrcts in llic I'ij^lit wliii'li tlicy hiul lon^ 
j)ohhi<hsim1, of K"'"K tlicro I'vcry yt'iir to t'lirry on a conHiil- 
I'liililc fislicry of dry llsli, mid Ity tlm fciir of tlirlr licin;,' 
forcstidlcd liy tlio I'lii^disli : tliiit lie liiid iiiiiiu:illy incimi-d 
(.•oiisiclnMlilc t xpciisc to fiialilc tin' iiilialiitanis ti> siilisist 
l»y tlicir labor: that tlio fishory had apprarcd to him tho 
muvHt and roadirst way to snciTcd ; Imt that tlif coiu- 
inaiidaiits had a|>|iaiiMlly ciidfavoicd to iisn tliis to ol>h;^() 
the inhaliitaiits to ^'ivc thcni a portion of their lishcry in 
I'xchanp' for provisionH, wliii'li they distriliutt'd anion<^ 
the III, ahhoiij^h tlii'Ho wfro drawn from the liiii^''s stori-- 
hoiiscs : that Sii'ur dc la Poypc was to put an end posi- 
tively to this disorder, and examine whether by leaviii;^ 
the inhidiitants of tho colony all the finit of their lalior, 
tiiey will lie in a stato to subsist the whole yi'ar throiif^h, 
or at least a jiart of tlie yi'ar, and that in case they needed 
iii'lp, lie slioidd inform his niajesiy what they woiilil ro- 
(|uii'e of Iiini, whether provisions or nierehandise, a^'ainst 
wiiirli they could j:;ivo in cxchan^'e the piolit of tlu ir lish- 
t'ry ; which joined to the cultivation of the soil, the raisin;^' 
of cattle and hunting', by which also they could aid them- 
selves, would, in a short time, jiut them at their ease.' 

Such was tlie state of atVaiis in ail parts of Now Franco 
when Mr. Tulon returned to resume tho functions of In- 
teiidant.' Puriiifj; liis whole sojourn in Eurojie, ho had 
been occupied with nothing' scarcely 1 ut Canadian mat- 
t( rs. lie had especially in view the restoration of tho 
llecoUoi't Fathers, who, on their side, woro on the alert in 
re^'ard to it. Tho Company (jf a Hundred Associates had 
constantly refused its consent for reasons which I have 
touciied iiiioii elsew here ; and this refusal, although it 



\r,f,n 



' Cimadn Due, HI,, iii.. pp. l'^-4!). ■' .Ante, vol. ii,, p. (i.'i, lii- Clcrci], 

■' UclnliDii (Ic III Noiivc'llc Kiaiii-i', Ktablis-^rinciit ilc In I'ni.. i , pp. 

KitO, p. :.' ; 1.1' Clncii, KtablisNf- l:;-J 511, diliiiU tlic cllliris ni Uiv 

uieiit dc lu Fui, ii,, p, b7. UuculluctH tu rcturu tu Cuauiiu. 



Mr. Tiilon 

ri'tlU'lls tn 
<.'iiiukIu. 



■!\l 






% 



148 



1669. 



i: 



He lirinsrs 

back tlio 

liucullocts. 



4 1 



t ^i 



He is sliiii 

wreckeit 

with tlieir 



HISTORY OF NEW FHANCE. 

regarded tliom only in goiiorid as a mendicant order, had 
been very mortifying to them. Among the colonists opin- 
ions were divided ; some, and in fact the njajority, still 
thought as the Company had done ; others desired the 
Eecoll(>cts in hopes of finding them less rigid than the 
secular clergy and the Jesuits, in regard to the liquor 
trade, and some other disorders, which began to revive 
again in Canada. 

They Avere undoubtedly deceived ; but as they inces- 
santly clamored that consciences were hampered ; ' Mr 
Talon thought it best to put them in the "Tong ; and 't 
miist be admitted that if the clamors of libertines contrib- 
uted to the recall of these religious to America, a bad 
cause never produced a more hai)py effect. These Fa- 
thers have since that time rendered and still render great 
services to all this colony, where they are much beloved 
and are at least as well established as those avIio returned 
thirty-five years before them.' 

It M as in !()()',), that they obtained of the king the edict for 
their re-establishment." Father Ciosarius Herveau, accom- 
panied by two other priests and a lay brother, embarked 
for Quebec on the 15th of July in that year, with Mr. 
Talon and a party of the five hundred families, whom the 
king had granted to that Intendant to settle Canada ; but 
after three months' very stormy navigation, the ship which 
was conveying them was forced to put into Lisbon, and 
having cleared from that port towards the (^nd of Decem- 
ber to return to Ilochelle, it was lost almost in sight of 
port, and only a part of those on board were saved.' 

In the montii of May following. Father Germain Allard, 



' Lo ClciTi], KtHbUHBi'im'nt do la ■■ Lo Clercq, Etiiblisscincnt dc la 

Foi, ii., \i. S4 ; Talon, Mcmoiri' sur Foi, ii., p. 87. Father licrvcau's 

I'Etat (In Canada ((Jucbi'C, 1840), l>. ;J. Cdiiiiianiona were Fatlici'H liomualil 

■ That iii, the Jisuits. Paiiillion and llihiiii)u (iueniii. with 

^ Kdict, Letter of l.onis X'lV. to the lay brother Cosnias (iiavcran. 

F. Alhird, c'itei' by Fiullon, llistoire Kallur Ki iiuiild died at «ea: lb. 

de la Colonif , iii., \<. 1!IS ; l,e Clercii, M. Maiy ol the Incaiualiou: Lettres, 

Elftblii<>:'j.iifut do lu Foi, ii., j). b7, p. U4U. 



f^ 



% 



T 



T 



p 



Jb 



HISTORY OP NEW FRANCE. 



149 



Provincial of tlio Rocollocts, and aftcnvarils Bishop of 1669. 

VciK'o, fiiibarlcca witli Mr. Tali.n, who liad filled up his ' ^ 

([uota of settlers by iiieaiis of soaio conipauios of Cariguau, 
wliich had returned to Franco ; throe other priests of tlio 
order,' a deacon nainod Brother Luke, estocmod for his 
l)aintiii<,'s,' and a Lay brother. Tlioir voyage was prosper- 
ous,' and the Provincial, after putting his religious in pos- 
session of tlio lands at Quebec, which they had occupied 
before the English invasion, returned to France.' The 
accident by which Mr. Talon's vessel was lost the year 
before, was Hko a general tempest, which extended its 
etlects to Quebec, where it caused a damage of one hun- 
dred thousand francs. Nevertheless, they consoled tiiem- 
selves for this loss more easily tiian they did for that of 
the settlers, of M'hich it had deprived the colony. The 
only thought then Avas ot peopling the country, and they 
were not as scrupulous as they had been in the choice of 
settlers ; the consequence was, that vices theretofore un- 
known were soon prevalent. 

Sometime before Mr. Talon's arrival, three French sol- i„,,i„„ 
diors having nu;t an Iroquois chief, who liad a largo 'by Frcmlu-'^ 
quantity of furs, plied him with licpior, and, when he was "'""• ' 
intoxicated, murdered him. Notwithstanding the precau- 
tions which they took to conceal their crime, they were 
discovered and thrown into prison.' While their trial 
was progressing, three other Frenclimon found six Mohe- 
gans who had go(xls to tho value of a thousand crowns ; 
they, too, rendered the Indians intoxicated, and after mur- 



' L.- Cl.Tcq, Etab'i.s,-niont dc la ' The v.iyag,. wa,. I„n,r, an.l tlioy 

I'oi. .1. S^<. Tho kiiifr, by Lottivs w.-rn nearly wredv,.d at' Tu<l,„,,sa<- • 

dr ( aclu't, April 4, lOTO, or.hTed HeUulon de hi x\ouv,.|l,. France' 

I'atlier Allart to go in jxTson with 1070, 11. ;.'. ' 

li.wr tViars. His .■otapaniuns were ^ L,. Ch.rcq, Kfal.lissemont de la 



Father (iahriel de hi liibourde, Sim- 
liliciiis Luiidon, llih'riun tliiesnin, 
Bnlher Luke le Fraiieoiti, an<l Bro- 
ther Anselm Bardoii. lay brother. 

• For I5r. I.uke le Fraii.;ni.s' puiut- 
iugs, suo Le C'lorcq, ii., p, WU. 



Foi.ii,, pp. !(1 -!):). Tlieir new chapel 
was opened 0<'t. I : lb., p. !):). 

'■ Moth-r Mary of th,' Incarnation, 
Letiivs, Oct., i(j(j|). l,,,,tn.fi, p. (;4,-i_ 
'J'he a^sii->iiis vs-ei'c thvtr scjldiers ol' 
the garribou »1 Muutreal, 



:l 



: , 



H. 1 



'\ 






% 



'm 



i^-y 



\li\ 




I I 



1, 



'V*. 

•>-i 

\ 






J if 



f. 



150 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



1670. ("".oring tlicni, had the effrontery to go and sell their booty, 
^""^'Y—^ passing it off as tlio fruit of their own hunting; they did 
not even take jiains to make away with the bodies of their 
vietinis, wliich were recognized by some of tlieir own tribe.' 
The rosult. These at first snspeeted the Iroquois, with wliom they 
had just conehided a treaty of peace, and tlie}' were pre- 
paring to malce reprisals, when a rumor arose that French- 
men liad committ'Ml tlio d(-ed, One of the three murderers, 
falling out with !iis accomplices, revealed it to a friend, 
■who did not keep his secret ; it soon spread from mouth 
to moixth, till it reached the Indians, and the two tribes 
which were on the ])oint of engaging in a bloody war, 
joined against us. The Mohegans were the first in the 
field, and four of their braves were so hardy as to besiege 
a French house in open day. The master was absent, but 
his servants made a vigorous defence ; two Indians were 
killed, but the other two having set fire to the house, it 
was impossible to extinguish the flames or resciie the mis- 
tress, who was bixrnt to death.' 

The Iroquois, on their side, were not slow in learning 
the particulars of the uuirder comniitted on the person of 
their chief, and they were even assured that U\ o of the 
murderers had been accused by the third of a plot to 
poison all Indians of tlieir nation whom thej^ could find. 
It did not require all this to rouse them to fury, and they 
resolved to carry their resentment to the last extremity. 
The French had not a moment to lose, to escape being 
plunged once more in a war which could not but be disas- 
trous in its consequences ; and Mr. de Courcclles, who con- 

' Cliarlrvoix licri' I'ollows Motlici' lli^tciin^ de la Coldiiii', iii., ]>. IJil, 

MiU'v ()(' till' Iin'urimtum (|i. (>!")), citiiiir On-lariitiunor LiiSiilli',.Inly r), 

l)Ut tliis miinier rciiU.v iirccN'di'd thi' KiilU. mid siiitcnrt' by d'Aillclxmst, 

otlicr. It ',vus cniiiiiutlc'd during- the Sip.. II, l(i(i!l. iu tlic ProtlioiiDtiiry'H 

wintiT of ItiliH-i), liy tlirt'c FniicU- dtlici', M<iMtniil. Tin' iiiurdcrfrs of 

luou. The vicliiu.s wcrf Oiieidas ; this jiarty escuiied, but wei'C tried 

Relation de la Nouvi'lle Frmu'e, KhO, and ('(judrinned : Faillon, iiii. :!'^li, 

[ip. V, l."), Tii. Three men, a woman, U'iT. 

and two cliildreii, who were killed ' ^Mother Mary of the Inearnalion : 

ou ihu Kivei- MuBcuuchu : Faillon, lb. The fuct is not otatud elsuwhero. 



1 



1 



HISTOHY OF NEW FRANCE. 



151 






ceiveil at a Kliinco tlio wliolo importanco of tliis affair, at 1670. 
onco started for Montreal, where, as he liad leariuid, In- — "'' — 
dians from all the nations, Iroquois oven, and Mohegaus 
had just arrived. 

He assembled them as soon as he landed, and told them j,,stioe.io.io 
bv tlie mouth of Father Chaumonot, who spoke Huron i.Hii';!,,''',^ 
and Algonquin with equal facility,' such plain trutlis, to P™""^'- 
convince them that it was their common interest to remain 
united with the French, that they Avcrc intluenced. Ho 
then had the three soldiers brought in, who had assassi- 
nated the Iroquois chief, and had them tomahawked' 
before their eyes. This prompt justice disarmed the 
Iroquois, who could not, it is said, withhold their tears 
at the sad end of these wretches. The Governor- 
General said that he would neglect no means to secure 
the arrest of the murderers of the Mohegans, and that 
he would treat them as he had just treated the others. 
In conclusion, he made compensation to the two nations 
for A\hat had been taken, and the assembly broke up well 
satisfied. 

This afltair thus happily terminated, there remained Mr. iie 
another, not less important or less delicate. The Ottawas m\^^^m 
and Iroquois began once more to send war parties against t,l',vl',;'!i',;'ui 
each other, and there M-as reason to fear that tliese sparks •"^"^■'^' 
would produce a general contlagratiou. Mr. de Courcelles, 
who always assumed a very high tone with the Indians, 
and who had in this way taught them to respect him, told 
both parties that he would no longer permit them to dis- 
turb the peace of the nations, and that ho would punish 
with the same severity that he had just exercised beft)ro 
their eyes on Frenchmen, all who refused to agree to rea- 
sonable conditions. Both were accordingly to send him 



' It Is nowhoro stiitcd that lio un- Cliarlcvoix says, ■' fit cnsscr la trte." 
dorstood Al-oiKjuin, not nvn in his Tlii.y weiv apiiarrntly shot : Dollirr 



Lile. 

'' iliithoi- .Mary of \.\iv Iiujaniatioii. 
Lcttres, p. 04,5 ; ULlatioii, lUTU, p. 4. 



di' Casson, llistoiro d,- .Mounval 
Tli.y wiTi- .•xirutrd, .July U, lUiJU 
FaiUijii, iii., p. 324. 



'I; 






!|i 



% 



I ..n 



ri 



I 



>'i 1 



ir>2 



1670. 



Enptisiu 

of 
Uar:iUijii- 

tiu. 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 

dcpntios, tlicu lio would listen to their complaints, and do 
justice to all.' 

He was obeyed ; the chiefs of all the natives came to 
Quebec ; those who deemed themselves ag<,a'ievcd, made 
their complaints, and by the prudence of Gavakontie, 
who had come to rejircsent his canton, and the firmness 
of the (Jovernor-Geueral, concord was established to tho 
general satisfaction.'' Garakontie then addressed the 
Ottawas on the unbecoming manner in which they treated 
the missionaries, whom the French had, he said, the good- 
ness to intrust to them, and as though ho liad awaited the 
occasion of some such numerous gathering, to make pro- 
fession of his faith, he declared himself publicly a worship- 
per of Jesus Christ." 

He added that ho liad long been a Christian in heart, 
that he had all his life detested the sujierstition in which 
he had been brought up, and that he could no longer de- 
lay securing for himself the benefit which he had enabled 
so many others to obtain. Then addressing the bishop, 
Avho was present, lie conjured him to receive liim without 
delay into the number of the childreu of God. All con- 
curred to induce the prelate to grant such a proselyte what 
he so earnestly sought. An apostle before he avowed him- 
self a Christian, lie had always ajipeared to have the es- 
tablishment of Cliristiauity in his nation as much at heart 
as the missionaries themselves, and tho whole colony was 
under tho deepest obligations to him. 

Nothing, moreover, was more adapted to accredit re- 
ligion among all tho nations of this continent than to let 






' Tlie condiu't of (le Coui'i'dlc is 
Bonii'wliiit iiia^nirird. He sent In-ltH 
to Oni'iilii unci Siiiccn, wliicli were 
received <niitL' coldly : IJelalion, 1070, 
PI). 70, 77. 

' The Uelntion (1070. ji. 2) repre- 
sents tln^ coming of the Irixiuois 
dejiuties to meet the Otliuvas us the 
spuutaneous work of (.farukontie. 



lie arrived at Montreal just as tho 
last Imnd of Ottawns, in 80 or 
i)0 canoe.- came in. I)e Courcelle 
would not come to meet them, but 
summoned all to Quebec. The jiro- 
ceediiifTS are p;iven in the Relation, 
1070, y]>. 4-0. 

■' ]{elation do la Nouvelle France, 
1070, p. 5. 



\ 



I 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



153 



their deputies Avituess tlie couvcrsiou of a man so Rouevally 
esteemed. The bishop, accord higly, had uo hesitation in 
admitting this illustrious proselyte into the bosom of the 
church ; he knew that he was sufficiently instructed, and 
baptized him himself. The governor-general acted as 
godfather, and Mademoiselle de Bouterouc, daughter of 
the intendant as godmother. The former gave him the 
name of Daniel, which he bore himself. Nothing was 
omitted to give lustre to the ceremony, all the deputies of 
the Indian nations attended, and were afterwards plenti- 
fully feasted.' 

While Mr. de Courcelles thus maintained his colony iu 
profound peace, and adopted the most sagacious measures 
to meet whatever could disturb the good understanding 
between the French and Indians, the North of Canada 
was ravaged by a contagious disease, which almost en- 
tirely completed the depopulation of those vast countries." 
Many Christians died in their baptismal innocence, and 
in sentiments which tended greatly to console the gospel 
laborers for so many losses ! ' The Attikamegues among 
others have not appeared since those times, and if some 
remain, they must be intermingled vith other tribes who 
have no intercourse with us.' 

Then too, it was, that Tadoussac, where hitherto scarce- 
ly ever less than twelve hundred Indians were seen at the 
time of trade, began to be almost entirely abandoned, ' as 
well as Three Iiivers, from which the Algonquins with- 
drew to Cap de la Magdeleino;' but there was this difi'er- 
ence between these two posts, that the French continued 
at the latter, while the former, where we had no permanent 



1670. 



Mortiility 
iu thu 
Kortli. 



' Relation de la N. P., 1670, cli. ii., 
pp. 0-7; 107;i-0, pp. lS(i-fl. 

'' Rt'lation do la Nouvclle France, 
1070, 1). 7. Chauiiionot. lb., p. '..'0, 
says: " Fortlii' Inst yeartlu'small -pox 



^ Relation, 1070, pp. 7, 14, etc. 
■■ The Attikameifiies a.Xi\ not men- 
tioned after lO.TS, except as indi- 
viduals. All)anel 8]ieaks of a woman 
in l{elation, 1070, \i. 1-1. See as to 
has fiii-ionsly desolated this colony, them the Heliition, Kill. ]). '.3!). 
The MontaKiiais and Algomjuins '■ lii'lation de la N. F., 1070, p. 11. 
have almost all died of it." '^ lb., p. 14, 









i ii 






\ 



^^^•J 



ii 



11 :^ 






{ ■*( 



f 



154 IIISTOHY OF NEW FRANCE. 

1670. estiiblishmcut, li.'is remained dosortctl ' This mortality 
^^'~'r-~~^ ^vas caused especially by small-pox," wliicli some years 
later entirely destroyed the town of Syllery. Fifteen hun- 
dred Indians were attacked and not one recovered. 
Kstiibiisii- The Hnrons, altliougli always intermingled with tlio 
Iiur'm ii!wn Froncli, wlio comnnmicatcd the disease to the Indians, 
oi Lnruiie. ^,t,p.q-,^,(i it better than other tribes;' and it was abont this 
time that Father Chaumonot having collected them all 
two leagues from (Jnebec, founded the Mission of Loretto,' 
now more flourishing in the fervor of those who inhabit 
that settlement than by their number. At this time, too, 
an event occurred which showed that not in vain did they 
labor to sow tha seed of the Word in the Iroquois cantons, 
and especially in that of the Mohawk, at aU times most 
opposed to the missionaries. 

Some Dutch people settled near this canton, attempted 
to disseminate tlieir dogmas among these neophytes, and 
tried the women first, hoping to succeed more easily. They 
attacked them especially on the Devotion to the Mother 
of God, the worship of Saints, the Cross, and Images ; but 
they found instructed Christian women, firm in the belief 
of what had been taught them on these points. Ministers 
then tried to inspire them with distrust of their mission- 
aries. This plan met with still less success ; these good 
Christians replietl even in a way that covered them with 



Tlie 

tl.l- lluijllili- 



' Ji'ffcrys., Fri'iich Dominions, p. !}. 

' Fiithcr Alliant'l tho luipsionnry 
at Ttidoussac, was tilvi'wiso attuclvcd 
by it. delation, KiTO, p. 10. 

■' Almost ul! the Ilurons were 
siMZc'd with tlic sniall-jxix. Clinu- 
iiionot in liclation, KITO, j). iO, who 
attrilnitrs their recovery to Our 
Laily of Foyo. The mission was then 
1 alleil ■' Annunciation of our La(fy," 
and was near ^iueliec, at a jilace 
wliicli now lieais the name of Ste. 
Foie, a corruption of Notre Dame 
de Foyc, so called liy (iiaumonot 
after a liauctuary of that nauio near 



Dinan in Belgium. Relation, 1C71, 
1>. T ; 1072, p. 2 ; KiTi), p. 1 ; Relations 
Inedites, i., pp. 149, 2!)5. 

■* Loretto, Ancionne Lorettc, was 
founded in [iwrsuance of a long- 
cherished desire of Father Chaumo- 
not, who had visited the celetiratod 
gnnctuary in Italy. He erected a 
('haiiel, which was an exact counter- 
part in size and arrniigenunt ot the 
Santa Casa. See Chaumonot, Aut(*- 
biograpliie, pp. !)t)-4 : Helation de la 
Xouvelle France, 1(17:!-!), pp. 200-1 ; 
l{elati(]ns Inedites, i., \\ ;!()."). It was 
opened, Noveml)er 4, 1074. 



I» 



i. 



I 



4, 



.ir 



1 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 

confusion, roproacliiiiL? tlicni witli tlio fact tliat no one 
could see in them citlicr tlio ])ii«tj, iv-ularity, or disintor- 
estodiicss wliicli rcndcnvd tlu'ir pastors so wortlij of re- 
sjH'ct, and wliicli liad at all times seemed to thom a strong 
iu<,'ument in favor of the doctrines tliey tau^dit. 

The Dutch thought that they would succeed l)etter, by 
intimidation, and gave tlicm to understand that it would 
not he very safe fen- them to apjiear in tlio settlements of 
Xew York with their beads and other marks of the Itomau 
faith ; but they laughed at these threats, and declared that 
they would be only too happy to lay ihnvn their lives in 
defence of tlieir faith. One was even bold enough to enter 
a meetnig while the minister was giving instruction, and 
there recite her prayers before them all. These lujroines, 
■n-ho were generally- heads of cabins, sIiowcmI no less zeal to 
prevent any tiling being done in the tt)wns prejudicial to 
Christianity ; they took very great care to instruct their 
children well, and their fervor, supported by their intluence, 
led tlie preachers of the Faith to conceive great hopes of 
seeing the Cliristian religion one day become the prevail- 
ing religion in this canton.' 

At tirst very few adults presented themselves to receive 
baptism, nor did all who sought it obtain their request 
from lack of perseverance, or because they would not re- 
nounce their unjust wars or their supcn-stitions ; 1)ut a 
tritle, which Father Pearou' who governed that church, 
had tlio dexterity to convert into a serious aflair, dis- 
posed many to range themselves among his neophytes. A 
chief one day undertook to silence him in a public assem- 
bly, and on anotlier occasion commanded him to leave the 
council, wishing to bo free to perform some superstitious 
ceremony, wliicli he knew the missionary would not ap- 
prove. The Father thought it expedient to sliow his dis- 
pleasure ; he even declared that he could no longer cou- 



155 



ifco. 



.\(laross 

Ot'H 

ini.-sic.|i:ify 

lillli its 
SUCCU.SH. 



' T5''l^"i"". 1'''0, ,,,.. ;I0-(1. r„|„. i„ 1078. n,. i,,,,,,,,.,,,, ,„ ^j^^ 

Jolin Pa'iron c;iin.. to Canndii, I'roviuc.. of Clmnipagnu. Ciiruyon 
June 27, IGUT, and rtturncd to Eu- Doc. luedits, xiv. 



f 






■V 



i ' I 



f 'i' 



it 

I 



•■i'«i' 



15G 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



t O 



1670. tinno in a plfico whoro tlioy did not liositato to insult liiin; 

' ^ ' - but that ho would not answer for tho way in which Onontliio 
would talio his withdrawal, when ho know what had forced 
Lim to retire. 

Tlie missionary was far from ontcrtainin}^ in heart any 
such resentment as ho ovhiced; but among tho Indians 
ono afl'ront draws lit .inothcr, covers tho ono who bears it 
with CO .:np* ..d d<prives him of all credit. True 
patience, iii-. fn of charity and humility of heart, must, 
commonly ^' !>!<it;,;'. raise us above all these considera- 
tions; yet lu: '.oncev " - regulate it by circumstances. It 
required time to render iiiv Indians capable of appreciating 
all the greatness of soul contained in Christian humility, and 
Father Pearon was well satisfied that tho Iroquois would 
omit nothing to appease him, and prevent his carrying his 
complaints to the governor-general : nor was he deceived, 
except in that ho acquired gi'oater advantage than he had 
expected. 
Orcat Tho Iroquois chiefs camo that very day to make him in 

t^M-Viilnity P^^l>lic mar.y apologies for having insulted him, and the 
M'.lhinvk nii«*^ioii''ii'y after accepting them quite graciously, profited 
ciiiitoii. \)j the disposition in which he saw all minds to express his 
regret at the indocility of most of them in not yielding to 
tho great truths, which he announced to them : ho added 
that ho could no longer tolerate so many odd customs, nor 
their attachment to fables, tho absurdity of which ho had 
so often shown them; that since he was losing his time 
speaking to a people that would not hearken either to the 
voice of Heaven or that of reason, he considered it his duty 
to bear to other parts the word of God. The chief sought 
to justify himself ; but the Father replied in the tone which 
ho had assumed, and of which ho already perceived tho 
good eflect. " I see clearly," said tho Indian, " that to 
appease you, we must all become Christians. If it de- 
pends on me, you shall soon have that satisfaction." ' 



f 



I 



' Relation de la Nouvelle France, 1670, pp. 39-40. 



w 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



167 



r 



He tlion took him apiirt, and «nf,'gostoil to him tlio 
mcfiiis wliioh he cousideied bust fitted to obtain liis desire. ' 
He promisod him to uso every eudeivvor to gain the 
bachoms : ho visited them all, and when ho thou^dit tliem 
in the desired disposition ho convoked a general as- 
sembly, in which lie spoke as a real missionary. Father 
Pearou then rose and completely shook the obstinacy of 
all present ; in which ho was marvellously seconded by 
Garakontliie, wliom chance, or rather a Divine Providence 
had brought to the village,' so that by uiumimous consent, 
three resolutions were adopted, which were supported by 
presents, and all that could render them irrevocable. 

The first not to permit any public invocation of Af. is- 
koue,'' or even recognize him as Author of Lif- . the 
second, not in future to call in medicuie men to - 'o '^o 
sick; and the third to abolish superstitious and ind^fit 
dances. This was almost aiitheutically ]n'oelaiming Aie 
Christian religion, the only one of which it was ni'^^ed 
to make public profession: and in fact the wh^io town 
subsequently camo very assiduously to the missionary's 
instructions. The sequel did not, indeed, correspond to 
the hopes that an affair- so well managed, led men to con- 
ceive ; but most of those who profited by this first ray of 
grace, and did not too long defer avowing themselves 
Christians, always inviolably preserved their baptismal 
promises, and merited to become founders of one of 



If.; 



f 



' Qandaoungur', the modern Caugh- 
nawaga. It was here tliat .Ti>gue8 
had buen killi'd. See Ante, Vol. II., 
p. 140. 

'' The Iluroun say Ariskoui, and 
the Iroquois, Agreskoui'. Churkv<jix. 
The Huron missionaries wrote it 
with a pause after tlic first letter, 
giving nearly the sami^ sounil as 
tlie Innpiois. As ♦(> this deity, called 
also Tebaronliiawagon, see Lalitau, 
Manirs di's Sauvuges, i., p. i;J2 ; 
Jogues, Letter, August 5, 1643 ; Re- 



lation, 1070, pp. 47, GO ; il>., 1071, 
p. 17 ; Cusick's Ancient History of 
the Six Nations, p. 80. The rejec- 
tion of Agreskoue effected at this 
time was pennanent ; he is appar- 
ently now unknown to the Inxiuois, 
and even in their pagan rites they 
worship Niio (Dieu) or Ilawinnio 
(He is the Lord) Cuoq, Etudes Plii- 
lologiipies, p. 14. In Morgan's League 
of the Iroquois there is not the 
sl.glitest trace of Agreskoue or Tlia- 
ronhiawagon. 



'?■ 'i 



Ilt'fi* 



'• ", 



I 1 



f '1\ 



158 



1670. 



Stiito of 
religion in 
the (itlirr 

cuiituna. 



Ainonit 

tlio Alu'on- 

<]iuri 

niilioiis. 



niSTOnY OF NEW FnANCE, 

the most flonrisliiiif^ CIiriHtiun communities wliicli Nortli 
AiiKnit'ii lifts l)('li('l(l, Its wv siiitll soon sliow. 

Fitt'ior Brnyiis did not rciip noitr as niucli fruit in tlio 
oantou of Onoida. A quantity of liquor had bocn hrouj^ht 
iu thoro from Now York, and druuktuincss caused foarfid 
disorders. Moreover, no man of mark and no nnitron of 
influeneo had declared in favor of the missionary. Tlio 
jieoplo did not even go to his instructions, and his soli? 
consolation was the groat uuraber of children, whom ho 
baptized at death, and with whom ho peopled heaven. A 
visit which Garnkonthie paid this canton, gave rise to a 
gleam of hope that things would change in appearance, 
and it was not the fault of that zealous ncophyto if the 
Oneid.ia did not correspond to tho impressions of grace, 
which called to them ; but ho derived scarcely any fruit 
from his zeal. All went better in tho other three cantons. 
Tho strong liquors of tho English and Dutch did not roach 
them as easily as it did Oneida. Garakouthie had more 
influence, tho Huron Christians were in greater numbers 
there, and tho war with the Andastes, in which tho upper 
Iroquois had recently sustained pretty severe losses, 
having humbled their pride, also rendered thorn more 
docile.' 

Next to tho Iroquois missions, those established among 
the upper Algonquins," more particularly attracted the 
attention of those who governed New France. They 
opened a vast field to tho pubUcatiou of the gosjiel, and 
gave a great liberty to trade. Sault St. Mary was the 
centre, and to fix the Indians there, the missionaries 
cleared extensive grounds and sowed a quantity of grain, 
tho cultivation of which did not require much prepara- 
tion. This succeeded, and iu the first two years, they 
baptized at least three hundred persons, most of them 
apparently dying children. 



' Kelatiou, 1070, pp. 45-78. 



» lb,, p. 81. 






I ! 



II 



4 






BOOK X. 



H * 



If 



lljfii 



U^l' 'I 



I 

Ij ■ 






Ij';i' 



1 



i 



1 



IIISTOIIV OK Ni;\V FHANCK 



ICl 




BOOK X 






i 



NoT\ATrTtsTA\nrs-n nil tlio oxortiniiH iimdo l.y Mr. do Coiir- 1670, 
ccllfs to iiiaiiitiiiii peace anion;,' t!i(> nations of Canada, it -^r— ' 
was not easy for it to Hnl)Mist lon^' iimon^,' so nmny ditlevelit 
trilies, wlioni tlie least disioiiteut aruiH agiiiuHt ouch otlior, 
and wlio are resti'ained l>y a superior power, only in so 
fur as tliey iiave something to fear or hope at its liunds. 
Unfortunately for tlio govornor-genoral, Fianeo did not 
continue to send him the roinforcenionts which had boon 
promised, and he maintained his infhieneo over the In- 
dians only by the asfU'nch'iicy \\hich he was vrise enough 
to assunio over them after do Tracy's expedition a^'ainst 
tho Mohawks. He could not, in tiuo, prevent the Sonocas, 
th(> most remote of all thi^ Iroquois from tho French set- 
tlements, from yieldiu!' to tho hicUniition which led thorn 
to nudvc war, 

AVhon least expected they attacked tho Pottiiwatomies ; w,irnn,nn« 
Mv. do Courcelles was soon informed of it. Ho told them 'collrsoot'" 
th.at he took it quite ill, that notwith.standinn; his orders, courcellus 
and in violaticm of their ])romise to him, attested liy oath, 
they had attacked a peaceful tril)e, relying on tho faith of 
treaties-; that ho would not i)crmit a i)eace to bo troubled, 
TV-hich they wore to resjx'ct as his work ; that ho desired 
them to give up to him tlie prisoners whom they had taken 
from his allies, and should they refu.so to send them to 
him sound and in good condition, ho would go and wrest 
thorn out of their hands, and treat their canton as ho had 
don. that of Mohawk,' 



Ui 



f'V 



Relation dc la Nouvelli! Frnncc, 1071, p. 3. 



V i 












.'« it' 






102 



1670. 



1671. 

HaptisMi of 
t'liMma 

Cl'lifl'. 



HISTORY OF ^EW FRANCE. 

So fierce fv summons provoked the Sonccas : tlu\y aslced 
whether all the iintions of this ^rcut ooutinout became 
Freuch subjects as soon as missionaries fixed themselves 
iimonp; them, and Mh(>ther they wore no longer at liberty 
to demand satisfaction for insults received ? That tlio 
Iroquois cantons had made peace with Ononthio ; but 
that Avithal they did not pretend to have become his vas- 
sals ; that they would rather perish than diminish in the 
slij^htost deforce theii' liberty and independence, and that it 
might be remendM'rcd that the v had more tlian once made 
the French t'ei^ that they were not allies to bo treated 
with hauteur or enemies to be despised. 

All this was, nevertheless, said in ]"»rivate, and before 
serious reflection was made on the consequences of a rup- 
ture for which men were not prepared. The Seneeas held 
a council to deliberate carefully on the course to bo 
adopted, and the result Mas, that (nght of the thirty-fivo 
]>risoners taki-n from the Potawattomies should be sent to 
Mr. do Courcellcs. The general believed, or perhaps pre- 
tended to believt', that they had no more, and did not think 
it advisable to drive to extremity people whom he was still 
conq)elled to luunor.' 

These captives were brought iu by the great chief of tho 
Cayngas," who, f)n fulfilling his commission, declared that 
he had been induced to undertake it by his desire of re- 
ceiving ba])tism at the hands of the bishop, and in pres- 
ence of his Father Ononthio. Tins chief was the same one 
of whom we have already spoken mon- than once." He was 
after Garakonthie tho most illustrious Iroquois in the five 
cantons.' IJaptism was adiuiiiistered to him with all pos- 
sible solemnity. Mr. Talon who had recently arrived, acted 
as godfather, and named him Louis, after which ho gave, 



' Ki'liition di' In Nouvclli' Franco, ^ Ante, p. 71. 
1G71, p. ;i. 'I'lir iirisnni'is iiunibci-cd ' llisniinn' is not tliat of a sachem. 

25 or ;iO. II). Sec -Morgan's L(:aj,'Uo of tlie Iro- 

'■' i^aoni'Liogoiia. Kd., IUTI, j). .'J. quois. 



1 

rf 



li 



t 






HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 

ill tlic iu'opliyt"'s iiinno, a ^leat i)nn(|net to all the Chris- 
tian fiidians at (^ucbfc, Lovctto, and Syllciy.' 

It Avas also about tlio siiino time that most of tlio ^Fo- 
liawhs mIio had (Miibraccd f'liristianity, forrsocM'nt,' that thcv 
would Uy \ov Piijoy in their own country full lilicrty to live, 
iiecordini;- to tlic maxims of their rcliniou, formed a ]U'ojeet 
of poin^ to live with the Hurons of Loretto. Among their 
number Avas a woman distinguished by the rank of Oi/^ diIi'i; 
wliieji gave her great inlluenec^ in her canton, together with 
tlie riglit of attending the most secret councils. H(>r rel- 
atives molested her in her dcvoti(uis, and she at last de- 
clared that she was dt^termined to go down to Queb(>c to 
end la-r days with the Christians. Xothing was omitted 
to dissuade her, and after many useless efforts, she was 
degraded in full council. Far from b(>ing moved by this 
airr(uit, she showed i.iiiy greatei' ardor to obtain that 
liberty to live as a Christian, which she des])aired of find- 
ing in her owii country, and she ])rocceded to Loretto, 
where she adhered to the end iu the generous course which 
she had adopted.' 

The conversion of aiiotlier woman f)f the same canton, 
was attended Avitli circumstances sufficientl}- remarkable 
to entitle it to a jilacc; in a histoi'v, which purposes to 
omit nothing remarkable that can codify my readers, and 
undeceive those among whom it has most iuappositely 
been published that the Indians had turned a deaf ear to 
the ]neaclua's of the gospel. This woman wliilo travelHng 
fell among a pnrty of Mohegans, from whom she received 
two or three tomahawk blows on the head. She at onco 
felt iuspii'ed to have recourse to the God of the Chris- 
tians, and she conjured him not to permit her to die uu- 
ba[)tized. 

Scarcely had she ended her prayer, when she no longer 
beheld any enemies, nor could she ever say what became of 



' l?rl!i!i<m (If .la Nimvrlli. I'miicc, " IJchitinn di. ];\ X, F.. K'.Tl, ]). (J. 
Kin, i>. 4. Mary .Magdalen SUaiuii-ii(lci<. 



103 



1671. 



Tho 

</liri.--ti;in.s 
think of 

lu!lVi!ljr 

tliuir 
country 



Sinjjiilar 

con\'(;ryioii 

ul' im 

lrn.|uoi.s 



I 



Ui 



1«n I 






,? , t ' 



\{. 



ri 1 



i 



1 



164 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



\\ 



1671. tliom, altliongli slio did not lose consciousness for a mo- 

'^~^ nioiit. She oven ridlicul stvcnKtli and courage enough to 

drag herself to her town, related her adventuro to Father 
Pearon, and added tliat she would bo very glad to retire 
to Lorette, because she durst not prouiiso hersi-lf great 
fidelity if she remained among her kindred. The mis- 
sionary look ami)le time to try and instruct her; he hmnd 
her docile and firm in her resolution. In a short time she 
recovered perfect health, then gained over her husband, 
and induced liim to accompany lier to Loretto, where they 
were both baptized, with their little daughter.' 
Mission of Mr. do Courcelles, wlio had been carefully informed of 
Loiiis be- till this, was charmed to see the Iroquois neophytes moving 
8""" to settle among the French. He saw that as their num- 
ber increased, they might form a town, which would in 
time, serve as a barrier against the cantons themselves, if 
wai' broke out again. He accordingly received with open 
arms all who jjresented tlu-mselves, and took great caro 
that they should want nothing. 

Tluy were at first in very snuill numbers, but a short 

time after. Father Loniface having brought in several 

families from the Mohawk canton, he deemed it best to 

sejiarate them from the Hurons, and 2)laco them opi)osito 

Montreal, on the south side at a spot called Prairie do la 

Magdeleiue.' In my Journal I liave explained how this 

town was transferred to Hault St. Louis, and how it has 

always continued to bear the name of that rapid, although 

now located two leagues higlier up.' 

Talon's 0» the other hand a number of tribes of the Algonquin 

'"™,~Iru7iii'' ltii>gi^ii>ge, who felt their indebtedness to the Fiench for 

Omi'ii'ia'tn the i)eace which tluy enjoyed, liecanu! more cljsely at- 

Fiiiiiee. tached to them than they had hitherto done, and Mr. Talon 






' Ki'liiticin <lc 111 Xoiivrlli' Fmiii'c, onr ol' llic Cuiiiimiiy of 11 Ihindrrd 

Kill, )). .">. Ass(iciiit> ,. Sic C'rcuxius, llistdria 

• 'I'liis iiliic'c was so caiiiMl t'roiu C'anudi'iisis, RclatiDii, li'A7, p. 77. 
tilt' iiuiiii- ot' till- (iisi ^raiii -i', (1.- la ' flmrluvoix, .louiiuil, i>['. 17o, 

FiTti', llie Aljbi' lit' In Mu^i'U'lciiu', 17U. 



1 




HTSTOKY OF NEW FRANCE. 



ir.5 



-1 



availed liiiiisclt' of tliis f'avovfililo dispositiou to establish 1671. 
tho riti'lit of tlio crown in tlic most ronioto qnai'ters of 
Canadii. llv hail conceived tho desi<fu during his first 
term of ofllce, and before leaving Fi'anco for his second, 
he wrote to ^Mr. do Courcelles, and explained to him tho 
advantage of s(>nding to tlie nations of the uortJi and west 
a man Icnowii to them, in order to induce them to meet by 
deputy at a convenient place, Avliere ho might treat with 
them accoi'diug to thti king's intentions.' 

Tliere was no one l)etter fitted for this important charge 
than a voj'ageur named Nicholas Pei'rot." Ho was a man 
of ability, of quite a good family, and of some education. 
Necessity had obligiul him to take service among tho 
J. suits, and tliis had led to his intercourse with most of 
iho tribes in Canada, and to his acquiring their languages. 



' Climdo ill' Bnutcroiic was a na- 
tiv" (if P;iris, and is di'srvibril by 
MoiIrt .Iiiclirri'iui, Ilif-t. tli' I'Hoti'l 
Dicu, ]i]i. lilCp. 207, as a mun of lliii' 
tiiTiiri', inirllcctiiiil cuunlcnancc, ]iol- 
ishcd and gnu'cl'id m;iiiiiris, yet iilili- 
to ins]iire ri'S])i;(,'t. In l(i.)4 lie was 
admittfd lounscllor in tlic ('nuv di's 
Moiiiiairs. Ih' WHS ail antiqiiariaii, 
and in l(j(ii) iml)lislu'd Ilic'ierr/hn 
Ciifit'i'sfx ili.i Mill '(Oiii'< ill Fram'i', 
iirii' iJiH OliS' rnitiiiiix, ih.t I'll iii-ii it 
di K Fiijiirifi ih n Miiiiiiniji x. lie caiiic 
to Caniida as Intciulani ip. 1 iilili. 
His daui^litcr, Mary Dorothy, ac- 
coiniianit'd liini, and lived gi'Ucrally 
at tliu Hotel UifU, iShc was one of 
the sponsors ofGarakontliii'. Mr. di' 
lioutfruiic rcturniMl to Friincc in 
llin.and diod in KisO. L'Abi'ilU', 
vii., Xo. 24. 

■•' Niidiolas Pi'rrot, tlir voya^'i-i-.r, 
must not 111' roiifoiiiidcd with Muiy 
I'i'rrot, f;-iivriiioi'(if Montreal. Niclio 
las I'crriit wns horn in Hill, lie 
Iji'iiaii his stii'lii'S wiih th'' .li siiiis. 
but soon aif.'r cnli'i' I ili.i' si r\ '.ci' 
in the Wi'sicrn missions, lie was 



ono of the earliest explon'ri (De la 
I'otlierii', ii., S!)), and acquired i^reat 
iiilliii'ni'e with the Indian tribes, es- 
jieeially the Foxes, who ealled him 
Metaiiienens (Lit lie Mai'/.e). He 
broufiht down a tlotilla in KiTO. In 
Kin lie was at Sault St. Mary, lu 
KiSJ he raised an Ottawa force to 
Join lie la Barro. At a later date 
he built a fort in the Sioux country 
above the month of the \\'isconsin 
(Charlevoix, Journal, Ji. :i!)S). In 
KisT he led down a Western force 
to join Denonville, but duriiijo; his 
absence lost aP by the burning of 
his establishment at (ireen Bay. In 
KlilO he assisted in the formal tak- 
intr possession of tlii' Sioux country. 
He discovered a lead mine which 
loufr liore his name, was comman- 
dant in the Miami country in lli'.12, 
was nearly liurnt at the stake liy the 
Ottawas. Alter all his labors he re- 
turned a ruined man to Montreal, 
and (lied subsequent to 171S ; Tail- 
han s Peridt, p. olO ; Hisiorical 
Maynzir.e, ix.. p. 2l)o. 



t ' 1 ti 



I . 



-% 



IGG 



HISTORY OF NEW FHANCE. 



1671. Ho liad fjfiincd their esteem, and hud gradually so wormed 
'""""Y"— ' himself into their coiifidtnice, that he easily persuaded 
tliem to any course at jileasure. Mr. do Coureelles cast 
liis eyes on Perrcjt for the negotiation in question; Mr. 
Talon, who had meanwhile landed at (Quebec, approved 
the ehoiee, and dis]»atehcd Perrot with wise instructions.' 
This deputy visittnl all the northern nations, with whom 
wo had any intercourse," and invited them to meet in tho 
following spring at Sault St. Mary, where the great Onon- 
thio of the French, that is the king (jf Fiance, wcmld send 
one of his cajitains to imi)art to them his will. All having 
promised to send de])uties there, ho proceeded to tho 
■western quarters ; but he turned south, and went to Chica- 
goiT, at the lower end of Lake Michigan, a\ liere the Miamis 
then were." As ho apjnoached their village with an escort 
of Pouteouatamis, given to him as he passed (Green) 
Bay, inasmuch as war was enkindling between the Sioux 
and the Mascoutins, a troop of young nnm from liis escort 
left him to announce his arrival to tho Great Chief of tho 
Miamis, named Tetinchoua. 
Tiie This chief could put on foot four or iive thousand com- 

r'ttiiu batants, and n -ver marched except with a guard of fcn'ty 
soldiers, who patrolled night and day around his toit, 
while he was there. Perrot, from whoso memoirs i liaw 
these details, adds that Tetinchoua rarely communicated 



\ 



' Prrrot was si-lcclcd '., vi'ly as 
inter) iivtiM- auil guidi' to iln' Sicnr 
dr St. Ijiissdii : IVi'icit, Ma'iii'H t* 
Coustunic's, p. I'ii). 'I'lii' Kchitinii, 
1071, !>. -(), nc'cordinjrly alludrs ouly 
to St. Lusson. 

'■' St. LussDii winlcri'd aiiioiif; the 
Aiiiikoui's, and near tin- Saiilt In- 
dians, will) wii-i' (in Manitiiidinc 
Island. I'crriit si'nt inr.-si nu'<'i's to 
tlic noiilirrn nations, and sci out in 
n cannr Ironi tliat ishmd io(;i..ii 
Bay: I'l-rmt, .Mn-ui-.s ct ('Mii,-,tui-ir.s, 
y. Uij. 



pi'vt::l cnt no further than 
(li'iii 'J.i_, , wliicli he calls tli(^ bay 
ot'thu Koxes an<l Miands : Ih., ]>. \i(i. 
'I'lie Miands were not tlu'n at Chi- 
Cairo. See Kallier Tailhan's note, 
III., p. ','00; Kelation, KiTl, pp. 4a, 
'l."i, IT; kit;). !>. ]S8 ; Hehition.s Ine- 
dites, i., p. 12(1; ii., p. I',>',' ; Hela- 
ti.in, l(;r:;-'.t. pp. 101. lar; Di.scuvery 
and Kypliiratinn of tlie Mississippi, 
pp. a.'j;-','li4; Dela Piitii. rie, Ilisloiro 
<li' rAnieri'iue Septi niri;>nale, ii., 
p. Ii.") ; Hi^torical Magazine, v., 

pp. yj-io-i. 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 

with ]jis sul)joc'ts, coiih'iitiii!^' liiiusclf with impfirtiiip; his 
(ii'dt'vs tliron.i^li owo of liis ollicci's. I do not ,mi;u'aiitoo 
these fixc'ts ; but it is ecrtiiin tluit if Perrot did not some- 
M-hiit cxiigfi.orato the trutli, things have changed gn atly 
sinee tlien ; yet it is true, as I have myself witnessed, that 
tlic chiefs of the Miamis are more respected and h^ss ac- 
cessil)]e than those of most of the otlier Indian tribes of 
Canada.' 

Be that as it may, Tetinchoua, says Perrot, informed of 
the coming of an envoy of the general of the French, wished 
to give him a reception that would attest liis own power. 

Ho sent out a detachment to meet Iiim, giving it or- 
ders to receive him in military style. The detachment 
advanced in battle order, all the braves adorned vuih 
fi'athers, armed at all points, uttering war cries from time 
to time. The Ponteouatamis who esc(n'ted Peri'ot, seeincr 
them come in this guise, prepared to receive them in the 
same manner, and Perrot put himself at their lu>ad. When 
the two troops were in face of each other, they stopped, 
as if to take breath, then all at once, Pcni'ot's took tho 
right, the Miamis the left, all running in Indian file, as 
though they wished to gain an advantage to charge. 

Put tho Miamis, wheeling in the form of an arc, tho 
Ponteouatamis ere invested on all sides. Then both 
uttered loud yells, which were the signal for a kind of com- 
bat. The Miamis fired a volley fiom tlieir guns, which 
were loaded only with powder, and the Pouteouatamis 
returned it in tho same way ; after tliis they closed, tonm- 
hawk iu hand, all the blows being received on tJie toma- 
hawks. Peace was then made ; the Miamis jtix'sented tli 
calumet to Perrot, and led him with all his escort into th 
chief town, where the Great Chief assigned him a guard of 
fifty men, )'{>galed him splendidly after the custom of tiio 
country, and gave him the diversion of a game of ball.' 



167 



1671. 



His 

reception 

of the 

(iovornor's 

envoy. 



' For tlu' Miiimi rliii'f :-ncl tlio re- - This wlioli' iiccoiint ot'tli' r.i>. 
sjiL'ct shown liiiu, siu Relation, 1(J71, tion i-.s Inini dc hi Pothcric, Hi.stolro 
pp. -15-7. do rAint'i'ii|ui.! Si'ptcntrioniUi', ii., 






! 



i i 



w- 



108 



167 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



/'• Porrot after spomliiig sonio days among the Miamis, 
' and treating willi tlicir cliii'l', rotnrnod to Hanlt St. Mary 
I'ossotisioii ill i)iirsuaiico of his iustruotious.' Tctiiu'lioiia wished to 

tnkcll of nil 1 • • 1 l ^ • ^ : 1 ■ 

the acconipauy hini lu person ; but his aclvaneed ago and m- 
th't-'Ll^^k"*! firuiities induced his subjects to fear that ho would bo un- 
able to stand the fatigue of the journey, and persuaded 
him to remain at home. He did not even depute any one 
of his nation to the General Assembly ; but ho gave the 
Pouteouatimis full power to act in his name.'' Time ap- 
parently did not jiermit Perrot to go and invite the Mas- 
coutins and Kikap(nis to bo present at the rendezvous, 
still less the Illinois, who then resided on the banks of the 
Mississippi, and among whom the rrench had not you 
penetrated. It is certain that no Indian appeared from 
these three nations, nor any one to represent them. 

Dei)uties were present, however, irom all the northern 
tribes, and even from the Monsonis, dwelling at the head 
of Hudson's ]3ay. ' The Sieur de St. Lusson, subdelegate 
of the Intendant of Xew France, repaired to Sault St. 
Mary in the mouth of May, 1071,' appointed by s[ucial 
commission to take possession of all the country occupied 
by these tribes, and put them under the king's protection. 
Tlie ceremony began with an address in Algonquin by Fa- 
ther Alltniez, in which after giving. all these Indians an 
exalted idea of the king's power, he endeavored to persuade 
them that nothing could redound more to their advantage, 
than to merit the protection of such a monarch, which they 



pj). ]^."i, I'iO. Porrot in liis work 
givftt iiolliinjr of till.' kind. 

' III' ri'iiclicil tliL' Simlt, .\fny .T, 
witli till' ..riiiL'iiml cliii't's of t!io Pot- 
tawatoiuii'^, Suci-, W.uucl)a>,'oi'.s, Mi; 
nomonccn. The chii'fs of tlii' Foxes, 
Mascoutins, ami Miamis did not 
cros.'^ tlic bay. 

■ The I'ottawatomiis iinliicfil tlio 
Miami tliirf not ti jxo, and lin cm 
IHUvfrid tliiin to ri'in'csini luiii : 
Perrot, jip. I'JT-S. 



' I'lrrot, M'ffiurs et Coustumea, 
11. 128. 

■■ Francis Daumoiit, Sicnr dc St. 
Ln.sniin, was sent w.'sl liy Talon as 
soon as lui landed. lie loft Montn.al 
in October, KiTO (Perrot, p. 12(i), 
^^•intc■red on Lalio Huron (Holatiim, 
1(>T1, p. !?')), among the Amikoiu's: 
Perrot, |). 12(!. He reached Sault 
St. .Mary in May, and took posses- 
sion .lune 4 ; lb.. M, Mary of the In- 
carnation ; Choix de Lettros, p. yr4. 



IIISTOIJY OF NKW FltANCK 



109 



■would oMiiiii, lio !u1(1(h1, liy iiclinDwk'dffinp; him as their '''T'- 
head cliicf.' -— — y— . 

Mr. do St. Lussou tlicu spoko bric^ily, cdosiiif:; Jus rc- 
iiiiirks 1)}' asking- w]ictli(>r all coiisoiited to what had just 
Ix'cii ])r())i()Si'd? As he liad spokcni in French, ratlii.'r 
Allouoz rui)oatod in Algonciuiu what ho had just said, and 
all at first rp))li(Ml by presents, and then by hmd cries of 
" /.'///(/ lire 11(1- /:iiiii." Then the Coniniissary made Perrot 
diu two holes in the ground, and ])lant in ono a ^reat cedar 
post, and in Die other a cross of tho same material, tlio 
French meanwiiile sinj^iiiL,' tho ll.c///'/. The arms of Franco 
■were then set uj) on the post and cross, and the Kxamliat 
intoned. This done, Mr. do St. Lusson declared by tho 
mouth of Father Allouoz that he ]mt tho mIioIo country 
in the king's hand, and all tho inhabitants under his majes- 
ty's ]m)tection.'' 

The delegates all cried out that thoy would have no 
other Father than the groat Ononthio of tho French, and 
the subdelegate, after showing them great attention, assured 
tluMu that that prince ^^ould never allow them to want any 
thing as h)ng as they maintained the tidelity they had just 
promised him. Tlio whole concluded with the 7V Damn, 
preceded and followed by several volleys of musketry, to 
which there is no doubt thoj' added according to custom a 
groat banijuet.' 

St. Lussou, immodiatclj- before repairing to Sault St. 
Mary, had by Mr. Talon's orders nuido a tour to the south- 






The fiPt oftakinc; pnssossion was Ilisloirn do rAiui'rii|no Sept.. ii., p. 



Jiuif4, KiTl. Pcrnit ^ives it wvo- 
neously aa KKiit, p. 1^7. Sec the 
Proems Vcrlial aiul Tnillinn's iliscus- 
sioii ■. 111., p|i, 'Jli'^-."). 

lichuidii (Ir lit Xdiivfllc Franc 



1:^!), .-iays that a I'rmvs Vcrl.al was 
ilravvn up and siffncd by all tlio na- 
vions. Hut tlii'M' si<_''naturc'S <l(i nfit 
apponr in tlio cnpy ^ivon 1./ 'raillian 
in his edition (if I'oi-nit, ii. ^'11'^. 'J'lio 



Kiil, |). ^li. Till' M'ttiii^' up tho ai'iiis woro pullod down almost ini- 



iirnis piTcoilod all tlio adiln 

■■ Ih'lation t\f la N'ouvi-llo I'ranci', 
KiTl, j). :>S ; Tahni to Colhrri, X. V. 



iiii'diatoly attor thr <U']iarturo of tlio 
FiTiicli: Do la I'otlui'it-, ii., ji. KiO. 
Tallin carriod tlii' Procrs Vorhal to 



Col. Doc, ix., p. "ri. Do la l^JlhoJ■io, Fraucf : N. Y, Col. Doc, ix., p. 72. 



U|, 



, i 
I 






-A 



/« 



170 



HISTORY OP NEW FRANCE. 



1671. ovw count of C(U1!u1m, .iml Ii.id dmnd the bniiks of the Kcii- 
''^,:; iicl)i'(' and tlui wliolc sni-ooust stiulili'd with Ki)"lisli liouses, 

1 ho _ _ n > 

Kiifriish set- AVf 11 l)iiilt and in Vfvy irood condition. He was will iccuivtul 

til- nil till. 1 

lull. Is (if iiio everywhere ; the two courts ot En.nland and Franco, -woro 

niilii'i'iih then closi'ly united, and since the treaty of J'reda, tlieso 

livu.i I'mr- two nations had had no p;r(mnd of contcMition in America. 

tii'n'km'L.'^ ut' Tl'*' '>i<'iir de Haint Lusson did not fail to notify theso 

Isiiui'iuvli *^>'ttlfi>< that they -wcmv on the territory of the kini,' of 

%','cn,'." i''i'""''' ; ''>it they replied that they were deli<,dited to livo 

nndei' the sway of so f;re,it a kinj;-, and they l)e,t,';j;ed him to 

assure the [^oveinor-f^-eneral and intenihmt of New Franco, 

that tlioy Avould always l)ohavo as must faithful and siib- 

misHivo subjects.' 

It is nevertheless probable that they were soon after 
recalled to Now Enprland, and tho letter of Mr. Talon to 
Mr. Colbert, from which I have drawn tlieso details of tho 
voyage of the Hieni' de Kt. Lnsson, hints that tho inteudaut 
had some doubts of the sincerity of tho English, and gives 
reason to think tluit this recall was made in consequenco 
of rennnistrances of tho king's council. At least it is cer- 
tain that from that tinu^ tho Kennebec was regarded as 
foiniing on that side the separation of the two colonies, as 
it had been established by tho treaty of B)'o(hi.'' 

In tine, this same year tho Tiononntatez Hnrons, weary 
of leading a wandeiing life, never to the taste of this ua- 
' ion, settled at Michilliniakinac. They did not locate them- 
selves on the island itself, which bears that name, and has 
given it to a jiart of the neighboring mainland; but ou 
a point of that mainland, which advances southward and 
faces, another point turned northward.' Those two points 



Tlio 
niirfins at: 
Micliilli 
iiutUinae. 



' Tftlon to Colbert, N. Y. Cdl. Doc, tn iM'wer up iIk- jiosts to llic French 

bi';;iiis with" I'cMtiiu'ort." Mrinniri's 
(ii'H Cimuui^isauvs, ii., pp. ;ir,, o(!, 
;!1T. 

■' Hcliitidii di' In Nouvclle ]■" ranee, 
KiT'i. jip. ;i.")-(i, woulil seem to inter 
(■rally ■• the fouiitry of AcadUi." luul tUiit ihey settled on the mlimd, but 
even the peremptory order to Temple tlio mup places the mission of St. 



IX., p. (','. 

' Tills repori of Colbert is not in 
the N. y. or Canada Dncunients. 
Tile trra'y of iireda docs not men- 
tion tin; Ivennebec. It savs ^en- 



! 



« :il 



HISTOIiV OF NKW I'ltANC'E. 

fitriii a sti'ait, \>y wliii'l: r,;ik(' Ifiiroii coiiiiimiiic.'alcs with 
Lake Miclii^fiiii. I( was l''iitli(i' ^r;in|iiclti' wlio l)i'Oiif,'ht 
the Ifiiroiis to this post ami t'stahhsiicd thcnu thci'o. 

Tt is not easy to know for wliat reason tiiat laissionary 
fliosc it in iiiclVrcncc to so iiiaii\' otlicrs, whirli seem far 
more ailvaiilai^Tons for sucii a scttlcinciit. Ho speaks of 
it hiiuself in liis memoirs, as a very ineonvcnient phicu, 
where the eoiil is intense,' arising- donlilless from tlio fact 
tliat tlie (lii( (• lakes lietwoen which it Ui'S — the snnillest of 
^\hich (liiike ^riclii^an) is thi'ce Iiundred leagues in cirtaiit, 
without countini;- a hay," t\venty-ei,i;]it h'aj^Mies in lon<,'th, 
wliicli empties into it — are ordinarily ajuitatcMl Ijy very 
violent winds. 

Fathei' MaripK tlo adds that (he ine(|ua]ity of tho tides) 
f^reatly deran.nes the navi,L;ation of llii'se lakes. In fact I 
have alicady noted (hat Iheic is nothing rep^'idar about 
tiieni, and that they ai'e (|iiite stron.g in sonu.' ])arts. In 
the neiL;hl)orhood of tlii^ htth' island f)f Michillimakimio 
lliey rise and fall once every twenty-four hours, at full and 
new moon, and always run towards Lahc> ^Micliij^'an. Nor 
is it donlitful, that there is, in(le[)ondent of these tides, a 
curitiit always settin,tj,- from Lake Huron into Lake Miclii- 
f;an, which is caused ap])afently hy springs, sucli as arc 
(juiti^ freipiently found in the open sea.'' 

Yet this current dues not prev(>nt tiio natural current 
from Lake Michigan, which, as well as Lake Superior, dis- 
cliarges its wateis into Lake Huron. The former of these 
two currents, that is to say, that from Lake Pluron into 
Lake Michigan, is moi'e sensible, when the wind blows 



luiuitius (in tlif nortlioni i«iiiit ; iiail tln' striiit. Pcrrnt in liis Jfrpurs ct 

tlicR! is notliiiitf in .Mtiri|Mi't(i''K owi' Coiisninics, \>. 1(V,', Is not (Irlinitc 

aci'oiint i)t' liis niissiim (Ui'lutinn dc ' Ilr iliscnsscs its (idviinlai^cs— 

laN.F., l(iT'.i-3, p. 11(1) tliiit allull^■^^tll fislirriis. ImntiiiLr, iiro'ss — luid its 

th'' isliiiiil. I,a I Ionian (i., I'l). llKi, disailvaulai.'-cs. liclatidu, KiTJ-^J, 

and till' Tiiap* dv.scrilii'c ii as on tlic \i. '■)'!. 

sliorr nofili ><i ihc sti'ait. Lc ('li'ri'<| - Hayc dps I'niints, ordrandi' Mnyi; 

(ICtalilisscniuiil di' la I'oi, ii.. ]i 11^) mnv 'iiicii l?ay. 

Biij's cxiiri'ssij tliat it wu!« iionli of ' Cliailcvoix, Jounjul, yi. LiOl. 



171 



1671. 



Slniridar 

pIli'lM.iaiiill. 

OliMTVll- 

tions on 
Tidi's and 
C'arrciils, 



4't 



I 



■^i 



!,>! 



'Ui 



■ t 

i; ' , 



i 



M 



>i : 



hi 






> t< 






172 



IIISTOHY OF NKW FHANCE. 



1671. 



SiiiL'uIar 
plieiiuiiK'ii 



from tlio ()|>]i(i,sit(* dii'ictioii, Hint is lo say, tlic snulli, and 
at siuli tiii'"s cakes mI' ice liavc liccii {'allied troiii tlie 
former lake into Hie latter with as iniieli velocity us 11 vessL'l 
M'onld liiiv(! with wind nsti'rii. The samo thiii;^', it is known, 
is seen in the Bahama Channel. 

Fiithor Mtirijuotte also obsorves that in tlio strait liy 
which Lake Superior empties into Lake Huron, thoro uro 
under the surface of tlu> water numerous currents, so stron>f 
us at tinu s to carry oil' the ni'ts of tlu> tlshermeii, wheiico 
lie conjectures that this j^reat lake discliar^es part of itn 
waters into Luke, Michij^'un by subtorrunoun channels, ox- 
cavuted in tlie same manner us th(>-.i) by which the Caspiun 
is sup])osed to connect with tho Black Sea, and tiu^ latter 
with tho Mi'ditevruucun ; and this is ull tiie more probable, 
us Luke Superior receiving at least forty rivers, ten or 
twelve of tlu'm (juitc* as lai'i^'e as the sti'ait itself, would not 
discharjj;e n(;ar as much water as it receives, if there were 
no other issue than this chauuol. 

The same is apparently to be said of IMichigan, wiiicli, 
besides tho waters of the groat buy, receives also a great 
number of rivers, some of them quite large, and coming 
from a cousidcrablo distance. For besides its visible dis- 
charge iuto Lake Hurou, it nuist necessarily have excavated 
other subterraneau ones as has boon remarked of Lake Su- 
perior, as to which a discovery has been made corroborat- 
ing the conjecture of Father Marquette. This is that all 
tlu! rocks found at a certain depth in tho channel at Sault 
St. Mary are pierced like sponges, and several of them 
hollowed out into grottos, a])paroutly tho work of tho cur- 
routs I have mentioned.' 

At the close of the preceding year and commencement 

'■ of this, quite a singular thing occurred in this part of 

Canada. The winter did not begin till tho middle of 

January, lOTl, and I'uded in the middle of March. This 

was iincxampled, and both periods were marked by phe 

' Soi' Muniui.ttu'o rouiiii-ks ou ilirsu lidos : lirl. do la N. i*"., lOTl, p. 'M. 



f ; 



.1 



nisTouv or nfav FiuNfE. 173 

iiDiiu'ii.i wliicli Hur|)ris(>(l the Iiuliaiis gn-iitly. On tlio 21st i^>7 
oi' J.iimui'V, iiliiiiit two Iidiirs licl'drc suiiscl, lli'io ;i|iiit'iui il 
ill tlic liiiv two ii.ii'lii'liii, a('i'(Hii|i;uiii(l \>y n ciTsciiil, tho 
lioriiM iKiiiitiiii^ ujiwavd. Tliis I'f'il sun was tM[niilly ilistivnt 
ridiii tlic two; II little clond witli all tlm coIoih oi' tlic raiii- 
bow covcrt'd and slii^lilly obscured one, ami a l)ii;^lit li^^lit 
ill a iiianiu r veiled tlie otiier. The riidiaiis took it foi' aii 
iiil'alliblu si;,'ii ol' cold, and it I'lo/o excessively tlio uc.vt 
day.' 

On tin- I'itli of ^lareli ensuing' tliveo ]iarlielia were seen 
in !!'■ ' lit ]ilaees, dilleiin;j; also in re^'iird to their 

)i(i>u ., niinilier, and time of a])])earance.' At ^lieiiilli- 
iiiai<iiiae the aii])areiit distance of the tliree suns ])erceive(l 
tliere was liidf a league; one of tiie two jiaiiielia wasJ 
Rciircely more liian an iris of oval form, crowned by a 
fillet of ^'old: the oilier was so bii.uht, that it wumld not 
have been easy to distin^'uish it from the true sun, but for 
a band of scarlet which bordered it on the side farthest 
fioin tlie sun. This pheiionienoi' last' d several days; it 
was seen ill the morning- soon after sunrise, and in tho 
evi'iiin.u; before sunset. The llelation, which states tho 
fact, adds that the parlieliou .seen smith iu tho moruing 
was iiiM-th ill the evening, tho other taking its place; but it 
apiiareiitly clianged its figure rather than its ])ositioii.' 

In Manitoulino Island, where a number of Sault Indians 
were w intering, three ^a'uis a])peared in tho Avcst on a lino 
pa allcl w ith the lunizon ; they were all of equal size ; tho 
true sun west-southwest; one of the two ))arheli(nis in 
till' west, the other in the southwi st. At the samo tiino 
two hemicycles were seen parallel to the horizon. They 
were blue in the ceiitrt', of the color of the aurora above, 
and a didl ashy gray in the circumference. Tlu; sky was 
a little overcast on that side, and, indeed, it was not very 
sereno iu any part, although no cloud was discernible.' 



' iji'iiitioii (ic 111 X. F., lun, 1). 10. 

' March 10. 



'■ It.'liition dv la X. F., 1071, v. 40. 
■> iOiU. 









■:M 



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i| 



■li; 



i^ 



• 




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IMAGE EVALUATION 
TEST TARGET (MT-S) 




1.0 



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■^ 1^ 12.2 



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I. 



1.25 i 1.4 



■ 2.0 

1.6 



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Photographic 

Sciences 

Corporation 



23 WEST MAIN STREET 

WEBSTER, N.Y. MSSO 

(716) 872-4503 




I I 



171 



HISroHV OF N'KW KIlANt'K. 



I ^'7 1- A quarttr of ,i ciiclo porpondicnlar to tho horizon liiiv- 

""■"^i^""^ iii;^ iicailv tlic siiiiif coloi's us tlic jtarlicliii, fondicd lliat 
wliicli was on tlii' soutliwcst ; tlii'U outtinj,' one ot tlic two 
lii-niicyclcs parallrl to the liorizou was ^'radually lost in 
tho othiT. Honictinics the tliici! suns (lisa])j)('ar('(l ; Imt 
the real snn was invisihlo less I'riununtly than tiic othrrs, 
Finally a third i)aihflion was hch'U ahovc the sun ; hut it 
did not last lon^'. The two fonufr, us they disapprarcd 
for tiie hist tiii:i', ht't two very luminous rainbows, and the 
two hciuicyi-h's also ri'Uiainod a lon;^ tinio 'ftcr. 

At Sault St. M.iry threo suns were socn ono niorniuf,', 
ns in the (ttlu'r two plai-i's ; hut a little after noon, ei^dit 
n])l>eaved all at onei ran^'ed in this order. The real sun 
was in the centre of a eirele formed of the colors of tho 
rainhow : four parhelia divided this circle into four e(|ual 
j>arts, and were placed on perpendicular and horizontal 
lines. Another cir'de resembliuf^ the first in color, hut nnicli 
lar;,'er, passed thro i^di the centre of tho rcftl sun, whii'h was 
at the top, and three otlu'r jiarhelia, with the real sun 
divided tiiis circle, as the four former did the smaller circle. 
The Indians inm^'ined that all these parhelia wore tho wives 
of the ical sun, who chose to show himself to men with all 
liis spouses; hut they were undeceived hy a natural ex- 
]>lanatiou of thes(> jthenoniena. This gave occasion to 
explain to them that this luminary was any thing but a 
genius as they imagintHl.' 
1672. T.owards the end of this your the Iroquois victoriously 

^Mn'.i't' ' fl<»^"d the war which they had for several years been wa- 
Ciitariuony. j^ring ^yitli tlio Audasti's and tlu' Shawnees' their neighbors. 



' KclatiDii (Ic 111 Nimvilli' Friinic'. N. R, lliT'l, i>. 'i ; Iti'Iiitinns Iiii'ilitcs, 

1071, ]). 41. i, jp. II: ('(iIiIch'h Five NiiliiinH 

■•' ScuVc.l, II., pp.ilOO, :m. Clinrl.-- (I.omlon cdit.i, i., p. I'JO ; N. Y. ('..1. 

voix luTc t'lilliixvH I'l-rnil, p. 12'.l. 'I'lic Dor., iii., p. ;)',';!. 'I'licy wrrc thru 

Aii(lii*ii'H vyiiipiiilii/iiiLr with die iiii'iirponitcMl into tlii' l.i'nu-in'. \ 

IIiiriiUH. H'iri' L'l'iulimlly dniwii int'i part ri'tri'iitiiifjr sdiitliuaid wm' inns- 

till' «ar. 'I'hry luuirlii hiuvclv, lii\l sucri'il hy llic Mniyliiiid mid \ iifriiiia 

w.rc filially oviithruwn in Ki?,"): Imnps. 'I'ln' hist rruiiiaiil '■! (hi- 

El«i I'li'wiit, nil.-) : l!i lalimi ilc lu tiiho wrw hulcUrrcU hv thf I'axtou 



t'>. 



inSTOliY OF SKW niANCK. 



lii 



Tlio snopo.ss on ( itln'i' siMc Imil loiii,' liecii al)oiit ('(iumI ; Imt I'T-- 
at last tliisc two ii,itii)iis were aliiKtst ciitiif'lv "XtiTiiiiiiatod, """"v""^ 
aii'l tlic victors iiicor|ioiati'il into tlicir cantons, ('Sjjccially 
tliat of Seneca,' a j^rcat ininilxr of cajitivcs taken from 
liolli tiilies. Tills has always been tlieir policy, to leiiair 
at tlic ex|iense of tlicir enemies the rava^'cs caused in their 
nation hy war. 

'J'licn ^fr. (le Couri-cllos, convineod more than ever of 
the ni'ccssity of opposing a harrier to a restless p(>o))](>, 
which had no lon^'cr any tliin^' to occupy it aliroad, and 
whose power and renown wero daily increasinj^, sent word 
to the ])rincii)al chiefs of the cantons, that he had an im- 
jxu* 'iit aflair to coninnuncat(> to them, and that he wouM 
forthwith ])rocoed to Catarncouy to await them. Tlicy 
came to the spot in ^'reat iinmliers, and the ^'eiieral after 
lavishing' >^yviit marks of friendship, and very tin(> ])res- 
eiits, told them that he dosif^ncd buildiiifjf a f(U't at that 
jioiiit, where they might como to trade more conveniently 
with the French. 

Tiny did not at first porcoivo that under jiretext of sei-k- ^l •. do 
in;^' their advanta<j;e, tho governor had in view solely to nti'iniVtri 
Jiold them in check, and secure a de])ositoiy foi- his jno- J',!!,',-^,,!/ 
visions and military stores, in case they forced iiim to take ('I'l'.'.n^emiy. 
u]) arms again. They accordingly replied that this ])roject 
seemed to them well devised, and measures were at oneo 
taken for its exi'cution.' Mr. do CourceUes, howiver, had 



m 



i 



i^i 



lliiyH in 1T'1:3: llistoricnl MaLriizinc, Sliawiii'cB, liy narvcy. ('iiiciiinuti- 

ii.. I'll. 'J!l4-7 : Piirkiiian's I'rjiiiiai'. Is.")."), i.s uscIi'hs uh to their early 

pp. 11 t. 41T : •lesnitH ill Nmlli .\iiie lii.story. 
ricn, xlvi. See .Msiip's Maiylimd. ' I'ernit, Mii'Iii-h et {'ouKluines, 

'I'lie Sliawili'es are tlie only tlilie |). \'i'.K 
I liuve iiii't, wliose miiiie was lln' ■' I'erriit, Mours ei Const , ]>. 109. 

Mime iiiiioni: all trilies, Cliocliiw. Iln Tlii~ voVM^re is sini|ily tin' une al- 

roii, IriKiiioi.s, or .\l{.'iin(|iiin(('lniona- reaily nieiitioneil, ante, p. l',il. IJnt 

noiiidiioni. The history it their Dollier de Casson in liis account of 

roviiifr hands is very vajriie and nh. tlie vovime. does not iiieiition tlie 

(iciire. I). Ii. HrintMii, Hist. .Mau'ii iii\ ilali^'ii to ihe chiefs, nor ilie ad- 

nine. X., p. 1, has done nio>i to trace dress to them ; N. V. Col. Doc., ix., 

their history. The History of the p. 75. 



y^ 



I I 



it;*; 

I! 



I7r. 



inSTOIiV OF NKW FHANCK. 



\i I 



(( 



• f»72. not tinu> to cfV«'('t it. IIo had, na wo liavo hooii, solicited 
^"-'^1'""^ Ill's vt'oall til riaiu'c, and on anivin<^ at (Jiu^bcc, found tlicro 
tlic Count do l''ront('nac, who liad conn; to ri'liiivo him. 
Hi' without dillifulty in<hu'i'd liini to favor tlio dfsi';n whicli 
liad h'd liiin to undcrtako liis last excursion, and early in 
the following,' spriiij,', the new {^ciu'i'al npaircd to Catara- 
c'ouy, and huilt a fort, which as wi'll as the lake, at tho 
entrance of wliidi it stands,' lon^ boru his name.' 
Ml. TaLii Mr. Talon on his .side did not slunil»er, his active a)id 
liiH n.iiii to vij^ilant zeal did not allow him to remain a sin;,'le day idle, 
ami «li>-. anil his superior f^jennis j^avo hirtli only to j^reat ])rojects; 
l)nt the dissatisfaction which he constantly received frt)m 
Mr. do Courcelles, and thoso which he foresaw from tho 
Count do Frontenac, whoso character ho was not slow in 
reading,', made him once more think of rctirini,'. IIo 
deemed it imprudent to commit himself with that f,'eneral 
in a colony, too snndl to },'ivo separate emjiloynient to two 
men, who were not of a disposition to depend on one an- 
other, nor consec|U(ntly to act in all thing's with that har- 
mony, which re(piircs occasional relaxation and yielding." 
Clinracterof All things fairly considered, tho departure of Mr. do 
Co'iirciiios. Courcelles was a real loss for New France. If he did not 
])ossess as eminent ijualities as his successor, he had but 
the least of his faults, and his passions were much less vio- 
lent. He aimed sincerely at good ; his prejudices against 
the ecclesiastics and tho missionarios never prevented his 



' linki' Ontario. CfmrliToir. On- 
tnraiii InxiuoiHiiK'ans Lake. Ontario, 
HcMiitit'ul Ijukc. See ('iio<|. Kludrs 
I'liilolofriiiUcs, ]). IT. 

• I'lTrot, Mcrnrs i-l Constnincs. 
]). 12!l ; .loiniial ofCimni ilr I'lcjnli'- 
nacV Voyai:!' to I.akr Ontario in 
ICT:; ; N. Y. Col. Doc, ix., i>. 9.') ; 
Canacta Duo.. II., ii.. ]> ^.'<^i^^. 

•' John 'Palon had bi'i'n inti'ndnnt 
nt Qiifcnoi in riandci-s. was rrialc d 
liaron dt s Itihts in KiTl, anil Count 
d'()i>ainvillo in 1(!7."). .M'li r n-iuin 



in{^ to Frnni'o hi' la'cnmc rniitnin of 
till' Ciistli' of Mariniont and si'i-ri'- 
tary of tin' kin^'n raliinrt. IK- was 
ulivi- in Hlsil. In Canada ln' was a 
frrcnt iH'nrliuior of tlir Hotel Dieu 
at (iin'l)ci'. Moilicr .InrliiTcau nii'n 
tions tlirir )iossrK'<iiin of his likcin'ss 
(|i. '.317), and tin' |iortrail iiifrnivcd 
in this work is from a copy of it 
nn\dt-' by .Mr. Th. llaiml of IjucIm-c. 
Sill- praisrs irriatly his pi«ly and 
liiarily to tin' piMir, pp. 'J'.i.'j-O. IIii 
wuB till' CoIhiTt of Canada. 



niSTOHV OF NF,\V TRANCE. 

Kliowinfj tlicm cnnfidciicp, on occiisiojis in wliidi Iw (IctMiiod 
tlit'iM iirci'ssiii V ni' usi'l'iiKor liis sii|)|)iirt iiij,' tlinii in jill tlio 
I'uiictioiis of their iniiii.^try. In tine, Iiis cNiiciicnff, his 
finniicss, and tlic wisdom with which he f^ovcrncd, hiul 
t iidciiicd him to tlio Frciu-h mid won thi- icspcct of 
the Jndiiuis. To all ii])p('iiriinct', the jH-iicd of Canadii 
would never havo Iteen disturlied, had those who sncceedt'd 
hiiu cntcivd into his views and followed tho j)ath ho hail 
traced out.' 

T<ouis d( Bnade, connt de Frontonao, his sncpossnr, was ( 
a lienteuant-;,'eneral in the kin^''s armies, iiud },'r.tndM>n 
of a knif,dit of the Onleis, who had distinguished iiiinNclf 
durin.L,' the wars of the Lea^Mie, I)_v his attachment to liis 
Liwfnl sovcrei{i;n, and liad niorited the conlidence of tho 
peat Jlenry." Frontenae had a heart ^'reater even than 
liis liirtli : a mind active, |)eui'ti'atiii^', I'lrni, full of resource, 
and liif,dih- cultivated ; l)nt he was susceiitihle of the most 
unjiLst prejndico, and capalilo of carryinj,' it to f^rcat lenj^ths. 



177 



\(>-z. 



'liarnclcTrif 
ll.i' Ci.iiiil 

Ir Kn.lltt!- 

IllU', lll.H 
MKVC-KOr. 




"*)!' i 



I 



' Tlii'Ti' id, nnfortiiimlcly, littlf 
known iiH t')lliif (i'liviiniiiV jxrwimil 
liiHlnry. MmiIht .Incliriciiii siiys In' 
\viis |X)|iu)iir 1111(1 iilliililc, friiinini.' tin' 
Iniirts cit' all, mid Iwiici' iilwnys ]iiinc- 
timlly and cliiMTfiilly (iImvimI : Ills 
ti)iri' il'' riluiil nicii. p. ."lis. Attn' 
Inn ri'iiirn In FniiKv. lie sent m llir 
lldti'l l>i<u a hilvcr liinii> tor the 
(•lm|iol : 11). 

'•' l.nnis dc HiMidc, count dc Finn 
trnac ct di' I'aliniu, «as nf a I'anii- 
ly tliat liad (icrvi'd the nival liimily 
faithrully. Hii< f^raiidriitlic'r wan s(.n 
of a jr<'ViTniir nf St. ticiinain, \<r>- 
niiiT ninitri' d'Holcl dii lini, au<l 
kni(,'tit cif thcOrd.is in Hil!l. His 
fiitlii'i' niniricd a dauulitcv of l!ay 
niniid I'liili|i|iiaiix. At tlii' ajrc ol 
si'Vcntc'i'ii, I.oiiis ill' Huailt' cntrrcd 
tlic military can'ir as inaitri' df- 
raniii in tlii' rciriiin'iit of NorniiiiHly. 
■md after lioldiiifr tlial post ilrv. n 
yuun<, lii'C'unu'inari'rlml (li'i'anip. lie 
Vol.. lll.-l ! 



siTvcd in Italy. Flandciv, and dor- 
niany, and in Kili'.l was in tin' fori'o 
wilt to till' iiliif of Caiiilia On itH 
siirri'iiilir In' was appointi'd •rovrrnor 
of ( 'anada. Wliili' ^'iiviiiior-:,'i'nrral 
till- till' sicond lime, lii' diid at <^ui'- 
lirr in Novi'IiiImI'. Hi'.ix. ill his Tstli 
yiar. His fiincnil si riiion. Iiv tlir He- 
coUcit I'-atlirr Olivir. is still I'Xtant. 
His wile, a daii).diti'f of I.njrranir" 
'ri'ianon. was oni' of the laiiiun.s 
liiaiitirs of till' day (St. Simon. . 
Miliiuiris, iv.. p. 1(11 ; ili.. ix, ]). 'Jfit), 
and lady of li'Hior to M'lli' di' Moiit- 
pcnsirr. daiifflitrf of (Jastnii. diiki" 
of Orlrans: Mcmnircs di' Mlli- do 
.Montpi'iisiiT. .\mstirdaiii. tT:i"i. iii.. 
]i 7 : ill . iv ]) S. Sill' sci'ins to 
liavr riitiitaincd a strmi^r dislike to 
licf liiisliand : Hi . iii . p. 7. She sur- 
vived him many years, and dieil in 
17(17. ill a fill!' aparinii'iit at the 
ai'M'iial L;i\i'n her hy tlie I hike de 
I.ude, piy and worldly to the last. 



m 



Ml \ 



'4 



•I • I 



■ ••!■■ 
1. 1 



178 



IIISTOIIY OK NI'W KUANCK, 



Vi 



\(>72. He wislu'd to iiilc iiliuic, iiinl llicrc wns iiotliiiig tliat ho 
""^"""^ left uikIdiic to rciiinvc tliosi' wlioiii lit' feared to tiiid in Iiis 
way. His valor and al)ility were ecpial ; no one i'o\ilil bet- 
ter assnnu) over the nations whom ho governed or with 
wlioiii lie hud to treat, that asfoiuh'ncv so neeessarv to re- 
tain tiieni in (hity and respect. Wiien hv c'liose, lie gained 
the friendsliip of the Frenih and their allies, and no gen- 
eral t.'ver tl'ealed his em niies with greater hauteur and 
nol.)louess. His views for the aggrandizement of the colo- 
ny were groat and just, and it was not his fault if eyes 
were not opened to the advantagi; wliich Franco niiglit 
derive from it ; hut his prejudices sometimes prevented tho 
exoontinn of tiie projects which depended on him. It is 
not easy to rceonoilo the regularity and even l>icty which 
he ])rofessed, with that acerbity and vindictiveness which 
he displayed against those he took nnil)rage at or did not 
like ; and on one of the most important occasions of his 
hfe he gave ground to supimso that his ambition and tho 
(h'sire of jireserving his authority had more jtower over 
him than ze.il for tho p\iblic gooih Tho reason is, that 
there is no virtue but forgets itself, wIkmi a dominant pas- 



sion is allowiM 



1 tol 



lave swav. 



Count do Frontenac might 



liavo been a great prince, had heaven ])laced li 



im on a 



tl 



none 



but he had faults ihingerons in a subject who is 



nUi'ovory 

MiKhir.''i|>|'i. 



not convinced that his glory consists in sacriticing evi'ry 
thing for the .sake of his sovereign and the iniblic good.' 
Meanwhile Mr. Talon emjdoyed the short time he had 
still to spend in the cohniy in a manner well titted to inako 
him regretted. After having estal)lished the right of his 
royal master to the very extremity of the north, and far 
into the west, he umhMtook to make now discoveries. It 
was known in general by the reports of the Tmlians that 
there was in the west of New Kr.in<*e, a great river, calh^d 
Mechasipjii by some, and ^ficissipju hy others, which 
fl(^wed neither north nor east ;' hence no (hnibt was entor- 



('(iiii|)ai'i 



la Pcitlnrii'. Ilif^toin.' 



dc l'.\iinTi(HU' Si'pt.. iv.. ]>. 110. 



• l"i)i' till' laiTu si iiuliialioiis nf 
till- Missiusinpi, Hi'c Ui'lutiiiii, KiOO, 



IIISTOltY OF NFW FHANCK. 



17!) 



taiiiod, lli.il liy i(s means, coiiiiuiuiioatinii mi^'ht ho oponcd \f>72. 
citlicr witli ilic (liilf of ^rt'xiiM) if it ran soiitli, or with tlio ^'^•^ 
raciCic, if it llowcd west to (•ni])ty tliiMc ; and whii-licvor 

fOlllsr it took, ;;itllt hilli'tits WiTf t'Xpi'ctr(L 

Tlic indndaMt (hd not wish to h'r.vc America, without 
throwing,' lij^dit on lliis important point ; lie coninhMl this 
exploration to l'\ither Afaniuette, who had already trav- 
ei'sed almost all (he eonntries of ('ana(hi, and who was 
hi^'hly esteemed liy tlie Indians. Joliet, a citizen of (^ue- 
liec. a man of aliility and e\))erience, was associated with 
him.' 'I'liey set out together from the I'ay of Lake Aficli- 
i,L,'an, emharked on Fox lliver,' which emj)ties into it, and 



1^ 



ji, I'.' : Hid'.'. 11. I! : ICllt. ■•li. i ; \W'. 
!>. •-':'.; ir.TO. |ip. Nil, !M. nil) ; ICTI. 
I' '.M : Slii'ii. Pisi'oviTv mil l",\|lii!n 
ticiii nlilii' .Missis^i|i|ii Viillry. xxii - 
V. 'I'lif iiimii' is triviii iiH M("-si|ii, 
MrHsUi|ii. mill liiially. Mlss:si|ii. Me- 
r1iiisi|i|ii (liM'-i niil (M'ciir. iiiir tlic 
foviM (iivi'ii liy Iliiiii('jiin.niiiliiclc>|i!('(l 
liy t 'linliiiiilinmiil. Mi'scliarclM'. It 
is l'nlM]inl|l|ilc(l (if twii si;n]ilr wiirils. 

Mis-i, irri'iil, mill si|ii, river. 

' Tllldll rC'lllllllHlllliMl .Inllicl. wllll 

was a|)|"iliiliMl liy ilir Clicvalicr ilc 
(iraiicltimlaiiic : KrdiilciiarH I>is- 
imlrli N..v.nit.. r-.\ HIT-.'. \. Y <'cil. 
l)(KV, ix., iMi 'M. r.M : l>alilcili in 
IMscnviry iif ilii- Mls.-i.-sipiii. ii. I . 
I{clali(i|is liii'dllis. i., pp. lilo-t ; 
l>i' la Piirlr. ii , p. l^ta : <'anail:i I>iic.. 
II., ii., p. 1 10. I.duis .Idlliit was 
liiirn at QiU'Ii'T, Si'i.t.iiilicr '.M, Hil"). 
siiM nl .Iciliii .Idllii't anil Mary il'-Mian- 
rniir. Ill' was ciImi-hIiiI al tlir.Irsuit 
rnlli'i;!', anil ill I ''<!'.' n rcivnl niinni' 
onli'rs. Ill- rrniainrd .in iirli'siasiic 
till llWiT, wlii'n 111- ii||inri'iilly aliaii 
iIihumI all iili'as uf tin' |'rii'<tliiinil. ami 
wi'iit tn till' \V St 'raliiii, Palilim. 
nivl imli'i'd all spraU liifrlily of liini. 
In II1T5 111' niiirrii'il t'lara Frmu'is 
Hiss.,t In lUSO. Ill' iil.laiiiiil a jrrant 
of .^ntii'OHti us a ri'wiiiil Inr his west 



rrn ilisriiviiy. Ilr was royal Iiyilnif;- 
lapliir. Ill' iliiil ill May, 1700. Sniiiii 
111' liis ilrsrincliinls slill ]uiHxi sn tlin 
Hi'ifriii'iiry nlMiillii't : Fiilaml. Notrs 
xiir Irs lii'u'iHlri'.s lie (imliic, ]ip ."iO- 
!>'. Fatlnr .laini'S Marqiictli- waH 
iiiiTi'Iy tlii> assiiriati' "f .Inllict. nut 
tlii'trnvi'mincnt aprnl an licrcHtntcd. 
Ill' wnH liiirn at l.i'iin in HiHT. 1h'. 
raiiii' a .lisiiii in l(!."il. ranii" to 
Annrira in Si'pli'nilii'r. KlCiCi. nml 
al'liT stiiilyiiifr .ML'nniniin at 'I'liri'O 
UiVcTs. Was si'iit til till' West in 
A|.ril. MWH. II,. istalilislii'.l tin- 
niissiiin at Mackinai' in IHTI. and 
liail appanntly snliriti'il an ap|ioint- 
imnl un lln' I'Xpi'ililinn : Miscovrry 
anil Kxploniliiiii III' till' Mississippi, 
xli.. I'tc. On liis nturii lir ln'iran a 
mission at OM KasKiiskia. on tlio 
Illinois liivir, ami liavinp ri'tiirnril 
to it in HIT I. lill ill at Cliirnpo, 
wini'Tiil tliiri'. in tlii' H|irint; prn- 
ri'i'ili'il to Kaskaskia, liiit sinking; 
riipiiUy, ilii'd. .May 1><. KiT'i. wliili> 
riiil' aviiriii:' rrai'li Mirliiliinacki- 
iiac. His I'oniraili's I'liriiil liiin liy 
tlir laki' shore, at tlir iiiontli of a 
rivrr tliiil llii'ni'il'ortli tmik liis nnnii'. 

• 'I'lll' vivi'V 111 till- 1'".1M'S 'I'lio 

]iropi'r naiiic 111' ilii'sc Iiuliiiiis isOii- 
tafjaniis: Clmrh mix. 'I'licy set uut 



H 






''4 



'> 



Iff 



180 niSTORV OF NKW FHANCR. 

i^>7-- ascended nearly to its sonroe, notwithstanding' the rup- 
^—^y-^' ids, whicl: nnder tiio navij^iition excessively dilhcult.' 
Tiiey then h'ft it, in.iivhed some time,' tlu'n re-end)arked 
on the Oiiiscoiisinj,', and saihii;^' always westward, found 
thoniselves on the Mii'issi))i at ahout forty-two und a half 
def,'rees north lalitiidi-. It was on the seventienth of 
June, in the year 1(17.'!, that they entered that f.inious river, 
which in width and still more in depth seemed to them to 
correspond with tlu^ idea which the Indians had given 
them of it." 

They allowed the current, which is not very rajiid at 
that l>arl, to bear them on, and they had not Jiroceeded 
far when they discovered the Illinois. They found threo 
towns of that nation three leaf,'nes Itelow the place wlii're 
the Missouri, styled I'ekitanoni in his delation, Mends its 
waters with tlio.so of tho Mississippi.' These Indians 



IVciin St. I>:niiliiiH. Ill .Mii'liiliiiincki' 
line. Miiv IT, \>'<'!''> : I'iwuvcr.V nl' tin- 
Mis-is>i|i|ii, |i. 7. 

' 'I'lic vnjiini' (if .Iiillii'l nnd Mar- 
<|Ui'tl(' \\H>* licM'ii trralcil iiH uiiri'ul 
liy llinsc wliM wiDtc in llic iiitcp'ft 
of l.ii Snili' : 1)111 lliiTc in no fiict lirt- 
t'- ji.. 'ii'iilicalfd. KriiiitciiHc's I)in- 
1. rl s'.iv.iiili.r II. KIM. .N. Y. 
('ill. PiK'., In..]). I'.M ; aii<l lli'iiin'piii. 
I)i'Mri|iti(iii (li- In I.iiui-iiiinr. [i. li!, 
piihlislicd at I'aris in Ills;!, ailinit 
It cli'ailv. l''aihir .\nnslasius. I.c 
('lri(i|, 11.. l>. Il'll ; I'ailicr .MfUiliri'. 
ill.. |i. ','.V.t. .Mari|U<'tli''N .luniiial wan 
not pulilishiMl at i)ii<'f, the .li sni! Hi'- 
latiimH lia\inj; liicn .sto|iiii'il at the 
inslanri' nt dc ('<nirci'llr, ai'dinlinf.' 
tiMr.Mi'iil'iiilliin. Hir*liilir. iii. p ;|p,'i. 
It was pulili-^liiil lidni a iiini' cdpy, 
liy 'I'lii'VciKit in his liicinil ili' VdV- 
aj,'t!H, in KISl (CliailivciN. nti', 1 , 
p. Kl, has Kisr ciTiint'imslyi. Tlii.'- 
WHS ri ■print I'll liv liii-Ii, at Lundnn in 
1S|."». A Dnirh vcisliin, with ciiiiinis 
map and pluti'S. appi'ari'd ut l.cvdcn 
inliOT. '■ aiiiucli'' n uiciiiinl, a lon- 



ti'ni|Kiraniiiiis cnpy. with his last 
li'tiiT. and his map in his nun hand, 
Hcri- prcMTviil »l (^Millie, and pidi- 
lislnd with a translaiinti hy ini', in 
till' DisiiiviTV and l!\pliil;iliipri ot 
till' .Missi»ippi \'alli\-, in 1S.1','; they 
well' also printed priva..'ly hy .ianu's 
Lenox, l'.s<|,, in ls."),"i, nnd ut I'arJH, 
in the lielaliiMis Itn'dit.s, in tstil, 
.lolliet's inaji, with a letter to Fron- 
teiiac in hi; I. was preserved in the 
Freinh archives. Vnr the navipi- 
tion ol l'.i\ liivir, see liisK'overy of 
the -Mississippi. |i. 1','. 

•■ '^,70(1 paces: lli., pp. l."i. 'JliH. 

' Discovery of the .Mississippi, pp. 
1(1, ;2:!S : Kecit des Voynfles et De- 
convertes. p. ','7 ; Kelations hu'diten, 
ii.. p. Vl'M ; Voyage el Ui'eouvi'rte de 
(inehpies I'avH et .Nations de I'.Sine- 
riipie Sipteiitrioinile, |i. 10. 

* These villau'es were on the WOHt 
slioro near the liesnmines liiver: 
niscovery of tlic Mississippi, p. "JO. 
.Manpietie's map nnines two of ihu 
Villages I'eoiiarea and .Moiiiu'wenn. 
'I'lie map in 'I'lievruot alw) pluceH 



^ 



i 



IIISTOIIV OK NKW KlfANTK 



181 



wore <li(> more cliarinnl t(i see Frciiclmicn ainoiif^ tlifiii, in \f>7i. 
fiH iniicli as lln'v Imd loiij,' dt'siicd tinir alliiuifo, for tlio 
ri'iisdii, tlint tlic Tr(ii|uniK lic^nii (o iiiiiku incursions into 
tin'ir connlry, ' and lliat tln'V iVarcd a war wliirli (lu'V wito 
not in a jiosition to sustain nlonc. Tiny a('cnrdin},'I_v gavo 
I'atliti' Mar(|ntttt' and Sicur Jolict cm ry possiliK' wt'li'oniL', 
and induced tlicni to ]iroinisc their ^ood ollices wifli tho 
f^overnor-j^eiu'ral.' 

Tlic two travellers, after resting' for a lime anionf^ tho 
Illinois, pursued their course and ilescended the river as 
far as tin! Akanses, al)out tlie tliirtv-lhird dej^ree of lati- 
tude." Then, as provisions .and aniinnniticui he^^'an to fail 
thi'ni, and consideiin^j; lliat i( was not pruih'ut to advance 
too far with only thi'ce or finii' nien into a countiy, wlioso 
iidialiitants tliey did not know, and as they could no lon<,'er 
diailit that tlie ^ficissipi eiiijilied into the (lulf of Mexico, 
tJM'V resumed tliiir route for Canada,' ascended tlie river 
as far as the river of tlie Illinois, wiiich they enten^d.' On 
iirrivinj^ at Chicaf;;ou on Lake ]\richi;^'an, tliey separated." 
Father ^rar(iuette remained anion;^ the ^liamis, and Joliot 
went to (^)uel]ee to ^'ive an account of his voyaj^'c to Mr. 
Talon, whom he found to have already sailed for Franco,' 



! t 



till-Ill on llic wrst nliiivc ilic Min 
soiiri. Kiitlirr Miiniinltc cxprcsHly 
HtiilcH tliiil llirv ri'iirliiil I'cUilniKini 
liit<'i' ; \y\fi\ (if llir .\lissis>i|ppi, p. :'|S. 
'I'lic li)riii I'i'kiliiiioni is jrivcii in n 
nuitilatcil imsMifii- ill 'riii'Viiinl's 

VdVllJII'H ft DlVnUVlTtt'H, ]). 2S. 

' Till' iiii\misrri|it pulilishi'il liy nii- 
rontniiis tin- liriiutiriil inlilic-s nl'tln' 
Illinois clii.f, iipnwliircd I'V Liinir 
Icllinv ill liis lliiiwiithii : Disc, nl llir 
Mississi|i]pi, pp. 'Jll-;iT. 

'■' Till' war lupin iis early ns l(l.")(i, 
nnil liy l(i(!T tin' lllimiis iiail Iwcn 
(Irivi'ii wi'st iiftlii' Missisfippi : Tail- 
jiiin's I'rrrnt. p 'ii\. 

' Disiiivrry of tin- Mississippi, pp 
W-ritt : 'i'lirvi'iiot's Voyu,i;-i'n v{ !)<'■- 
cinistTlis, pp. '-b— 4'i. 



^ Tiny lift Akansia (ralliil .\kam- 
Hi'ii in Thi'Viiint. |). 4(11, .Inly 17 : 
Pisi' 111' till' Mississippi, p ."ill. 

' Dlsriivrry of tin' .Mississippi, p. 
.11): Tlnvi'iiot. Voyn'.'i's It Ilrronvir- 
ti'H. p. I'J. On tliiw riviT in' foiinil 
till- KaKkaskias, iiiis|iriiiti'il Kiiilka 
in Tlii'viniit. 

" Mari|in'tti' ilms not nii'iition 
('liii'iijron, luit Bays tliat tlii-y liotli 
])riH'> rdi'il to (iri'i'ii Hay, wlicnri' 
tliry liail startril in .liini' 

' .lolliit rinilil not rxp.it to finil 
Talnii.aslii'linil siiilrd Ipi'fori'.lollii't'B 
appniiiiiinnt. .\s to ITis rilnrn, sco 
I''iontrniii''s Dispatrli. Nov., HIT I, 
N. V Col. Doc. ix,, p. Vi\. Di' la 
I'lillniic. ill liis lirii'f allusinn to 
JuUii't's vi)yu(,'c ^vol. ii. pi>. UJO-l), 



,■1 



I 



„i.' 

f 



182 



IIISTOUV OK NKW FKANCE. 



1672-3. 'I'll,. iiiiHsiiiiKirv WHS viTV w»H rccoivcd l>y tlm (liciit 
'^^r'^" ("liicf (if llif Mi;iiiiis, He took up liis ulxxlo in tin' fliirf 
town (if tlM'sc Iiiili.'ins, iiiid Hpciit tli<> liiHt ycat-H of his lifu 
DiKcriMl >ii ill iiiiiioiiiii'in^ JcsiiK Clnist tn tlnin.' TIki prccciliii^ 
(M.iiiiirv '.)' yi'iir I'lttlii'iM Alldiii'/ and DalilMU limlwitli ^Tcivt tdil trav- 
"mil " oiscd nil tlif cuiiiitiy sdiilh (if llic j^rcat Imy, witinnit 
""""'""• it'iipin^' iiiiicli fruit uf llicir liiliors. While asciMidin^ FnX 
llivcr llicy pfiri'ivfd on tlic cd;;!' of oiu- of tlioHc iNpids, 
wliiili iUf, as we liavc niiiarkt d, viiy fr ipidit oil fliis 
liver, a kind of idol (piilc :udily niadt.aiid sccinin;,' ratlicr 
one of tlioHc capiicos uf iiaturo, wlioro nioii tliiiik tlicy can 
trace some resoulilaiice to works of art. It was a rock, 
tile suiiiiiiit iif \\liicli seemed at a distance a iiimu's head. 
This the Indians had taken as tlie tutelary j,'od of their 
country They fre(pieiitly daulied it with all sorts of col- 
ors, and never passed mar without olVeriiif; it toliacco, 
arrows, or the like. Tho missionaries, to convince the 
heathen of the impotence of their pretended deity, threw 



IiiIIh iiilo an iiln'iird crrnr. timkin^' 
liiin riiiirn li.v tlir Si..I(imi'|.1i. ' wlicri' 
Mr. (li- In Sail- liail Imtjuii an Cftali- 
liNliniint. " 

' CliarliVdix Im'H'. mill in Iii^.lnur- 
nal. i>|i. ol:l-(. liillownl (i|i|iari'ii!ly 
Hiiinr vii^'Mc irairniiin. I|i' iIih'k imt 
Hi'i'lii t<i iiavr I'lin.-iilti'd (III' arcliivi'H 
ol' Ilia order at yuilMr, I'urix. or 
Konic, Till- inanuH<'ri|itM Iiihi piili- 
IIhIhmI In my |)i»ruvi'ry aiil l^iiplora- 
tiiiii ol till' .\liM*i---i|ili| Vallry. jrivc 
.Miiri|iirtH''s lll'i' lully. Jollii't jcfl 
liiiii III (iri'in Hay. wlnic In- \\x\» 
HiMin )iro>lralrd with dix'ii^iv Ilav 
iii^' |iriiniinri| iliu Ka^kaskias to rr 
turn und U'L'in 11 mishlon unions 
tlii'iii on till' head wntcm of lli.' I'li- 
iiiii^. Ill- wrotr to ijiii'lii T lor p riiiiM 
Hion. and OcIoIht 'J."!. \{'u\. lie «(>t ini;, 
crosMinu' till' |Hriinsiilii to l.iiUr Mirlii- 
pin. Hi-< lirMJlli liiili'd, anil "ii 
rracliiiii: Cliiiii^'i'. lliriiiilii-r I. In' 
liad III htoji and » iiili-r ihrri-. In tin 



hprinfr, rrcoviTin:; HJiclitly. lie ad- 
vaiW'-d and rtiuln-d tlir Ka«kasUiaf<, 
April H. .M'tiT !ayiiit.'lli''f"iiii'lalioii 
ol' a mission lii- nidravoii'd to rracli 
.Markiiiai' liy way of Si. .losipli's 
IfiviT and tlir ciiHlrrn slioi'r of l.iiko 
.Mlrljiiriin : Iml dralli catiii' ra|iidly 
on. and In' .van taken nHJiori' liy IiIm 
two Imatmi'ii, near llie river lliat 
iH'arx Ills name, nnd lliere died, 
May IS, lilT.";. Two yeaii< later Hoine 
Oitawas tiNik igi Ills liones and eon 
VI veil tliiiii to .Mai'liiiiae : I>iM'(.iveiy 
and i'°\ plural ion ol the .Mississippi 
Valley, pp. Ixvi.-lxxlii , ."i;!-U(! ; lie- 
lalioiiH Iie'diteH, ii., p. ',".10 ; .Mar- 
iptetteV hlHl letter, ill., p. •.'57 ; llo- 
lations Ini'dites, ii p. ;117: Heeit de« 
Voyaires .111 IVro Miiripielte. pp. !lll- 
li'iK : IJeJatioii de la Noiivelle I'raiici , 
lli::;-'.>, |ip. !l!l I'-MI. See as to Mai- 
(pielte, also. Spink's Mle, l.iliiaiy 
.Viiieriinn liio(,'rapliy, Serien I., vol. 



1 

I, 



IIISTOIIV OK NKW rilANCR. 



188 



flic roclv into tlu' u, iter, and tlu'io'wiiH notliiiig pvor «nicl of i'>72-.1. 
if iifli I-.' — ^r— 

Wlirii tlit'Ho riijiiilH ari' ]iass((l, you ciilcr a line livcr, 
wliicli caliiilv rolls its waters tlir<>ii;,'li a clianuiiij,' fruiiitry. 
Till' cliiiiatc is very iiiilii, tin- forcHts lUf divt'isifiid with 
n^'ricaliji' luaii'lis, and wild animals of all kinds arc funnd 
tinic in llunisands, and tspcciallv tliosc lllinniH oxi n lliat 
Ileal wool.' Hcvcrul Hiuidl rivers mipfv into Fox Kivcr and 
Uic iMivi'icd with wild lici', wliirli dinin;,' the antiinin at- 
tracts a ]irodi;,'ious (|nantity <if f^'aiMc. 'I'lic vines with 
which tin' woods arc studded produced without cnllixa- 
tion <|iiitc larp« laiuchcH; jtlunis, apph s, and other fruit, 
filthou;;h wild, arc not disaj,'reealile to the taste, ami would 
lie excellent Were theV cultivated. 

Striking,' southward you enter the country of the !\Ias- 
coutins, set down on somo of our iua))s under the name of 
TciTo dt) Feu, /,"//(/ <y' l-"ni . The iMascou''vs are also 
ralletl hy somo j^'eo^^'ia pliers the Fire Nation. An error 
liascd on an e(piiviicid term f^ave I'isc to tliis th'noniination. 
lyrascontcnec, which is the true name of this country and of 
the |)eo])le who inhaliit it, sij^'iiitics an ojien counlry, and 
in fiift, forcst.s are more ran* tiicre than in all the rest of 
Canada. The routeouataniis say ]\rascoiitiiis, and it is 
from them that we have taken the n;niie. Now it is aver- 
red that some Fremdinien inivin},' he.iid Indians who called 
fire liy a term closidy reseinltliii}^ that of Mascoiiteiiec, 
inia'^ined it to la* the name of the trilie, ami ciilled it tho 



u 



» 






% 



' Thin inci<k'nl lonfrprfcciU'il Miir kiuii. mid lliini^ra in li'm iliciioimry 

quittr's voviifT''- Sic lii'latiuM ilr 111 (,'ivix I'ijiki iih llic ()tclii|p\vi' term. 

N. K, KiTl, p. II. I''(ir a Hkilrh III It \x Hi-kI (IrMiilii iI in Itilatiiia 

Alliiiiiz. hiT Diwoviiv mill l'x|iliini ili' la Nmivi'llr Kniiiri', t(lii;l. p. lit. 

tiiiii 111' till' .Missi>sippi. p. (17. imlr. Nniii' ol' tin- pri'vimis .lisiiit iiiiM- 

A :.('rniiil Hiniilar iiiol was lliiown Hiimniirs liiul (jinciiln i| it, so tlial it 

(liiwn in 11172 : Krliitiuii ili' lit N. K., wn;' appmriilly tint sicn tlini in tin' 

1()72--!, p. '«(l''. Sii>i ra ciiiintiy. nr mi tin' ^rfrat 

'' Tilt' liiwiii is rall<"it liy .Mlmii'/. lakci. 
(Hrlatimi ill' In \. K.. lliTl. |i. ihiiiiil ' Ziziinia nipiatiin; Mari|iii'tti', 

liy Maninrlti' (Iti'iit ilrs Vnya^ri'H, IVisrnv ami l''.\|il(iratiiiii nl llii' .Miw- 

Ji. 'M; Uiw. of the Miss., p. 1N|. pi>i ^.i^sippi. p. II. 



'il. • 



. I 



\ln 



Ifil 



fllSTOHV or NKW FRANCF. 



r 



li 



1671-v Fin< Niilioii,' Iliiw iniiiiy innpoi' iiiuiich Imvc (iii^;iimllv 
lirtttr fiiiiiiilitin.i ! Till' KifiiiMiiiH mi' iici;,'liliiirH «»f 
till' MascniitiiiH, iiikI till' two t I'll )0H have al\vtiyHii|i|mi'«>iitly 



M'l'll (III 



iti'il ill ititrrc.^t. 



till' two 

MioMlolltl- 

rli". Ii> till 
MnnO'iiitiiiK, 



Kwepiiniior Aiiinii^,' till' Masi'outiiiH FittliiTH Allouc^t ami Daliloii met 
Ti'tiiii'iioua willi tliii'i' tliiiiisainl Miatnis' ami tlii-v li'iuiii'd 
that fiar <>f tin- li'i)i|iiois iiml nf tlir Siniix juiil iiiiitcil all 
tlicM' IiiiliaiiH to^'i'tinr. 'I'lirv wi'ii- icrivi'il willi ;;i('at 
marks of fiii'iiiNlii|i, ami aiimiuiici'il Jrsits Clirist. Hut all 
tho fniil of tlii'ir |iri'ai-hiii^,' was that tlirmi Havaj^i's, iiiialilo 
to concrivt' that im-ii who Kpoki' ho will wi'ii' imii'ly 
ordinal V mortals, a]>|'!i< il to tlu'iii as ^riiii, to olttaiii tlin 
riirc of till' silk ami otlur I'avorH, whiih tlu'y usually I'.sk 
of their guils. 

Tlii'V wi-rc iiivitoil oih> day to a fi-ast, tlu< prr]mrntion 
for wliii'li li'd thi'iii to su|i|iosi' a war-frast. It was prr- 
jiaii'd ill a viiy vast raliiii, win n- a kind of tropliy had 
liciii rrcrti'd, loadrd witii Imus, arrows, ami a kind of 
liattlr-a\i' madi' of wry hard stont'. KataMi's, consistini^ 



lOWCVl 



r nidv i>f Indian iiiral, had hnn addrd with toll 



and till' iii>{rmiii'nts used to rousr tliciiisilvi's to action, 
that is to say, tin' rliii'liii-oui') and drum. As soon as the 
missionarirs had takrn tlit'ir placi's, a jj^rcat jilattrr of In- 
dian rorii lioilcd in luill'alo j^rrasi', was liron;,dit to tliciii, 
and till- master of tlu' liamiin't, on ])r('si'ntiii.L,' this dish to 
thrill, paid thrill a lon^' i'om])limt'nt, tlu- siil)staiiri« of which 

' 'I'lii' Mnwimiind u.n' Htvliil liv »( 11 liw liMlcrM will inriiii lin'. tin' 
till' lliirniiK, .\HHi-tii,rniiiiiii. whicli i-rnir iinm'. lii'riipi in Ii'im Olclil|>^ 



rrrtiiiiilv 111 



caiiH I'"irc Niilion. 'I'ln' wc |rn'iiiiiiiirv ''ivin h'iri', Islikoti 



i|iirst|ciii IN alii'tlii'r the lliiriin in. I'riiirii-, iiiuHlilinilr, For iiii ihsiiv 
lir|iril( Tf wiTi' (liiiiviMl, mill ih'MT mi tin' trilii', we Ili^tiirv iind Cim- 



iliMiivciicl ilitir i-rmr. 



jriMii 



•II 



\r liallli' IS 



ditii 



if the Imruiii Ti'iliiH, iv., p. 



MiisooiiliiiH «( 



iiicilmMv 



liv Siii.'iiril.nihi'iiiiilii < 'hiiikIh. 
I'. '.Mll.r|iiiiii|<liiiii til it lull. Ill: I'.'. 11111)1: 
Hrliiiimi. \<'i'-i''. p. 1 1 ; I'i 10. pp. ;!.">. nt lust ciiiitoiiiid.ilwiihilif KikupDnM. 
(IS; 1(141, i>. •"(!!, I'tc. I)iilil<m lirht 'Tin: Miiiinis iiiul .Miiwnutiii.-i |i>- 
ill lii'latiiin. KiTt, p. 4."(, iniitH lliin p-tlii-r iiimli' ii]> o.OdO : Hi'latioii ilo 



iTrnr. iiii'l ^avH; tliiit ^lasUnii- In N'liivilli' Kin 



10:1. 



1' 



■1.1 



inrli hiiriiilii' 



laiiij I'I' iii'i'il III' l-'atlirr Dublou <l<)rt« tint nuiiii' Tciiu- 



tniH, lull a." till' wnril liy tin- rliaiigf tliiiu 



-1 



irrHTf»ll\ OK NKW FHANCK 



186 



wiiH tliat tlicy liml ii cnul w.ir to Huslaiii nf,'iiiiiMt tlic Sioiix ; tf'T^-h 
tliiit tlioy w«>fo 1)11 till) |)i>iiil (if ..niiliii),' ii;,'aiiiHt tjiiit iiiitiiin -"^f"' 
n )mrt\ of Ihtir yuiiiij,' iinii. aihl tliiit liny l»t'Hj,'((l tliriii to 
^raiit lliciii vil'tory over tliiir foes. 

Tlir Fatliorw rojilicd tliiit tln'y worn only iiiiiiiHtorH mid 
MorvHiitH of IFiiii, on wlioiii alono victory (Ii'|itiiiltil, and to 
wlioiii tlicv iimsf aiMit^s tliiir vows; tliat llr was tin* 



Cnatiir ami (iod of IfcaviMi ainl Kailli, tliat lit' 



was ivt-rv 



wliiic, tliat III' had always Ih'cii, and tliat lu' would imvit 
crasi' to lie, that his powor had no lioiinds, iind that hi'. 
f;oo(liicss ('(|iiall<'d his power.' TIh'sc words ;,'avi' >,'rrat 
l)l(astiin to all present, and Father Daliloii, in his letter 
deseriliiiif^ the details of his voya^,'e, re;,'rets deeply his in- 
nhility to make a loii^,'er stay anionj< theso people ; Init h(> 
was I'eeidled to (}iiel)ee, and Fatht'r .MlovuiZ proeeeded to 
the FoNes Oiita.L'aiiiis). 

Ife did not expect a ROod reception, nn hoiuo of these 
Indians had heeii ill-trentiMl hy Frenclmien at INfontreal,' 
and the whole trihe had vowed vcn^'taiice. The Foxes 
were estimated at ne;nly one thousand families. The AFi- 
aniis and ^raseontins resorted to every expedient to dis- 
suade the missionary from dcliverinj^ himself alone to the 
fury of ft ])rovoked triho, which, moreover, had never ap- 
]»eared well disposed to hearken to the tidin^'s of f'hristian- 
ity; lait nothing' could induce him to ch.an^'e his desi^Mi, 
and God hiessed his (•(mraf,'G. Fie preaciied Jesus Christ 
to the Foxes, who admired his r<>soIution and his ])atieiu'o 
and •^'raduidly adopted humane ideas towards him. Tie 
liaptizeil the dyin;,', and i's])eci;dly the {•hildreii ; many 
oven on his departure he^^'f^ed him to return to see them, 
and assured him th.at if he would t.ike up his ahodo 
with them, he would find a cahin and a chapel already 
ore<'te(h'' 

Father Manpiotte, on his part, labored ' uite usefully 



..C Kiitlii-r 

Alloii../ 

mil "iiif tlio 



;'M 



-1 



' Wcliitiiin lie 1ft N. 1''.. Hill, p. 10. Uriailnii dc hi NouvuUf l-"ruaci\ 

' ll>.. pp. .H)-")0. 1(171. p .^O. 



' f 
i 



I,'' 



/ 
I. » 



186 



llISTOIiV OV NKW KHANl'K. 



if)72-;. jiiiioiif^ tin- Miiiiiiis of (Miii'.ii^oii. lie rciiKiiiifd there" (ill 

^"^ « ~^ 1()T."), wlu'M he left it ti) iiroct'cil to Micliilliiii.ikiii.u' ; Imt 

D.aiii ..r 1k' ilit'il on till' way, us 1 liuvo ruliito'l in my jomii.il.' 

Muf.iiiutto. FatluT Alloiu'/ wi'ut soon aftt'i' to take his plai'i' among 

tho Mianiis,' (|uite a (.'onsidc'raliK" numln'r of whom he hail 

the t'ousolation of couvi'i'tiii.i^. This tiiUo, who aii> sup- 

jiosi'il to have th<' sanii' orii^in as tho Iilin>)is, is of quit(> a 

gi'ntlo ilis|)osition, ami hail not tlu-i)- missionaiii's becii 

travcrsi'il liy tho vory men who slmulil have upheld tlunn 

in their apostolie la'.iors. tin iv' is every appearuneo that 

this whole trilie would now lie Christian. 

Thi> eourt always seemed to he very earnest about tho 
settlement of Aeadia; but it was ill supj-orted by the indi- 
viduals whom it had interested in this enterjirise, and who 
would not understand tliat by faithfully administeriniif tho 
kin,i,'"s alVairs tiiey wo-.;ld l;,'oor usefully for tin niselves ; 
they did not even take t! e preeaution to build a single fort 
there, believing themsi'lves suDieiently sheltered by that of 
reiitagoi't, where the Chevalier de (hand Fontaine" resided, 
and by that of Saint John's l\i\"r, whero Mr. do Marson* 
commanded in the name of that governor. 



Ai'iiiliaii 
ull'iiir». 



' Sec lliis |iiit'li('iil liut incdiTi'i'' 
iici'ount n I'hiirli'Vdix's .lipurnul. pp. 
;ti;i— i. For till' niil liu'I", wi' iiiiti', 
p. Is-,', note 1. KailiiT .Miiii|iirlli' 
loiiiHicit the Illinois iiiissim; iit Kiitt- 
kiixkin. p.iit II .Miami ini.-<sioii : 1)18 
(■"Very and Kxplonuion ••( tlu" .Mis 
sis>ippi Valli'v. p. :>:! ; IJi'l.. l(;T:l-!r 

'•' .MIiMU'Z, iiTi till' (Icaili (if Mar 
ipii'lli', piiicccdi'il totlii' KiiskasUias, 
ill Oi'iiiliiT. IfiTti, mill rcinaincil cun- 
liirU'il with ii till lllTil : Pise, iiiid 
Expl. Ill' til.' Mis.sissippi, pp. (1(^77 ; 
Hclation il.. la N. I'"., 1(iT:MI, pp. 
12l-l:!l. Ill' ivtiiv.1 on til.' ap. 
priMii'li 111' I.a Sallr. w\ut was jrriatly 
i)p)iiisiil til liiii., lint iituniiil afiain 
in KiSI, anil «as tlnri' apparently 
in l(is; ami 'SH. lli' dinl In tlii' 
Wi'st. apparrntly ulK)ut .Viitr., KI'.UI, 



III' liiloiifrrd ti) till' prnvini'i' of 
'I'liiilousi'. anil caliii' to Aiiii'rii'a, 
.Inly II. |ll"iS. 

■ lliiiiri'i ir.iiiilifrny ill' tiramlfiii!- 
laiiii', p'.''ni|iiiiiii;.,irv at Unstmi in 
KiTii. 

* I'iirri' do .loylicrt, Sii/nmr do 
Siiiilaii<ri's I't ill' Mar.soii. in I'liaiii. 
paiiiii', siili liruli'iiant of a i-nnipaiiy 
of inl'antiy in tlii' rririnirnt nf I'nitmi 
(Piiniil, fill' I'ligi' ill' Nntri' Histoiro, 
p.'Jii:!). Husciiniinissicni'd .\iif;iist 14, 
1(17(1, to taUr |Kissrssiiin of I'ort 
li'iyal and Fori St. .lolin : N. Y I'lil, 
l>in'., ix,. p. :!7'l ; I'anailii DornP'riits, 
I., iv., p. '>M. Ill' ri'i'iivi'd iiossctf. 
simi, .\n};ilsl •,>7, l(i;0. Sn' ('liaili". 
viiix's .limriial, p. :W'i. tor an iiiii'i'- 
doti' as to Iiiiu . t'aiiaila l>iK'iiiiirnls, 
II., ii., p. 220. lie dii'd, accimling to 



IllSTOHV OF NKW FKANCR 



187 



ISfr. Talnn, oil nskiiiLC nf (lie kiiijj; to lie liiially ivliowd, i''>7.?-4- 
liiul |)roiiiisi'il ^Fr. Collicrt to liikc Aciidia on tlic way, luiil ■ ' 

to visit that |iroviiii'(\ Hi- rccciwd a favoralilc i'(>|)ly, ami 
till' minister, on si'iidin,!^ liim tli(> royal pci'inission to I'O- 
tnrii to I'rancc, iiitiiiiati'il to him, in I'.is Icttor of Jun(> Itli, 
l(!'r2, tliat lie would conftM' a favor on liim, by starting as 
la'i' as |i(issili](', and IfaviiiL,' c^vcry tlii:i,L; in Now Franct" in 
^•ood order; to wliicli lie add('<l that tho kin<j; stronj^ly 
approved his desi^'ii of coniin,^ honit> hy way of Ai'adia. 
I'esides the reasons whi'.'h had induced tho inteiidant to 
]iropose this voyaye, a still laoro iinj)ortaut ono hail 
arisoii.' 

Sir (Thomas) TiMiiplo had declared to :\rr. Colhort that 
he wished to ri>tiri! to the French t(>rritorv. ^[r. Talon 
had orders to treat with him, and to assure him that his 
most (."hristian majesty ;^rantcd him leth'i's of naturaliza- 
tion, and would liesfow still greater favors. Acadia, it 
was expected, would dcrivo }j;reat advanta<j;es from this 
negotiation ; hut it led to uotiiinjj;, nor can I discover what 
defeated it." Tlui next year Mr. do C'hambly succoodeil 
(he ("hevaliiM- de Clrand iMintaiiie at P(>ntajj;oet,' and ho 
had lieeu at that fort at the most a year, when, on tho 
loth of Auj^u.st, 1()71, an Englishman, who had boou for 



Mr. nmiii'l, ln'fnii' Ki'.ll , as lii« widow, 
r\Iiiry KnniiisClmsiiiT ilc I,iitliinic'r'', 
in llmt viiir iibiiiincil iiu cxlcnsii n 
ol'liis Aciidiim iinints. 'I'licii' (1iuii;'li 
tiT. I.niiisi' Kli/alii'lli, ill lll'.IO. iiiai-- 
rii'd till' Miiniuis dc Vmulrciiil. and 
was siiiiiiiiimi'd Id l'"raiin' to diii'd 
tlu> idiicatioii of tlic iirinccs of ilic 
Mood. Till' .loylii'iis vert' .xi'ii; 
nriirs d'.\ulniiy, Sonlaimi's, clc, in 
('liainii!iLriii', and wi'Vr, iH'i-liaps, con 
noc-lrd Willi till' rarlv il'Anlna; . 

' ("ollii'i-t to TaloM, Ipiio 1, 1(!7'.'. 
'I'lic part rclatinir to 'I'nniili' is 
oinitti'd in N. \ . Col. Ooiiinii'iits, i\., 
!>. S'.l. 

' Sir 'I'lioiiniH 'IVaniilo, ullor being 



conijK'lli'cl to yield up to Fniiicc tlin 
roiintry iVoin tin' liivcr Miisconjjiis, 
in .Maim, to ('a|H' Urcloii, went to 
lMii;land to olitain the indrinnity of 
t'lf!,-(ll) pi-oniiscd liiin. and died 
lla'ii' ill IliTI, drvisiiii,'- liis intcri'st 
to his iifpliow. Win. N'rlson : N. Y. 
I'll). l)oi'.. i\.. p. 75; Iliitclunsim'n 
MassarliMsrtts, i., 'i'.il't ; Ilalilnirton'H 
Nova Sidtia, i.. pp. IM-Il."), W'illiani- 
son'r^ Maine, i.. p. I'.'S. 

• Ordi-e dii foi purlani eoinnii>sien 
an Sii'ur de C'lainhiy. .May ."i, I'ir:!: 
Canada line.. Ill , i ,p. |',>. 'let (iiniid- 
I'ontaine si'enis to liave liei n lliero 
laier: Canada Doeuiiien's, II., ii., 
p. loll. 



A 









I' 



188 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



U 



1673-4. ff"r iliiJ'H ill tlio place in disguise, attacked it with the 
'^•'•^r~-~-' crow of a Flemish ph'ato. ' 

The KiigUOi This adventurer had one hundi'ed and te)> men, and Mr. 

I'enTuBuut ^.o Chambly had only thirty ; moreover, Peuta,'^oet wan 

1'!rt 01" 1"*^ ill "■ «t''iti! of defence, and tlio governor was suri)rised, 

^'i{h"c'r" " hecause the two crowns were at peace. He nevertheless 

defended liiniself with great courage, but after an liour's 

fight, he received a musket-ball through the body, which 

forcctl him to retire. Tlien his t'lisign and all his people, 

who were badly armed and more badly minded surrendered 

at discretion." 

The enemy immediately sent a detachment to Fort Ge- 
mesio on St. John's lliver to cany oil' Mr. de Marson wlio 
commanded tiiere. This was effected without resistance. 
Thus the whole of Acadia, of which these two forts con- 
stituted the whole defence, was left exposed to the incur- 
sions of the English. The auth<n- of this act of hostility 
had no commission and was disavowed. It was ascer- 
tained, howc ver, that he had received an English pik)t ivt 
Boston, and they were informed thai the Boston |)eople 
would only with great impatience permit the French to 
remain possessed of Pentagoiit and Fort St. John.'' 



, I 



' N. Y. Col. Doc, ix., lip. Ili), 
703; Cnnndn nocuincnts, II., ii., ]>. 
94. The Knulislmiuii lure rd'c rrcil 
to is cvidriitlv .Iiiliii i;li(iiiilc, 1111(1 the 
Dutch vis.-;fl, " 'I'lio l'"lyil\;r Iloi'sf," :( 
friiratr t'miu ('iirmoa, Ciqit. Jiii'rln''ii 
AiTiioiiis, ac'tiii!,' iiiuk>r 11 ('(iiiiiiiis- 
Bioii (if the Prince of Oi'ann;c. Tiic 
Dutch Cdiisidci'cd this a ciMKiui'st, 
mill on the t!Ttii Octohor, 1(17(1. tho 
Wc'.-^t India ('oinpanyaiUHii'ti'd Cor- 
nelius Steenwvcli iroveiiiiir (if IS'ova 
Scotia and Acadia ; haviiij; |iitv1o'ih- 
ly trranted Kliomle aia|ile tnuling 
I'lu-eif*: De reystir, lUitih a! the 
North Dole and in Main'', ])]). i,!-0. 
Hutchinson (llist. Mass.ichusetts, i., 
II. ','SO; Collection', ]i. KM) mill Wil- 
liamson (History ol Maine, 1., p. .jM)) 



seem to make two cnptures of Po- 
noliscot in KiTl and KiTO ; but there 
was apjiarently but one. See, also, 
N. Y, Col. Doc, iv., -ITt). The treaty 
of Nimefiueii ill KPT would coiilinn 
the Dutch title, but the claim seems 
to have been abandoned. TIiohkIi 
lliitchiiison (i.. ]i. ^Sll)says that New 
KiiLiland vessels drove otl'the Dutch. 

- I'Vontenao's Dispatch, November 
II, l(i7»: Canada Doc, II., ii., p. !M ; 
N. Y. Col. Doc, ix, p. 11!). 

' N. V. Col. Doc, ix.. pp. IW. 7!i;!; 
Canada Doc, II., ii,, ii. '.iJS. Marsou 
sun-eii'lrrei', An^Mist T, Hirt. 

On the :',lith of .\|iril. KiT'.'. alter ^i, 
!(in;r. painful, and cemiilicated ill- 
U'ss.diid .Miither Mary of the Incar- 
uatioii, tirsi superior of the L'rsulina 



I 'i* 



HISTOltY OK Ni:\V FRANCE. 



189 



Hiul Now Fraiiei" Ik'ch ti'iuii|nil, those losses inif,'lit liiivo '673-4. 
boon r. .ulily rciiairtHl, aiul now prcciuitions adoptoil to ' -^^ "- 
nrcvout tho i)i()viiic(>s hoidcrin'' on Now Eii-'laml from Front.nac's 

' ... v'hiIl-iico. 

lu'liiR left exposed to similar insults; but every tiling ui 
the colony was in eonfusion. Tlu! f^'ovevnor-general had 
fallen out witli the ecclesiastics and missionaries, and was 
soon on ill terms with Mr. du Chesneau, Talon's successor. 
The .Vbbc do Sah'i^nac Fenelon who belonj^'ed to the sem- 
inary of St. Kul])ice, wa8 put in prison on tl.e pretext 



Convi'iit of Qui'lii'C. rcvii'i'il lis Ihi' 
St. TtTi'sji of lur liiii''. Mary Hiiv- 
111(1, lii'itir known uiiilir her re 
liL'ioiis luiiMc <ir Mary of lln' IiK'iir- 
nation, was iiorii a! 'I'ours, Octolur 
IS. l.'.iHI, licr fatli.r, Klofcn(M' Oiiy- 
iinl, licinn a nilk niiTcrr of good 
fnniily, and Iht niothiT of the no- 
lilc tiimily of nnhou do hi Hoiirdai- 
^il■r(■. Altlioufili ficlinfr a decided 
vocation lor tlir rrlifrioun htiitr, slii- 
yielded to licr fatliirV wishes, and 
at till' njre of seventeen innrrieil a 
Mr. Maitiii, a silk nianufactiirer. 
Left a widow two yearn after, sho 
coiitiniied enjraL'ed in tlie direetion 
ofn factory till her son attained tlie 
nge (if twelve, and tlnil entered the 
I'ri-ulines. .Innnary 2."i, 1I!!I. Shi' 
came to Canada in Id:'!), and her 
wholi- siihse(|iient cnieer was de- 
voted to the {rood iif the colmiy. 
•She liecaine a piod Ilnnm anil .\lfron- 
quin scliolnr, and wrote in hoth 
lnniriinj;e». Her letters form a valii- 
ahle body of contemporary informa- 
tion. Tier life was written hy her 
son, Hom ('hiude Martin, Paris. IliTT, 
hy Father Charhvoix, anil receiiily 
hy the Ahlii' t'ti.-;rraiii. Qiieliec. |m;|. 
As to her, see, also, Kelations ile la 
Nouvclle France, ItIT-, p. 70, etc. ; 
I.es risu'ines de Ijuehec (Quehec, 
IM1:!\ Ante, vol. I., p. S2 ; II., \\ 

mi, 

Onlhe|StlM'f.liin.-.1';:;;,M,mtr. al 
h'hi MuUuuioitMjUe Mauco, wliu had 



taken so active a part in its founda- 
tion, and I s| ially in the estahlish- 

ment of the IIoti-1 Pieii or llos|iital. 
See F.-iillon, Vie lU Mile Maniv, •,' 
vols.,Svo., IS ; llistoire de la Colo- 
nic Frani;alse, iii., p. 425, 

Here we take leave of the .lesuit 
IJelations ]iiilili.shed annually from 
ICill'J to Kii;). The puhlication i« 
asserted hy Mr. Faillon on the credit 
of some .Memoirs of d'.Met, ])ul)- 
lishi'd liy Arnanld, to have heen 
stoiiped nt the instiiration of do 
Courcelle (Ilistoire de la Colonio 
Frani.aisp, iii., p. l]\i). But when 
wo see the tone of Frontenac's dis- 
imlclies, and the last chapter in the 
first voluine of le Clercii's Kta- 
hlissement de la Foi, a work puli- 
lished under Frontenac's eye, de- 
voted to turn the .lesuits and their 
forty years' lahor into ridicule, it is 
far more prohalile that the sujipres- 
sion, if a frovernment work, came 
from Frontenac and not from de 
Courcelle. For a ^'eneral view of 
the lielations, see O'Calhiirhan, .Ie»- 
uit delations, X. \. Hist Society 
I'loci rdinirs. 1s|."i-(i. .\])]iendis : also, 
in Fniu'li hy I'ev. F Martin, Mon- 
treal. ls.-,(l. The lielation for 1(17:; 
and KImI-!*. with some inteniiedipte 
and sulisif|uent ones, remained in 
manuscript, and have heen printed 
partly hy me and partly at Paris, 
.Ml till se Mr. Faillon ifrnores (vol. 
iii,, ]i. ul'<2). 



ii 



I: 



i 






190 



HISTOHY OF NEW FRANCE. 



M 



SI 



1673-4. that ho had prcaohod a^'ainst tlie Oonnt do Frontoiiac and 
that ho had cliciti'd attostatioiis from tlio iiihaliitaiits of 
Moutroal in favor of Mr. Porrot, their govoruor, Mhom 
Frontenac had put under arrust.' 

Coniphiint was also ni.Kh) that Mr. do Frontonac had 
made up tho council-j^'enoral of inon dovotod to him, and 
thus riMidcrod liimsclf llio sovoroign arbiter of justice, and 
kept tho whole colony under the yoke ;' that only serj^eants 
were to be seen in the field ; ' and that for tho last six or 
seven months there had V)een more litigation in Now 
France than had been seen for the last si::ty years. In a 
word, that tho country was in oxtremo confusion, and that 
if this lasted much longer thoy might well fear for tho 
colony.* 

Yet, it must bo avowed that all tho vigorous blows then 



y 



' lli'uni'pin, ill liis Noiivrllc Di' 
C()U%-rrtc, Kill?, ]). 11, Hiiy> llint this 
Alilii' (!<" F<'iii'lon was tlic ^nuX 
Archbislio]) III' Camliray. Tliis irriir 
was iIc'Vi'1<i|iim1 I)_v t JrcinlHiw, in a 
papur read licl'orc llio Niw York HIh- 
tnrii-al Socii-ty (I'rfM'i'cdinfiH N. V. 
Hist. Soc, 1S44). Till' lilf nl the 
Canadian missionary has litcn cliar- 
ly and well drawn by tliu Aliln' Vcr- 
ri'au in a si rii'S of articlis in tin' 
Canadian .luninal di' I'Kduratioii, 
and liy Mr. Faillnn in his Hisioirr 
di' la Ciiliinii' Frani.aisi'. I'ons di^ 
Salifrnai', niar(|iii» <k' la Motliu Im'- 
ni'lon. inarriid, Fi'lirnnry 20, lll',".l, 
Italii'lli' d'Ksiiarsis lie Liis>an, danf,'li- 
tiT (il '^Farshal d'Anln'ti'rrr, and had 
cli'Vi'n ihildri'n, annmir tlnni Fran- 
cis, till' Cinadian iiiis^imiary, wlin 
was born in liill. ontind tlio Soiiii- 
nary of St. yiilpicc in (Jctobi-r, KIO"), 
and liavinu; ri'i'iivi'd minor ordi-rs. 
canii' to Canada, .him' 27, lIlliT. lie 
was ordained prirst, June 11. KiliS. 
Tilt' saini' yrar u.s wo have hi'ou lio 
bi-iran a luission at (^iiiiitr \hy. Ilo 
ulau luuuduU uu ifbtuUibUiui 111 ut 



(imtilly lor Indian rliildri'ii, to aid 
which Frontiiiac in KiT^i, grantiil 
him throe small islands. In 1()T4 
ho ]irrachid the Faster sermon at 
llontreal.and La Salle reported some 
lias.sae-e.s to Frimtenac as paintinj^ 
Uiiu as a tyrant. The pivernor went 
to work with a liiirli hand, Feiielon 
claimed all his rij.'lits, but was sent 
back to France and died in 1(179. 
See Faillon, llistoire de la Coloiiie 
Franc.iiise, iii . pji. 171. IS(I. Francis 
de Saliirnac Fi'nelon, arclibishop of 
Cambray, was son of I'ons de Sali- 
gnac by his second wife. Louise de la 
('ro|ite. and was born. August (i. l(i.51, 
and was conseijUenlly liut seventeen 
when his brother went to (Jiiinte. 

' .Memoire de .Mr. dTrfe a Col- 
bert, cited by Faillnn. iii.. p. ,');>(!. 
The king aicordiiifrly. .May 10, l(i7.'), 
appointed seven councillors. Seu 
Fdiisii Oidonnances, i.. |ip m:i_1 ; ji,^ 
lipi. I'.'-ii ; Canada Doc., ii., (is. 

' y\v. Faillon devotes a chapter to 
the misconduct of the ollicers at 
Monlival. 

■" Auti;, p. W. 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



191 



stnu'k l)_v llic Count di" Frnntcnac wore not ivi)n'lu!iisil>l(! 'f^7.?-4- 
iu fact; Imt, even wlu'ii ]h< most rcasouaMy oinployed "^""^^"^ 
severity, lie did so with sucli a violent air and such over- 
bearing' nnuiners, tliat ho f,'reatly diniinishi^d th(! oll'enee of 
llie {,'nilty by rendering' tlio oliastisenient odious. Tiiis 
often tlii'ew liini and even tlie court soinetiint^s into V(My 
great eniharrassnients. He liad especially allowed him- 
self to be biassed a^'ainst the missionaries' and it was not 
his fault that his ill-humor did not deprive the colony 
of ono of its stronj^est barriers. 

De Conrcolles and Talon had deemed it necessary, in 
order to kee]! the Iro(|uois cantons in clu^ck, to draw as 
nnvny as possible of these Indians to La T'raiiie di' la ^[a^- 
clohiinc, where, as wishave seen, several had already settled." 
This task had been assij^iuMl to Father Fremin, who had 
dischari^'ed it successfully; but it was soon perceived that 
the soil at La Prairie was not suited to the raisin;; of the 
crops that the Indians usually ]ilant ;" and as scarcity 
bejj;an to bo felt, the now town was mouacod with gen- 
eral desertion.' 

To avoid this catastrophe tlie missioui.ries asked tlio 
goveruov and iutendant for another site opposite Sault 
St. Lonis. Count do Frontonac ioturned uo answer to their 
petition; but Mr. du Chesm an," who considered the ro- 
nioval of the Indians inevitable if their roiinest was refused, 



1 '■ 






4» *: 



' N. Y. ("ol. Doc, is., pp. m, !)■!, 
120. 

■' Ante. p. 104. Till" fircat luovi"- 
nicnt fi-diii till- Molinwk wns miidc 
liy Kryn thi> frrcnt Mohawk, a cliii'f 
of CaUfrlinawHfra : Ki'latinns, 1(1T'.3- 
3, p. .I:!. For Catliariiir (i:iiiiiiiik 
ti'iia. tlic fDiindri'Ss cit tlu' riiloiiy, sic 
liilatioiw lnr<lilcs. ii., p. L'S 1 ; IJf 
latiiiii. KIT:!-!), p. Kio ; ('luiuchi'lirrc, 
Vii' (If la Ixmiii' Catliciiiu', MS., Si. 
ValiiT, Etat I'r'scnt. p. 17, 

■' Hi'lation dc la Nimvi'llc Fraiii'o, 
l()7;i-!t. p. '.Jul ; Uc'Iatioiifi Iiu'ditrs, 
ii., p. Oli. 



* ititnils aw to the nrifrin of this 
mi.'ision at l.a Pndrii' arc irivcn in 
till' Ri'lation di- In X. F., HIT'.'-:!, pp. 
27. .';:!, 7i): Hi7:!-il. pp. 111-:!. 2-".i- 
2.')7 : Kflatinns Iiirditr.-j, ii . I'p. 10- 
70; N Y.Col. I)(i<'.lx.,p. IHi: CanadR 
I)(M'.. II.. ii.. p. n\ ; St. ValiiT. i:tal 
I'rr>cnt. pp. 17-tK'i: Vifrci". Sdiivi-- 
niri-s IIi>tiiri(pii's siir la scii'ii 'iirit' 
di' la I'lairii': Slna. Catholic Mis- 
uion.s. ii|i. 2!)7-:iOS. 

'. lames niichcsiicnii was made Tn- 
tiiidaiit. .Iiiiic .1, l()7."i. Sc(^ Com- 
inissioii in Kditsi i.'tOrdoiiuauccH, ill., 
p. 12. 



. \ 



192 



HISTORY OF NEW FHANCE. 



),^l 



16: 



!| 



Tlio Dntcli 

niiiuiy tlio 

Irni|iinU 

inisnion- 



granted it, and tlicy tuok jinssossinn.' It had, of coursp, 
boon forosocni that tli<! gonoral would not ai)i)r()vo tliis 
way of action ; but tlioy could novor iiuagino that ho would 
cany his angor as far as lui did ; on this occasion ho in- 
deed so far for;j;ot himself that oven his best friends could 
not justify him.' 

Tiio Iroquois Christians, nevertheless, remained at Sault 
St. Louis, and the court, deeiniii;,' the establishment neces- 
sary, niaintiined them there in spite of the Count do 
Frontenac' What especially impelk'd these neophytes to 
forsake their own land, and seek an asylum in the French 
colony, was a threat on the part of tlu; Dutch (who had 
recovi'red Manhattan in 1()73, and reconciuered all New 
York, which they did not h)ng retain), to drive tho mis- 
sionaries from the Mohawk canton, if tlioy did not retire 
of themselves.. They acted thus, because they fi^ai'ed every 
thing from the Troipiois, if that nation should become 
united to the French by the bond of religion.' 

There is every ajipearance that from this time some in- 
trigue was formed among these Indians to nniow tho war 
against us ; for the ni>xt year, 1()7 i, ' Mr. de Fronteuac 
informed Mr. Colbert, that if the principal chiefs of tho 
nation had not been gained by his flatteries and presents, 
not a single Frenchman w(mld have been left in Canada." 
lliis was going too far; but it is certain that the Dutch 
underhaudedly stimulated the Iroquois to take iip arms,' 



' lii'lations In'ditesi, ii.. p. (i(i. 

' N. y. Colonial Documents, ix., 
p. l:iO. 

' Tilt! concession was conlirnicd 
by litters patent of the kinj,'. May 
2!), KiSO. 

^Charlevoix seems to have over- 
looked tile luanuseiipt Hilations, 
whicli must liiivi' been accessible to 
to him at Quelxc and iit Paris. 
Tliesi' assi^'ii no such cause. The 
delm\ii'iiery pri'valiiit in the eaiituns, 
increase<l liy the free use of liq\ior, 



and t'specially the persecution of the 
pai;ans, made it iniperativi' on them 
to remove. 

' Tlie Relations ascrilie the hos- 
tile tone of the Iroiiuois to tlieir re- 
Cent overthrow of the (fandastoijues: 
Relations Im'dites, ii., pp. 44. itU. 

" Fionteiiac (N. Y. Col. Doc., ix., 
l)p. 117, T'.i:!) speaks of Dutch in- 
tritrues; Canada Documents, II., ii., 
p. 7:i. 

■ N. Y. Colonial Documents, ix., 
p. 79;}. 



( < 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 

iiiid tlio povornor-ponoial ])iofitntl by tlio inforinivtioii 
ho received to coiiviiieo tlu! eonrt of tho necessity of 
iiiiiiiitjiiiiiii!; his fort at Ciituriieouy. Ho did not antici- 
])ate that tlio court would also couchido, as it did, that 
it waf-' no loss important to maintain the establishment 
of the Trocinois Christians at Hault St. Louis. 

Mr. du Cliesneau had not less to ])ut u]i witli from tho 
general's arroj^ance tl an tho ecclesiastics and niissio!ia- 
ries. Tlieir disasi'ooment bopan in regard to th'i Suj^'rior 
Council, of which Count do Frontenac wi.shed to usurp all 
the authority, oven so far as to assume tho title and func- 
tions of President. To put an end to this dispute, which 
enkindled tho Hamos of discord in all parts of tho colony, 
as each oflicor had his partisans, the kinj,', on the Mi of 
June, ir)75, issued an ordinance n^j^ulatiiif; every thiiif^ so 
as to f^ivo reason to hop(> that all vain prcsttMisious would 
cease on both sides. His majesty therein confirmed what 
had been already decided, namely, that the f^ovornor-Kon- 
eral should have the first place in the council, the bishop 
the second, and tho intendant the third ; but that the 
last should ask the opinions of the members, take tho 
votes, and pronounce the decisions. 

Count de Frontenac did not, liowevcr, yii Id, and under 
various pretexts subjected to very ill treatment all who in 
this, or in any thinp; else, opposed his will. He even ven- 
tured of his own authority to exile the jittorney-general 
and two councillors ; he came to an open rupture with 
the intendant,' and did not hesitate to say that he was 
very sorry that ho had not put him 'u prison immediately 
on the departure of tho vessels ; as he would have had 
the pleasure of keeping him two whole years in confine- 
ment, that time being required to obtain an order from 
court for his discharge. Conduct so unjustifiable could 
not long bo concealed from the king ; but apparently they 



193 



'^73-4- 



1675. 

(■iMr. do 
Kriiiitoiiiio 

to tliu I'llllO- 
tilMH of 

I'ri'sideiit 

(■I'lliii 
Sii|i<^riiir 
C'uiiiiuil. 







' Ah to the rupture lictwccn Knin- ncnu. ppc ranmlii DocumentB, II., 
lemic and tho Intendant du C'Ir'b- ii., i>i>. 343-200. 
Vol. III.— la 



1 I 



'■a/ 



194 



i67i. 



LcllorH of 
tliu kiiii^ tu 

till' 
iiitcii'laiit 

aihl 
govuriior- 



' 5 



I t 



HISTOHY OF NKW FRANCE. 

lit first ili.s.seinltli'<l to liis niiijcsty some, of tlio cxtriiva^'iin- 
ci'S of this f^cuoml, wiio Imd jxjwi'rful protttutors iit court 
niul intliu'iitiiil allitiiici'.s. Tliis may \w infurrwl from two 
letters written in tluit i)rince's name, and dated April 2'.\ 
1(571'. In one addressed to Mr. du (Jiiesneau, tlu^ king ex- 
plained to that intendant, that he would have avoidiul ail 
the vioh'nco of whicli ho complained, had ho conteutod 
himself with exposing,' his reasons to Mr. do Frontenae, 
and had he oheyed iiim, t,'ivinj,' him notice that ho would 
lay the whole matter before the court. 

lu the other, wliich was for the Count do Frontenae, his 
majesty, after reproachin<,' him tliat by his pretensions ho 
disturluid the trauipiillity of New France, added : " You 
Avisli in tho re;^ist(!rs of tiio Sover(Mj,'n Council to bo styleil 
chief and president of that council, which is entirely con- 
trary to my ordinance concerning that body. I am tho 
mor(> surprised at this pretension, as I am well assured 
that you are the only ouo in my kingdom, who, being hon- 
ored with tho title of governor and lieuteiumt-general in 
a country, desired to be st^ylod chief and president of a 
council like that in Canada. I accordingly desire you to 
abandon that i)retension, and rest contented witii the title 
of governor and lieutenant-general for uie. No more do 
I wish that the titl(> of president of tho council be given 
to the intendant; but that he shall have all the functions; 
that is to say, that you have no authority to keep tho 
registers of the council in your hands, as you have -as- 
sumed to do, and required ; still less to take up tho votes, 
and pronounce the decisions; all these functions belong 
to the oIKce of president, which I have attached to that 
of intendant." 

In the same letter the king renews his orders on tho 
subject of tho vagabonds, usually called Onu'curs dc Boi's, 
and declares to the general that ho will take no excuse on 
the point, under the conviction that it depended on tho 
governor solely to arrest the course of such a disorder, 
which was ruining and depopulating the country and au- 



L , 






HIHTOllY OF NP:W FRANCE. 

iiiliiliitiii;,' I'oiiiiiunc. AiiotluT pdiiit of still f^iviilov im- 
l)t)itiuicc was II ii<\v siilijt'i't of iliscoril iM'twccu the ^n\- 
ernor-f,'om'riil luul tlio bishop. Wo liiivo Ht'cu the disor- 
ders (■miscd iiiiiont,' tliu Cliristiim Iiidiiiiis l»y tlio li(|\ior 
tr.'idt!; it hud within u few yciiis rcvivi-d,' and was j)ro- 
dncin;,' tlm sanu; clVucts that had alrcidy (H)st so nnuiy 
tears to all who took an interest in the salvation of thoso 
trilies. 

Tlic hisliop, the elcri^'v, antl tlie missionaries eoniplaiiied 
of il ; Imt otlieis Iiad i'onnd the secret persuading tlu' 
king's eoini(!il that this tradt) was alisolutely necessary to 
Ititid the natives of tiio country to us ; tliat the abuses of 
wliicli the ecclesiastics made such loud com|)laints, were, if 
net ,dt<)-ether imaginary, at least greatly exaggerated, and 
tliat tiieir zeal on this score served for little more than a 
pretcNt to persecute those who prevented them from domi- 
neering in the country and to induce their recall. 

So far indeed did this prepossession go, that Mr. du 
("iiesiieau, having written to Mr. Colbert in vcrj' strong 
language in support of the opinion of the bishop, who had 
made the liipior trade a reserved case, that minister re- 
jilied, that in this matter ho did not act as an intendant 
should, and that he ought to know that before prohibiting 
the settlers from conducting a tralttc of that descrijition, 
it was n(,'cessar3- to be well assured of the reality of the 
crimes which they pretemled that it produced ; but the 
penetration of Colbert did not leave him long in error on 
this ])ohit, and the king's piety did not permit him to 
renuiin in indecision on a subject which so many ))ersons, 
Avliose virtu(> and intelligence his majesty could not but 
esteem, unceasingly continued to bring to the foot of his 
throne as the most detrimental thing to religion in Ni!W 
France. 



105 



i07v 



TliMli.|ii..r 

traili' ill 

tuiiii'lii re- 

vivi'.l. 



Tlio court 

cil in liivor 
iil'tliis 
tniilu. 



ir 



''J 






't C 



' A 



' Tnloii on li'iivingCimniln Lnd re- followed by tt gonernl ppmiission, 

liciik'il till' nets proliibiiiiif;- 1 he 11(111111- Novciiilicr 10. Ififjy, Aiifjiiot 4, 1()74, 

tniilc: I'liillon, IIi>toiri' lie la Culoiiio iiiid Froutcmic by ordiiiunco, Feb- 

Fraiii.iuw, ill., |i. i,Hi. Tin- (.•oiiiicil ruiiry Vi, 1(iT4. 




I 



;i 



!,u. 



196 



HISTORY OF NKW FRANC!"!. 



\()j<i-i<. Tlicrc wiiH arcordiiii^lv, iti KJJH, ii lU'cn'o of t]w cnuiu'il, 

'■■"'~^''~-' iliitcil May I'itli, diit'ctiii^' tliiit iiii iiMSfial>ly hIkhiI'I bo 

Ko)oloilict l„,l,l ,,f twenty of tlio priiicipiil iiilmliitaiits of New Friincd, 
on tlio . ' . . 

•iii'ii-oi. to liavo their opinion on tho triulo in (|m!Htion. Tliix dour, 
and tlu) reasons addiu-od on both sidos, tiu» kinj( n'qiK'sted 
till' Archbisliop of I'aiiH uiid Father do la Chaise, ;'on- 
fessor to liis majesty, to <,'ive a thtinitive jud},'uient. After 
conferring witii tlie Bishop of Qneboe, wlio had f{ono to 
Franee, both were of opinion tliat tlio litpior trade shouhl 
bo forbidden in tlie Indian vilhi<;es nn<h'r tho severest 
penalties. A royal ordinance supportinj^ this decision was 
transmitted to Frontenac, who was expressly enjoined to 
euforco it ; the bishop having on his side }>led<,'(Hl his word 
to reduce tho reserved case to tho terms in which the 
onliuanco was expressed.' 






' Xrri'lH i-t Ortlonnnnccn, i., \t. 'i'-Vi. 
Thr Urlatii.iiH. Vui-A. Hi7:i-!l. give 
gonif farts worth luitifiii!; Ihtc. 'Ilic 
IH'iK'f iiiuilf Ipfiwi'rii till' MiihmvkH 
nnd Molicpuis in H1T..'-;1 iniililcd 
the I'cirnur tu Iny in siiiipliiw of 
liquDr, nnil, in ciiiisciiucniM-. u pisti- 
k'no' liroki' out. This, nnd llin 
pcreecutioii of thf liriitlu'ii party, 
induced tlw hir^ru cniiKnition from 
Citugiinawa^'n and (iaiinauaro, the 
two towns iiennst All'any : He- 
lation. liiT'.'-:!. .\inon>r those jraini'd 
to Christianity in this trilie were 
Kryn, the great Mohuwk, and .\»- 
Hemlase. a man of fl.*!, snehein of 
the trilx;, who died in .Aniriist, 1(JT."» 
(Relation, KiT;! li, p. ItT). 

The iliatliof Paniel tiarakonthi.'. 
the great Oiiondaffu c liief, who died 
in KiT."), was. Imwever, a severe 
blow. I'lirini; tlie mission of St. 
Mary's of Uaneiitaa lie is not men- 
tionetl ; Imt he was eviilently tlien 
frii-ndly. and eonstaiitly afterwards 
nhowed liimself the tViriKl of lUe 
I'rcneh. of eiviiization and prouiess. 
Though of udvuuced age, he liegun 



to lenru to read and write, and not 
without success. His mnidy avowal 
of tlie tenetH of the faitli whirli he 
had emliracid won the esteem and 
encourai,'emeiit of the Piitch. He 
lahored for peace, and, as wi' have 
seen on several wrasions, gaved 
French prisoners from tin,' stake, 
and endeavored to turn the warlike 
spirit of his nation to distant fields. 
Si'e as to liini. Relation. 1(1T','-I1, 
p. 71; Hi;;!-!), pp. IH,-)-11I2; Rela- 
hitions Ini'dites, Charlevoix, as 
we shall see hereafter, in ignor- 
ance of his death, confounds hini 
with his hrother, who assumed his 
name. 

In the West the Sioux had driven 
till' Otiawas, Chippewas, and their 
allies into l,ake Huron, and Drnill- 
ettes. Nouvel, and others lahored 
atnong the fiiKitives; Rel., 1072-3. 
At last, however, jx'aco was pro- 
posed and the Sioux deputii'S came 
to Sault St. Mary. There a Cree 
s!alilu'd oni'. and a light ensued in 
wliicli all the Sioux wi re killid and 
luuny Algoii(|uius, the inissiouhousu 



» I 



niSTOtIV OF NKW FHANCF. 



197 



Meanwhile tlic (l(|»aituir of Mr. Tiilou nnd tlio dtiivth of 1676-8. 
Fftther Rriin|utlti' liiul cnuHi'd tlio MiiMKnipi to b»i lont ^■— "v— ' 

Kiglit of, ami no imiiHnn'H \v«ro tnkoii to I'oiiiplt'to tlio (lis- Arhvni l.(• 

Ul . n ■ . /« i. .,• 1 1 11 1 I tlu' HiiMir (Id 

last HolxTt t livelier, Sieur de la Sale, who iiiSakin 

liad eiiii^'iated to Aiinrica some veuis hefoii*, and who "I'l'i* ' 
had p)ne tli(>ie only to undertake Home enter|iriH(> likely '^'"'|■"^•''^•■• 
to jiive liim wealtli and honor, Haw that nothiii),' wiis hotter 
adapted to enal)le him to pun his eiidn than to enter intii 
tile views of Mr. Talon as to the discovery of this j^'roat 
river, and the conntry watered 1)V it. 

Ho wns horn at llonen of a family in easy circumstan- 
ces ; hut haviiif,' spent sd 'lo years anion|j; the Jesuits,' ho 
had no siiare in the jiroperty of his ])iirents. He iiad a 
eidtivafed mind, amhition for distinction, and felt that ho 
had the ;,'eiiius and courapo requisite for success. In fact 
he lacked neither resolution to undortako nor constancy 
to fullow u]i a project, neith(>r tirmiiDSs to withstand 
olisiMcles, nor resoui'i-es to repair his losses; but he could 
not will love nor manage those whom ho needed, and as 
soon as he possessed authority he exercised it with 
severity and hauteur. With such defects ho could not 
be successful, nor was ho. 



I Hi' 



^411 






•■■>» 



r., 



it • 



mid clmiirl burnt; Uflntinn, lfiT!l-0, 
1.. 4. 

'I'lic inissioiuirics iit (iriMMi liny 
I'Xtciuli'il their liiburs to \\w Mi'. 
noinimt'CH, Fox, MiiHcoutiiiH, W'iii- 
nclHipcM'H, 1111(1 JFiuinis, nixi, iil'tcr 
Mnr(nu'tti''» diHcovcry, to tlii' Illi- 
nois : lii'liuion. KiTi-;!, p. 157; 

l(ir;i-".), in). Tii-l;!4. 

' HobiTl ('iivflicr (Ic In SiiUc wns 
born at Uoiu'ii in Kilo. Tin- ntnto- 
mt'iit here inailc of bin linvinu' I'l'cn 
a .liNuit is oil ibi- ftutboiity of llcu- 
nt'iiiu in NoiivcUc Drcoiivi'itc, Avis 
au Krctcur, y. 107, which etntrs 
tlint he liiul biM-n iiuiolii; tin" Jcsuilti 
ten or cU'Von vcnrH. and tniifrlit in 
ono of their eollep'M. He |ii'iil'esses 
to havf seen llie (IcK'uiuent of tlie 



penernl relensinp: him from liig 
VOW8 : but Father Felix Martin, on 
exniiiiniuj.* tlie catalofrueH of the 
French provinoew of the time in or- 
der to obtain the duto of his birth, 
entrnnce into the order, as well an 
the year wlieli his name ceased to 
be given, failed to find any trace 
whatever of him. It is, therefore, 
most |irobnble tliat Ileuneiiin was 
mistalien. The aH»erti(m is. liowevnr, 
re]M';ited by Mr. Fnillon, Ilistoire 
de la Colonie Fiaiu.nise, iii., p. '.J'.>S, 
who Heems t.) adduce family impers 
to sustiiiu it. Vet as lie is said to 
have been only n novice, it is not 
easy to see how he couhl have been 
treated as eiriUfw iiiiirli/iiK, uniX dv- 
l>rived (pf his iiilieritancp. 



* 



ill 



I ( 



^ 



■^.u 



t ■ 



^»' 



!,»(. 



ina 



IIISTORV OK NKW FHANrB. 



/« 



, it 



\f>;<> H. The flrst projirt wliicli lu> loriiiiii, iiml which iiiihuTtl 

*""'''~»^~" him to (TOMS tlio ncciiii,' was to Hcik ii juishii^c to >lii|iiiii 

■I" (iii>l Chiiiii, liy the iioi'tii or w*-st of ('iiiiiidii; iiinl iillhoii^h 

to .•.iinpiuU' in KctHTiil ili'Ntitiitr of ovtTy thiii^' iii'ccsMiiry for hucIi an 

(li.n.nry «'iit<ipriMt', uiid (hiiiii-,' liis liist yvHiM, much Htniitciii'tl in a 

MUUiil. t'ouiitrv to which he hiul l)rou;,'lit iiothiiij,', and w hno tlino 

wan no resource aj,';iiiist poverty, he was not disc(miaj,'ed ; 

he ma(h> fi'ien<1s and protectoiH, and (hn'otiul liiniHolf with 

iucredilih> apjilication to ac(|aii'u thu infonnation, ami to 

j)ro<'iir(> the other aids necessary for his enteri)rise. 

Hi' was tiius eiiga^'ed when Joliet arrived at Montreal 
with the tidini^H of his discovery." When ho had con- 



' l,u Salli'K lirntliiT, .Iiilin Ciivi' 
lirr, wiis n |>ric'»"l of llii- (•(Pii^rnirii 
tioii III' Saint Sul|iii'c, aiitl lie wax 
tlnix »|i|iari'iitlv Ifil lo c'oinr to Mi'ii- 
trial UM III' MtaicN in a niriimir to 
Ki'iinti'iiar in HlUti. His nuini' u|>- 
prarH lie witncHH lo » niarriaK'', Ni>- 
viiiilicr 1, ItiiiT (l'"nilliin. iii,. p. •.'■.'Mi. 
'I'lic Siil|iitiiinH ri'ciiviil him lavora- 
biy. anil tlif Aliln' di' yiifvliw ivc 
liini a K'""' "' •'"■ Hi'iK'i'"r.v ol la 
Cliiiii', wliirli 111- Htylcit Si. Siil|iit'i'. 
lint 111' Milil all Ills ri^lilH to iIiih 
^raiil riirly in llili'.t, uI'Iit having 
hail ililllriiltirH with tin- .li'HiiilK who 

owni'll nil lllr nihil- silU' of ihr riViT 

ut Ihr rapiuH. Ill which n liiin<llr of 
jHipfrn is still pri'siMvi'il. I'lirnishril 
with k'ltiTH of ill' Ciiiiri'i'llis to tin- 
)^iiv>rniirs of V'irtrinia lunl Flotilla, 
hi! sft nut with PolliiT ile CimHoii 
(Anti'. p. I'.''.') to fiiiil a wnv to China, 
Imt iifirr K"i"- I"* ''"" "" 'I"' Srnrrn 
rimntry, whorr hi' iin't ,liilii'l. In- 
h'l't it ill Sipliniliif. Ulli'.i, anil n'- 
tiinu'il 111 St. Sulpiii'. wliiih thru 
jcot in iniH'kiTy ihr iiunir of Cliinii — 
Lachiniv In thi' Hjiriiig of KiTO, 
I'rrrot ini't him liuiilina on thr Ol- 
tawii (.Minus rl ( 'oiisliiiiirs. p. rjlli. 
In spill' of tliis aiitlii'niii' stai.iin-nt, 
Mr, Maigiy i.linirnul di.' I liistrin'- 



lion Piililiipii'. AiitriiMt 'JO. \HIV>. PiiK- 
siiiix, 1,1' ('aiiaila, p. ;I7) pn-trnilH 
'lint, in lliiilt, la Siilli' iicni'iriitril 
lhiou>:li llii' SriiiTa ronnlry In tlio 
Oliin. iiii'l ili'sri'iiili'il thill riviT am! 
thr .MisHissippi to till' falls. Now 
that it was lii'fon* lif Htarti'il with 
IhilliiT (Ir Casson, Is uttrrlv Inion. 
sisti'iit with that I'liTKyi'ian's nar- 
ration. Thai 111' iliil it lii'twrrn his 
ri'tnrn to l.aihini' ami iIh' sprini,'' of 
lliTO, wlnn 111' waw qiiii'lly hiintiiiff 
on till' Ottawa, is •'(|iially imprnhu 
lilc. That lif did ri'aoh tim Ohio 
and ih'sei'iid It ati far as tlii' falls at 
l.oiiisvillr, '.V" N., ns 111' Hiati's in ii 
niiiiiiiir to Krontinai' in lliTT. is 
prolialili' (Carlrs ilii Siriir .lnllii't), 
lint till' datr is I'viili-nlly wriiiijf. 
Inih'i'il, from .Marf^ry's third artiili', 
hi Salk' could sii'ni to assijjn it t'lstv 
wlirrr to lllTl, which is more prolia- 
lili'. Si-*' Taillian'H Pcrrut, jip, 'Jill- 
■-iHl). That hi' went down lii'vond 
till- falls or nai'hi'il the MiKsissi|ipi 
llicri' is no I'vidrnci'. Tin' tlii'iny 
set up liy Marfrry is doulittil hy 
Tailhan, hy Kcrland (('ours d'His- 
toire, ii., p, TH), nnd by Canadian 
scholars fjcmrally. See nnle, |) Iti',', 
ant<', 

'' Julliet ri'iuhed (ireeii Uiiy in 



IIIMTOHY UV NKW FIUNCE 



199 



vi'iMcil with tlmt ix|>1i>iit' Ih> no l(iii>;ci' dotiljlt'd tliiit tho i'i7'> H 
MiciMMipi I'liiptitMl into tlii'diilf of Mrxiro ; liiit lir also — ^--^ 
ll.iltrii'd liiiiisilf tlmt \>y (iscciiiliii;,' tlmt ilvtr tu tlit) 
iHnlli, lie would lii^ iililc to discover tim olijci't of his lo- 
Hniicln'H, mid tlmt iit all rvciitH tin- iiu'io iliscovcrv of its 
mouth would hud to Honit'thin(^ tlmt would t<MtaiiliNli Imh 
fortune and his repiitafion. H«' had very cleverly huo- 
ceeded in winning' the (,rood ;,'races of Count de Frontenac, 
whoH(> inclinations he had carefully sluilitd : he ('Xpo^ed 
liiH deHi|{UH to that governor, who |irouiised to aid him 
with all his power. 

The first thin;,'s to which he had to turn Ids attention 
Were to olitain fuiuls for the expense of the expedition, to 
invest himself with a character to autliori/e it, nml to 
olttain forces capahln of holdiii<{ the In<lians in I'cspect. 
lia Side had made all these rellections at his leisure, and 
his plan was all clear in his own mind. He knew how 
much Count do Frontenac was wraj)! np in Fort Cataro- 
I'ouy. Ho lU'cordiuf^Iy ])ro))()stHl to increaso the fortifica- 
tions, garrisonin;^' it with a forco sulllcient to defend it 
a;{.iinst any attack which tho Indians mi^lit make should 
they rcnuw war, to ])lant settlers there, in order to draw 
tlieiico in case of need l)otIi provisions and men, and to 
Idiild vessels thei'e to navij^atc Lako Ontario. 

Nothing' was lietter "onceived, considering' only the ail- 
vantaj,'e of the colony, and Frontenac was of opinion that 
La Salo should go to Franco to explain his dosign to tho 



III' ri'lnrriK 

I" Kriii c'l'. 
W 1,1,1 li« 
• •liliilht 
lr,,iM ll,i- 



I I I 



H 



II ( 



V 

''4 



:i a 



i 



Sc|vli'iiil>(T, 1(17:1, and ftfipiiniitly dr- 
H<'i'iiili'd III oiict' to .Miiiilroal, whicli 
111- HfciiiH not to littvi.' ri'Hclu'il till 
nliciul August, H!7I : Krciiiliimc h 
Disimtcli, NiiVitubcT 11, lit" I ; Sinus 
I>isi'i>v. iind Kx|(. of the .MifHiswippi, 
xxxill. : N. V. ('ill. Dor., ix., p. I','l. 

' 1,11 Siillc was wilt I'lirly in lllT:t 
to (iiii>niliii;ii to invitr tlii- I'lintoiiM 
to xi'iiil di'piiliis to Hint I'ronli'iiiio 
at yuiuti'iX. Y, Col. l>(x'., ix„ p. UT), 



AfttT till! fort wiiM iTcctfil in .luly, 
1117:!, lid wiiN nmdi- coniinuii'liint : 
Ln (1cri'i|, KliililisHriui'nt dr III Kill, 
ii,, p. 117, Im Siilli' WHS iit .Mi,nt- 
ri'iil in .May, l(ti t, anil soii^lil to in- 
((laliatc liiiiisrif tiiriliiT «iili Kion 
tenac liy dcniuiiiriiii; a sitmuiii of 
Kiiiclon, one of till' Su'pitians: Kail- 
Ion, iii., 4!)7, III', tlii'i'i'fori', in all 
prolialiility nut .lollii'ton liisritiini, 
ritlier at Kroutonac or at Montrtal, 



i 




200 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



1676-8. minister. Ho aeconliugly embarked on tlio first sliij) 
'■^^r-'-' wliifli saileil from Quel)(>c.' On arrivinj^ at eonrt, lio 
learned tlie fact of Colbert'.s doatli, and delivered to the 
Marquis de Sei,tj;n('lay, who siiceeeded his father in the 
Navy Department, the letter of Count do Frontenac, of 
■\vliieh ho was tho bearer. He then had several i)rivato 
conversations with him, and that minister, who liked his 
ability, obtained for him from tho king all that he cov- 
eted." His majesty issued to him letters of nobility,' 
granted him tho seigneury of Catarocouy and tho govern- 
ment of tho fort, on condition that ho should build it of 
stono,^ and investiid him with all powers necessary to 
conduct irado freely, and continue tho explorations al- 
ready begun." 

Tho prince de Conti, to whom ho had found access, had 
strongly supported him with the king, and had greatly 
contributed to obtain all those favors of which I have 
just spoken. Tho only return ho exacted was, that ho 
should accept an officer whom that prince lionored with 
his goodwill and esteem. His name was tho Chevalier do 
Tonti, and he had a brother in New Franco already, who 
died there a captain." La Salo regarded this request of 



The 
OhcViilior 

.I'lT.Miti 
juiliK llilll. 



' lie iiiiimri'iitly \\n\\ in tin' liill 
of 1(171, iiltliouffh I'ronlcmic's dis- 
])atcli of Novt'iiiliiT 14 (Iocs not al- 
lude to him. His pi'tition may bo 
found, N. Y. Col. Doc, ix., p. l!.'2. 

- Charlevoix lierc confounds th,* 
visit nuidc ny la Salli' in 1(17.') with 
that in 1678. Colbert did :>Cl die 
till 108;i. 

■' Patent, dated at Complegne, 
Mny 18, KIT."): N. Y. Col. Doc, ix., 
p. Vi') : Shea's Discovery rf the Mis- 
sissippi, p. 2(i."i. 

' (irant of Fort Frontenac: Canada 
Doc; N, Y. Col. Doc, ix., p. 1i:t. 

'■• La Salle returned to f'anada, 'v- 
ceived invesiiture of Foi't Foutenac 
October Vi, 1075, rebuilt it of stoue, 



and made it his chief trading post : 
Faillon, iii.. p. 173 ,■ LeClercq, Etab- 
liasement de la Foi, ii., p. 139 ; 
nenne])in, Nouvelle Decouverte, 
p. 32, says the work on the fort 
lasted ten years. In 1(177 he again 
visited France (Hennepin. Descrii> 
tion dp la Louisiane, p. 14 ; Le Clercq, 
p. 138), and obtained, May 13, 1078, 
a license to discover the western 
part of New France : N. Y. Col. Doc, 
ix., p. 127 : Canada Doc, I., ii., \>. 17. 
'' They were sons of the author of 
Tontine. (Ch(t)ieroLr.) Margry, Me- 
moirs Inedites, p. 3 ; Le Clerci], 
I'^talilissement de la Foi, ii., p. 130. 
The father, Lorenzo Tonti, who had 
been governor of Uaeta retired to 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 

tli(> jirinco as a now fnvoi'. and in fact Tonti was always 
stronfj;!}' attaclicd to his intorost, and ivndoivd liini tlio 
.m'catost sorviccs. Ho liad sowed in Sicily, where ho 
had one hand carried away by a jiiece of a fj;renado ; 
this ho had replaced by a silver one, which ho used very 
well. 

On the 1-tth of July, 1078, la Sale and Tonti embarked 
at riochelle with thirty men, including pilots and mechan- 
ics, and they rividu'd Qu(4)ec on the I'lth of September.' 
Their stay tliere was short, because th(>y wished to ])rolit 
by the jileasant season to proceed to Catarocouy, whither 
they took with them Father Louis Hennei)iii,' a Flemish 



201 



1 6:6-8. 



I.a Salp s 

\;iriii!is 

inlveiitnrrs. 

167S. 



Fi;nnc<' nftor the rpvolutiiiii in thnt 
country, lli'nry cntciiMl tlif French 
army uk a cadet, served a.s wuch in 
ni(is-i( ; tlien lour yearn as iiiid.flu]i- 
niiin ; lost Ills rii;lit liund and taken 
prisoner at I.iliisso, near Messina. 
Left unemidoyed at tlie peace, lie 
joined la Salle; and till his death 
was connected with the Missis- 
nijipi. Lett in command at the Illi- 
nois fort in 1(!80 ; went down the 
I\Iississip]n with iii Salle ; was re- 
moved from the command of the 
fort by de la Barre ; went down the 
Mississippi to the ^rulf in KiS.") to 
meet de la Salle: led wistern In- 
dians to join Denonviile in KIS."). 
After Cavelier's return, again went 
down the Mississipi)i in IfiSO : Peti- 
tion in Louisiana Hist Col., i., pp. 
Ti)-Sl ; Marfrry, Welations, lili. ")-;!() ; 
De la Potherie, ii., p. 1-14. Ir. Kl'.li) 
he accompanii'd the Quebec Semi- 
nary missionaries down the Missis 
sippi to Arkansas: Relation de la 
Mission <ln Mississippi, p. l-l. Was 
Sent for the next year by Sauvole. 
and went down to meet d'llierville. 
He soon afier removed to Louisiana, 
died in Sepleuih.r, ITOI, at Fort 
Louis, at Mobile : Kelationa et Me- 
moirs, p. 4. 



' Tonty, Memoir in Margry, Re- 
lations, !>. .") : Louisiana Hist. Col., i., 
p. ')'i : IIenne|iin. Description di' la 
Louisiane, p. l'> : and le('lerc(|, Etah- 
lissenu'nt de la Foi, ii.. \). LI".), are 
both less jirecise. 

•' Louis IIenne])in was born at 
Ath, in llainault, entered the Fran- 
ciscan order, was an army chaplain, 
and tlu'n canu' to America in KiTli. 
Was at Fort Frontenac. .\fter his 
western voyajje he returned to Fu- 
rope, and in l(is:!-4. jirinted his De- 
seri|ition de la Louisiane. He never 
returned to .Vmerica, an<l {lisairree- 
ini; with his superiors in I'rancc. re- 
tired to Holland. In KIWT lu' jirinted 
at l^trecht, and in Kill!) rejirinted his 
" N(Uivelle Descrijitiou d'un tres 
grand iiays situe dans I'Ameriiiue, 
entre le Xouveau Mexiipie. et la 
Mer <>laciale." This was dedicated 
to William III. He was at the con- 
vent of Ara C(pli in Dome in ITOl 
(Hist. Mag., i.. p. 'Mf'A. but is said lo 
luive (lied at l'ire(dit. Frir II review 
of his volume, see Discovery and 
Fxiiloraliiui of the Mississippi, pp. 
'.)l)-l(lli. For a list of editions, set; 
Historical Magazine, i., pp. :J1(!, ;J40, 
etc. 






■.r: 









h I { 

l|t^: 



202 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 






1678. Recollect, who subsequently accompanied them in most of 
"""Y- their journeys. La Sale's first care on arriving; at Cataro- 

couy, was to begin his labors on tho fort, which was only 
of palisades ; he at tho same time built a bark, and these 
ojierations were carried through with a celerity which 
gave a high idea cf tho activity of the new governor.' 

He then sailed in his bark as far as Niagara, where ho 
traced a new fort : this he confided to the Chevalier de 
Tonti, to whom he left thirty men, gave orders for build- 
ing a second bark at the head of Lake Erie, above Niagara 
Falls, traversed on foot all the Seneca canton, made 
during the rest of the winter a number of other excursions, 
which had no other object than the fur-trade, returned by 
land to Catarocouy, and sent his bark back again to Ni- 
agara, loaded with provisions and merchandise.' It then 
maci . several successful trips, but the pilot having one day 
nin too close in shore, it was wrecked." 

1679. This disaster did not disconcert Mr. de la Sale : he soon 
repaired this loss, and spent all the spring and summer of 
the year 1079 in filling his storcljouse at Niagara, and vis- 
iting tho various savage tribes with whom ho wished to 
trade, or from Avhom he hoped to derive information for 
his discoveries. The Chevalier de Tonti did the same on 
his side. At last, about the middle of August, the bark 
which had been built at tho entrance of Lake Erie' being 



' The fort was iilrpiiily built, and 
prol)al)ly the bark. For a ])lan of 
the fort as built by la Salle, sec 
Faillon, Ilistoire do la Colonic, iii., ]), 
467. 

' Tonty, Moraoir, TiOuieiann Hist. 
Col., i., p. .W. They left Fort Fron- 
tciiac November 18: liO Clercq, 
Etablisseiiient, ii., p. 141 ; Henne- 
pin, Dtscription do In Lonisiane. p. 
20; Nouvelle Decouverte,]!. 7"2 ; Dis- 
covery of tlie .Missi«siiipi, p. 8!). 

'• Hennepin, Xouvelle Drconvorte, 
p. 03 ; Description de la l.ouisiiuie, 
p. 41 ; Le Clurcq, ii., p, 144 ; Tonty, 



Mimioir in Mn-gry, p. ; Discovery 
of the Misaissijipi, p. 90. 

■• This vessel, called the Oriffln in 
honor of Count de Frontenae, whose 
arms had frriffins as supixirters (De 
la Potlu^rie, Hist, de I'Anierique, ii., 
p. 1^50), was built two leajrues above 
Niagara Falls, at the mouth of a lit- 
tle river : Hennepin. Nouvelle De- 
couverte, j)]). 94, !li); Tonty, in iiargry, 
p. (! ; Bancroft, Hist. U. S., iii.. p. Kili, 
originally sujiposed this to be Ton- 
nawanda Creek : and Spark, Life of 
la Salle, Lib. Am. IJiog., vol. xi., p. 
21, Chippewa Creek in Canada. 






HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 

in a slate to sail, la Sale embarked •nith forty men, in- 
cluding three Recollect Fathers,' and steered for Michilli- 
makinao. On tlu^ passapfe he cxpcri(>nocd a very severe 
storm,' which dispustod a part of his men, several of 
whom deserted ; Imt the Chevalier de Toiiti, wlio had taken 
another route, haviuL; met them, was fortunate enough to 
induce them, almost all, to follow him.' 

Fi'om ^Michillimakinac, the Grifliii, so his bark was 
called, sailed to the Cay (Green Bay), from which ])oint 
de la Sale sent it back to Niagara loaded with furs.' For 
his own part, he proceeded in a canoe to St. Joseidi's 
River,'' where there wns tlu-n a '^^ifuui town, at Avhich Fa- 
ther Allouez was laboring with considerable success." 
Here the Chevalier de Tonti jin'ceedcd to join him. They 
did not remain there long.' Tonti descended to the Illi- 



203 



1679. 



lie meets 

with a, 
scvurc loss. 



O. II. Mawlmll clrnrly proved it to bo 
Cayusra Cnck in Niiifrara County, 
his (li'cision iji'inp acccptud liy his- 
torians an well as students jjenerally. 

' llenneiiin. Description de la 
Lonisiane. p. lOil, says thirty-two 
persons, witli tlio two friars who liad 
joined liini. TheXnuvcIleDi'couverte, 
p. 1"J0, and liC Clercq. Etahlissenient, 
p. 14"), say they sailed .\ufl. T, Kii!). 
The Recollects wore. Louis Henne- 
pin, (iahriel de la It'bonrile. and 
Zenolnus Meiul)r •'. Father Melithon 
Watteau was left at Nintrara : II). 

' Tlipy reached Micliilliniakinac 
Aufjust 2fi ; Description do la Louisi- 
nni'. p. '11 or 2Tth ; Nouvrlle De- 
couverte, p. loli ; Le <'lerc<], Etablis- 
gemeut de la Foi, ii., p. 14S : Discov- 
ery of the Mississip])!, p. !)3. 

■' The ChevaMi'r Tonty had h(>en 
sent on in advance to Detroit, where 
the <iriffin took him alioanl: Menioire 
in Marfrry, p. (i ; Louisiana II. ('., i., 
p. .'>;!. These men had deserted 'vitli 
part of the pooils (Discovery of the 
Mississippi. ]). '.f-i ; Le ("lerc(|, p. II!) ; 
llonni'pin. Description de la Louisi 
ane, p. lO'l), and Tonty was wnt to 



Sanit St. Mary's in pursuit of them: 
Memoir, p. ."):!. 

■* Le C'lercr|, Ktnhlisseiuent de hi 
Foi, p. l.")ll ; Discovery of the Missis- 
sippi, ',. 93 ; llennejjin, Description 
(le la Louisiane, p. 08 ; Tonty, Me- 
moire in Marjrry, ]>. 7. 

' failed in Hennepin, Description 
de la Lnuisiani', ]). IO:!, Le Clercq, ii., 
p. l.")l, the Hiver of the Mianus : 
Tonty, Menioire in Marjrry, ]). 7. 

'■ This is a continmtion of Charle- 
voix's error In supposinij that Mar- 
qiietle and Allouez were amonj!: the 
Miamis. Marquette founded a mis- 
sion anionsr the Kaskaskias. at Itock- 
fort. which Alloueii continiud till 
liiTO : Discovery of the Mississiii])i, 
])p. .Vi-TT. Owing to some letters 
hetweiMi Alo\U'7. and Gamier, t hi' mis 
sionary in the Seneca country, a{;;ainst 
whom la Salle was greatly preju- 
diced, he had nuide threats airainst 
AUouez uliich induced him to leave 
the Illinois country on la Salle's ap- 
proach As to .MIouez, see Discov- 
ery of the Mississippi, ]). 07. 

' La Salle crertrd a tradinir house 
or fort, called the Fort of the Mia- 



if 



it' ': 'I 

Fi if 






■I .'i ■:; 






)^:^ 

l\\^' 



I 



i. 



|v 



' ;•; i> 



')M 



,1, 



Si 



204 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 









'3 ; 



1 679. nois, and la Sale returned to Catarocouy,' where he learned, 
on his arrival, that little doubt was entertained of the loss 
of the GrifKn. In fact, no rery authentic tidings were had 
of it after it left the Bay. 

Some have reported that the Indians no sooner per- 
ceived this large V(^ssel sailing over their lakes, than they 
gave themselves up for lost, unless they could succeed in 
disgusting the French with this mode of navigating ; that 
the Iro(piois in particular, alreaily preparing for a rupture 
with us, seized this opportunity to spread distrust of us 
among the Algonquin nations ; that they succeeded, espe- 
cially witli the Ottawas, and that a troop of these last, 
seeing the Griffin at anchor in a bay, ran up under pre- 
text of seeing a thing so novel to them ; that, as no one 
distrusted them, they were allowed to go on board, where 
there were only five men, who wore massacred by these 
savageo ; that the murderers carried ofl' all the cargo of 
the vessel, and then set it on fire. But how could all these 
details have been known, when we are moreover assured 
that no Ottawa ever mentioned it ? " 

This misfortune was followed by another no less dis- 



mia : Description (1(> In I.n'iisinno, y>. 
Ill ; l.c C"i-n(i, Kt!il)lisspmc'nt di' In 
Foi, ii . p. 151 ; Toiity, Mcmoiiv, in 
Miirirrv, p. T. 

' La Siilli', with all his (mvo c\- 
cejit t'imi' men Irl't at the ■•"ort of the 
Minmis, ascended the St. .Joseph's 
(December o), passed by n porlnge to 
the IlHnois, and at the end of De- 
eenilier reached the Illinois vilhiire 
in a uiarsliy jihuM at 40 N. (Henne- 
pin, Description de hi Lonisiane, )>. 
I'M) and ou the 14th-loni January, 
l(i80, began on a risini: frround Fi)rt 
C'revecopiir — so called from his dis- 
ai>liointments : Ia' ('lerci(, ii., p, l.T.)- 
KiO ; Hennepin. Description, p. l.lii ; 
Nouvelh' Di'coiiverte, p. 200 : 'I'onty, 
Memnire. ]). S. I>a Salle lift Tiiiity 
in conin»..id, and returned to Cata- 



rocotiy by land : Description de la 
Lonisiane, p. lT;i. jMnrch 2, 1(!80: 
Le Clercq, Etablissement de la Foi, 
ii.. p. 1(1!); Tonty, Menioire, p. 8. 
Cliiirlevois, therefore, introduces his 
journey back to Fort Frontenac too 
soon. 

'' This is the account g:iven by De 
la Potherie, Histoire di! r.\meri(iue 
Se])tentrionali', ii., pp. l;!()-140, and 
adopted by C'olden, History of tlie 
Five Nations, N. Y. edition, 1727, ]i. 
8!l. Hennepin, Description de la 
Loiusiane, j). 73, Nouvelle Decon- 
verte, p. 143, says that it put in at 
the north of Ijnke .Michigan, and that 
soon after it left some In<lians saw 
it suddenly disapi)ear. Tonty (Me- 
niiiire, p. S) meicly says it was never 
allorwartls iK.'urd of. 



; I 



i 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



205 



lieartcninf? to Mr. do la SjiIo. Tlio nation on whom ho 
reckoned most for tlic sufci^ss of his cntc-rpriso was the 
Illinois, tlii'U very ]u)])nl(ms and occupying several posts 
which could ])o made convenient trading stations between 
Canada and the Mississi])pi. It was to secure tlieso In- 
dians that the Clievalier de Tonti had advaiiced on that 
side, and he liad without difticidty succeeded in winning 
tliem to his interest ; but, as ho was very slightly attended, 
he could not save his new allies from recc iving, almost 
under his eyes, a severe repulse at the hands of the Iro- 
quois, who, failing to bring about a rupture between them 
and the French, wished, before declaring war on us, to 
]nit it out of llieir power to help us, surprised them, and 
cut to ]iieces a very great number. 

La Sale then beheld himself in a most trying position ; 
he liad everything to fear at the hands of the Irorpiois, 
whom he must expect to find everywhere in his ]iath ; 
the Ottawas were suspected, nor could he even trust to 
the French under his orders, some of whom, it is said, 
several times attempted his life. They did more : if we 
may credit what was published at the time, they frequently 
solicited his own allies to rise upon him, and, to persuade 
them, did not hesitate to afKrm that ho had plotted with 
the Tvoipiois to effect their total destruction. 

While all this was going on he arrived among the Illi- 
nois, and soon ]ierceived that they had somewhat changed 
towards him : he even believed himself on the point of 
having that whole nation upon him, when unable to de- 
pend on any of his own men. Nevertheless, he showed no 
fear ; on the contrary, he never displayed greater firm- 
ness find resolution. By this ho won their esteem ; but he 
wished to inspire too much fear. This was always his 
great fault, and the main source of his misfortunes. Nor 
could he ever {';ain it over himself to be less dissembled, 
or to be more gracious towards those whom he needed 



1679. 



The 

Illinois nre 

ili'tVateJ 

liy the 

Iroiiuois, 



,fe. 



I.n Siile's 

finiiiioss in 

liis ini^t'or- 

Uilies. 



See Iji' Cli'icq, Etablissement, ii., iip. '['u, 171. 



II, 



'M 



hi; 



4: 






- , * 

If 



'» s 



^ 



206 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



!j: 



i1 



Tliey seek 

to poison 

liiiii. 



1679. most. Ho (lid not reflect sufficiently that if the feet and 
arms cannot act but by direction of the head, it can exe- 
cute notliing without tlicir niinistry. 

Towards tlie dose of this year ho lost another part of 
his men, inchidinj^ tlmse ia whom ho put the f^reatost con- 
fid(Mice. These traitors had formed a plot to poison him,' 
and all whom they knew to b(> most sincerely attached to 
him. They were discovered, and had no alternative but 
flight, which they adopted. La Sale took in their stead 
a number of young Illinois, wliom ho found well disposed, 
and began to prepare in earnest to begin his explorations." 
no sends He first detached a man named Dacan Avith Father Hen- 
DiKiiii uiid nepin to ascend the Micissipi above the Illinois River, 
and if possible to us source. 



11|1 tliU 

Micissipi. 
1680. 



These two travellers left Fort Crevecoeur February 28th, 
and, having entered the Micissipi, ascended it to about 
the 40 N. There they wore arrested by a pretty high 
waterfall extending across the whole width of the river, 
and to which Father Hennepin gave the n'.mo of Falls 
of Saint Anthony of Padna. They then fell, by what ac- 
cident I know not,* into the hands of the Sioux, who re- 
tained them as prisoners for a considerable time, but did 
not maltreat them. They were at last delivered by some 



' Tonty, ^^l>moire, Margry, \>. 8 ; 
liouisinna Hist. Col., i., p. r)4. 

'' This is nil strnngt'ly coiifiiscd. 
Sep note, p 204. He left Fort Crevo- 
copur March 3, KiSO, with four 
Frenrhinen and one Indian for Cata- 
rocouy (Le C'lercq. Etnlilisscnient de 
la Foi, ii., p. lll'.l). having previously 
disipatched Hennepin, who set out 
February 29, 1(180: 11). LaSallodid 
not got hack to the Illinois till De- 
cember 1 : II)., p. 204. 

•' Hennepin was acconipimied by 
Michael Ako, a native of Poitou 
(Relation de la Louisiano, p. 187 : 
Nouvelle D.'couverte, p. 2:>n), and 
Anthony .\ii<ruille, nicknanfrt le 
Picard du (Jay, a native of Amiens, 



nephew of du Cauroi, Procurator. 
Oeneral of the Preninnstratensians : 
Nouvelle Deeouverto, ]). 1^05. As all 
enfraped in la Salle's discoveries were 
ennobled, Ako assumed the d(', and 
his name was writti'n d'Ako, or 
d'Acau . Tonty, in Marpry,p. 8. The 
latter gave rise to Charlevoix's form, 
Dacan. He nuirried r.n Illinois wife : 
(iravicr, Relation, 1()93, p. 32. 

■* lie was ca|)ture(l by the Sioux, 
Anril 11, 1080: I)escrii)tion de la. 
l.ouisiiane, p. 100. As to the spot, 
see Discovery and Exjiloration of the 
Mississippi, \1. 110, n. He reached 
St. Anthony's Falls a prisoner : lb., 
p. 122. 



i\ 



lllSTOHY OF NE'.-/ FRANCE. 



207 



French wlio ciiinc from Ciiiiadii ; then they tlesconilod the 1680. 
rivor to the sea, after wliicli they returned to Fort Creve- 
cd'ur without any thinj^ of im])ortanre hajipening to 
them,' notwithstandinf; what is stated in tlio romance pub- 
lished under tlio uanio of the Chevalier de Tonti, which 
makes them meet with several French scttleiuents in tho 
Micissi]ii, find tho source of that rivor on a hif;;h moun- 
tain, and push their course to the Lake of the Assiniboils.' 
TIh^ same must be said of the Recollect ^fissions fonnd 
laid down on the majis in several places, and which at best 
desif,'nato places where Father Hennepin said mass or 
planted a cross. That religi. .1 did not understand a 
word of tho languages of all these tribes, and made no 
stay in any nation, except as a prisoner among the Sioux. 
Tlie source of the Micissipi is still unknown;' tho Lake 
of the Assiniboils is very far from the points reached by 
the two travellers, and it is certain that the French then 



' It is not pasy to pop liow f'linrlp- 
voix rould linvp rrnil llcnnciiin's 
volunips nnd nmdp sucli n strnnpc 
mi'dloy. IIiMincpin Ipft Fort ("rcvp- 
rfpur Fcbruiiry 2fl (lo Clrrrq, ii., pp. 
Ifil, IfIS), iind rpnplipd the Afissis- 
si|))ii ^^a^(•h 8, 1080 : Dpsrription do 
111 riOnisiniiP. ]). 19;) ; Nnuvfllp Pp- 
pduvprtp, ]). 24.'?. In tlip thrmpr 
work lip tlipn. without rontinuing 
liis dinry, dpscrilips tlip riv(>r uj) to 
tin river nnd Inkc of the Issnti. 
i\l)ovf St. Anthony's Falls (pp. 194- 
204). nnd he mentions their rapture 
liy the Sioux. April 11. 1080, with- 
out stnting whprp, excppt rpninrkin;;. 
]). 218, that they hnd mndp two hiin- 
drpd lenfruv.. after lenvinir the Illi- 
nois. After their rapture they mndp 
two hundred nnd fifty on the Missis- 
sijipi Ip. 219). In his second worii 
he nsserta that on renchinjr the Mis- 
Kissipi>i they went down, reaehed the 
iiio\ith on the 2.^th of Mnrch. st,' "tpd 
back April 1, reached the Arkansas 



on the 0th (Nouvplle Decouvertp, pp. 
94.1-280), and wptp tnkpn on thp 12th, 
one hundred nnd fifty lenjiues ahovo 
the mouth of the Illinois fpp. .'114- 
n2.~)). According to hoth accounts, 
he was delivc-ed by du Luth. nnd, 
renchinp Oreen Bay. wintered at 
Michillimakinnc, whence, at Enster, 
1081, he descended to QupIjpc : De- 
scription de la I.ouisinne, pp. 284- 
290 ; Nouvplle D'couverte (pp. 410- 
438). Thp voynpp down is now re- 
garded ns a subsequent invention. 
See Spark's Life of la Salle : Dis- 
covery of the Mississippi, p|). 99-100. 

' Tonty, Mi'moiro in Voyages au 
Nord. v.. p. 82 ; his real Memoir in 
Mnrgry: Relations, etc., pp. l-l'O ; 
Louisiana Hist. Col., i., p. .12, has 
nothing of the kind. 

■' Schoolcrnft traced one brnnch to 
i's source in n lake which he pre))OS- 
terously called Itasca I.*kp, com- 
])Ounding itns of Veritas with ca of 
caput, to make true Imtd. 



M 



ji5i 



'1^ 



n 



■it 



^^. 



203 



IIISTOUY OP NKVV FRANCE. 



.^1 



4 



i ,• 



n 



i68o. liad no siittloineiit on t\w. hanks of tlio river wliicli tlicy 
^""■""•"""^ tlesceudfd. It is t>vt.'n (jiiito dilHcult to nndcrstund how 
they could go to its nioutii, dosceud it and ascend 
it again to tho -Kith degree, remain prisoners several 
months among the Sioux, and all that in less than a year. 
Aocordingly, it was never believed in Canada that they 
did any thing Init return to Fort Creveccinir by the same 
route they had taken in ascending to the Falls of St. An- 
thony.' 
iio builds a Be that as it may, new troubles Avhich befell Mr. do la 
Sale after the departure of Dacan and Father Henne])in, 
detained him at his Fort Creveccour till the month of No- 
vember," and then compelled him to return to Catarocouy. 
On his way he perceived on the Illinois river, which ho 
Avas ascending, a site which seemed to him very well 
adapted for the erection of a new fort.'' Ho traced tho 
plan of one, called Mr. do Tonti, whom he ap))ointed to 
build it, and eontiuui'd his route. Scfircely had Tonti be- 
gun his work when he received information that tho 
French whom he had left in Fort Crevecanir had revolted. 
He hastened back, but found only seven or eight men, the 
rest having deserted, Avith all that they were able to 
carry.' 






)■ I 



; K^' 



' f'linrk'Vdix pi'isists in making 
Hcnneiiin return to Crevecopur 
ngaiust his fxprcss statement. 

'■' Ilo reinaineil imly a tl'w days : 
Ante, p. 204, note. lie sot out Mareh 
2, IMSOde Clereq, Etalilissi luent (le 
la Koi, ii., p. Ki'.i), or .Mareli 'i'2(\ : 
Toniy. in .Marury ; lielations, p. S ; 
Louisiana Hist. Col., i., )). 45 ; Hen- 
nepin, Des('ii|ition (le la I.ouisinne, 
p. 1S4. or liis journey we have no 
(ietails. Timty and Meml)re say he 
had five men, tour Frenclimen and 
one Indian. Monilire says he readied 
tlie Illinois villaire on the lltli. and 
al'tiv one day t'ln-e, cuntintuMl his 
route to Foi't Frontrnac on the iee, 
as though he went as he had come. 



lie was back to Crevecceur by No- 
vember. 

■■' Toniy, Meraoirc in Margry. p. 8 ; 
Louisiana Hist. Col., i., p. ii'). This 
is usually supposed to be Buffalo 
Rock ; but Parkman, examininjr tho 
ground with the best do<'ument8 in 
hand, locates it at Starved liock. 
'I'he great Illinois village called l)y 
Marquette and Allouez, Kaskaslvia, 
was on the opposite 8i<le, about mid- 
way lietween it and the Big Vermil- 
lion river, tho Aramoui of la Salle. 

* He pays they left him only two 
Recollects anil three nu'U ; Memoir, 
Louisiana Hist. Col , p. 55. Le Clercq, 
Etablissement, ii., ]>. ITl, details the 
desertion. La Salle, notified by Ton- 



IIIS'I'OUV (»!•' NKW KUANCK, 



209 



^ f 



' 



Soon arici' tlic ]i<)i|U(iis ii|iiii'ai('(l, to tlio iiiiiiiln'r of six 
huiidri'd wiiniors, in s\>^ht of tin* Illinois si'ttli-int'iits, and 
this irrni)tiou luivin^' iucrciiscd the distrust of tlic Illinois 
ii^'iiinst the French, tliu Clu'Viilitr dc Tonti found himself 
in iistran;^e eniliarrnssnient. The eouiso whieh he iidojited 
was to niaki; himself a mediator hetween the two Indian 
nations, and in this nej^'otialion he employed KuecessfuUy 
the Jiecolleft Fathers Ciahriel de la Kibouvdo and Zeno- 
I)ius Meniere, who had remained with him at Crevec(enr. 
15ut the peace was not lasting,', and the Iroquois, emliold- 
ened by the fear with which they .seeiued to be regarded, 
soon renewed their hostilities.' 

]\Ir. do Fi'ontunac, in a letter which lio addrossid to the 
Ivinj,' on the *2d of Noveiuber in the ensuinf,' your, 1G81,' 
l)ri'tcnds that this war of tlio Iroquois against the Illinois 
was fomented by the English and by the enemies of Mr. 
de la .Sale; but he does not explain who were these ene- 
mies of Mr. de la Sale. In fact, that explorer had nnmy 
iu the colony, and these had been raised up by his exclu- 
sive jirivilego for trade, and still more by the manner iu 
which he enforced it; but it is scarcely probable that they 
would expose themselves to ruin iu order to ruin him. 
Passion, I know, sometimes carries men further than they 
wish to go ; but something more than mere conjecture is 
needed for such accusations, and one of the defects of 
the Count do Fronteuao waa his giving too wide a scope 
to his suspicious.* 



1 f.Xo. 



llo-lililieH 

..ftlii) 

Iri'ijiio'iH 

ii)f:uiist tlia 

lllinulrt. 



Tlio Kiiir- 
lull iirii 

Ml>|'l'i'll' !..(■ 
fXi'itilllt 

tlie 

IlMliMh-> 
IIL'llill^t II- 

iiihl I'ur 

lllliu.s. 



^l| l\ 






ii 



iV 



Jim 



I.. 






ty, kp])t wiitcli I'nr tlifsc dosiTtcrs, 
and, siirinisiiiir tli'iu mi l.nkc On- 
tario, killed simif and took others: 
Toiity, in Murirry, y. S. 

' Not very sodii : tor the ilcserti.>n 
took ]ilaoe in tin' middle of Maicli 
(let'lerei|. Ktalilissriiient de la Foi, 
p. ITS, imd llie a])|iroaeli of the Iro- 
quois wns announced Septendirr 10, 
ICSOilli., p. ISl). 

' Tonty was staMied by a Seneca 
lirave ; and thouj^h lie Jirevented a 
Vol. Ill.-U 



hattle. the Irociuois did much injury, 
ami tlie Illhiois sent off tlieir women 
and children and gradually retired, 
leaviiifithe French alone: le Clercq, 
Ktablissenient de la Foi, ii.. pp ISl- 
I'.lO ; Tonty, Memoir in Mar^ry, p. 
',( : Louisiana Hist. Col., i., pj). .j.^-O. 

'■ N. Y.Col. Doc, ix , p. 1 18. 

■' La Salle was overwhelmed with 
di'bts, and his creditors liej;an to 
]iress him, lusinj^ all taitli in his 
lirojects. 



Ill'' 



Af^ 




i^i^l 



210 



IIISTOKY (»K NKW KlfANCK. 



'7i K. 

at . 



.1 



I 



i^f'o- As to tlio English, tlicrc was iikmc tlmii one i('ii>()ii to 

'"^'""^ l)('liov(' tlu'iii till! iiisti^'.itors of tliis ni|itun' ; nor was it 

Acalia only in tlic (lir»>i'tion of tin- Illinois that they cntlcavoriul 

'^Frui'icc!" to excite troubles for us by means of the Inxiuois. Their 

object in so doin^' was this : Acajia, the fort on St. John's 

River, and that of Peiita^'oi't had been for the fourtli tiuio 

restored to France by the En;j;lish, and ^[r. de Chanibly 

had l)een ai)i>t)inted ^'overnor, he havinj,' previously, as well 

ns the Chevalier de Grandfontaiuo, only oujoyinl the title 

of commandant. 

A small settlement had subseciuontly grown up at Port 
Roj-al, which then became the capital of this government, 
•wliieli, besides Acadia, comprised aU the southern coast of 
New France, but which was always subordinate to the 
governor-gi'ueral. In fact, nothing was mort? wri'tched 
than this settlement, and although all whom chance or 
]n'ivate business led to those parts incessantly represented 
the injustice of neglecting to settle and fortify such tine 
pro iuces, theii remonstrances were ineil'ectuid, and did 
not even silence those who continued to publish that Aca- 
dia was good for nothing. 
The Eiiif- The English, on the contrary, approached it steadily as 
ii^'uin. closely as hey could, and after the restitution of Penta- 
goi't they had l)uilt between that post and the Kennebec 
a good fort in a i)lace which bore the name of Pemkuit.' 
The Abtiiakis, to wIkmii the site belonged, took umbrage 
at it, and the English soon perceived that in these Indians 
they had disagreeable neighbors. To have nothing to fear 
from tlu'm, they deemed it necessary to involve them with 
the Iroipiois, who did not require umcli urguig to o2)en a 
war with the Abeuacjuis. The latter, too feeble to resist 



' Coniluitt" <ti's Francois .lust'ifit'c, casili'. Andros ncti'd for the Duko 

p. OS This tort, ii woodrii rcdoul)! of York, wlmsi' cliartiT trniii Charh's 

with nil (lutwcirk and two linstioris, II,, March Vi. I(!li4, <;avc him fidiu 

was incti'd in .luni'. KiTT, liy Sir the St. Croix to I'diiaijuid : N. Y. 

Khnmiil Aiidros, on n iiocli of land Col. Doc., ix., p. 250. 
on Shuepscot River, now calli'd New- 



i> 



yh 



i 



1!^ 



IIISTOIIV Ol' NKW FHAXrR, 

till! Kiii,'Iisli ami the Iii)i|iii)is iit owo, wcro forced to iimko 
tcriiiH will) the t'oiiiK r.' "" 

'llii- coiiuiiMinlt'i' of Fort Pciiikuit tlicii cjirricd liis ])ro- 
ti'iiMioiis fiirtlii r, and found iiorir to raisn any ()l)Htiiclo. 
!\Ir. dc ("lianiMy liad just Iktu traiisfcrrrd to the f^ovor- 
iiorsliij) of (Iranaila, and Ai'fuliu Iiad as ^ct no ^^'ovcnior 
noniiriatrd. It was sustained ncillicr from (^ucIhc nor 
from I'rancc, so that Pcutaj^'oi't and tlic foii on the llivcr 
St. .lolui were invaded without icsistanee. I'he inhahit- 
ants of Poit Iloyal, wlio lieiiehl (he storm ready to burst 
over them, resolved to treat with the lOuLjlisli, nor could 
r^Ir. de la Valliere, who commanded them under a sim[)lo 
conimission from the Count de Froutenac, prevent thorn. 
Thus the Euj^lish for the tifth time became niasteu's of 
Acadia and of all that separates it from Now ]''ni^'lan<l.' 

Hitherto the Iroi|uois had not opeidy declared aj,'ainst 
the French : they at lust undertook to drive them from the 
Iliver of the Illinois, and tlio (Jhevalier de Tonti, having,' ^'i' 
received information that an army of those Indians was 
coniiny to invest him in his Fort Crevcco'iir, did not con- 
sider it prudent to await their approach, and retired.' 



an 



1680. 



TIlR 
'hcvalior 
'I'nlltl is 
hWilrd to 

illll'loll tllO 

llliiiom 
Uivur 



' For tlic Indian iirtUirH wi' Hul)- 
Imrd'H Indian Wars. Tlio use of the 
Iioqiiois is niiiilioni'd iu X. Y. Col. 
ViH'., ix., ]i. IIS ; M'illinnison's 
Mninc, i., p. 57.") ; Canada Due, II., 
iv., p. (i;!. 

•' rrontcni.c's dispatrli. Niivinil>i'r 
2, liisl, noti's En^'lisli lisliiii;: i^n- 
croai'linicnts, and spiaks of la Val- 
lic'VL' as at Port Iloyal. without inti- 
mating that the Krincli |)osts liad 
IxM-n talicn. Do Clicsniau i'i'|)orts 
do la Vallicrr as roliliinir tlu' sfttlcrs : 
N. Y. Col. Doc, ix.. pp. MS, l.'jo. 
Till' Chi'valicr dc tf laiidliintainc, in 
l(iSO-l, ap]ioiMtcd til" Hanm St. Cas- 
tiu his lieutenant : N. Y. Col, Doc, 
ix., J)]). !)US, iU.") ; iii., p. l.")l). I'idincr 
and West, acthif; uniler Doni^an, 
claimed to the St. Croix, and in Msi; 
Beized a lot of wine al lVutai;-o;-t, 



and the .lane, on which they were 
imported, for not havin<r (laid duties 
nt I'eniu(|uid (X. V. Col. Doc, ix., 
p. lM!t : Hutchinson's I'apers. p. .I-IS), 
hut the French jrovernnient remon- 
strated (.Mem. des Conmiis.'-aires, ii,, 
p. li'JS), and restitution was made. 
In Ajiril, 1U8S, however, Andros ])ro- 
ceeded in the frigate Uose, Captain 
(ieorge, to I'entagoi't, which he 
plundered, St. Caslin esca|iin!,' to the 
woods; Hutchinson's Col., pp. o(iO-6. 
' See ante, Tonty met them and 
had some parleying with them. 
Tonty was wounded hy a young 
Onondaga liruve : Henne|iii., De- 
scription de hi Louisiuni*, p. mI)5 ; le 
Clercq, Ktalilissemeiit de la Foi, ii., 
p. 1S7 ; Tonty's Memoir, Margry, 
Ilelations, p. '.1 : l.oulsiaini lli.-^t. Col., 
i., II. .').') ; N. \ . Col. Doc, ix., p, l(i;i. 



^ i' 



V 
•^ ... 



IN 

I. 



'h. 




919 



IIISTOHY OF NKW FHANCB. 



\Ma, 






ly 



A lloiMill.ct 

KhIIht 

UAUA liy 

Ihu 

Kiill|"ill:». 



Cniiiit <lt< I'lontt'imc, in hin letter to tlu' kiiij,' alreiuly 
t'iteil, statcH timt Ti)iiti was puiHiied ami woiiiuled, ami 
Fiitlier (lalniel de la lJil)()unl(« killid liy the IroiiuoiM.' 
H«) ii])pari'ntl_v was led to lielieve ho fnttu tin' tii'Ht Illinois, 
wliieli aliiinst always e\aj,'^'ei'ate had tidiiij,'s. The tl'iitli 
is, that Toiiti, not Ix'lievin^,' liiniself in a ])ositioii to detViul 
iiis I'oit against the limniois, evaenated it on the llth ol' 
Soptcnilier, llJHO/ with live FrenehMieii, wlio eoiisf itntcd 
his whoh" ^,'aiTisoii, and the two UecoMect Fathers wiioin I 
have already nann'd, Imt he was not followed, or at least 
there was no action lietwi'eii him ami the Ircxjuois. 

After aseendinj^ the Illinois River tivo lenguos, he halted 
to dry his furs, and Father Gahriel hiivinp; strayed a litth* 
into the woods while saying his hn'viary, was met hy some 
Kicapims, who killed him, ai>))arently, in order to roii 
him.' He was a holy reli;,'ious, lii;^dily ostoemod in New 
Franco for his virtue and moderation, and who had eon- 
suited his eoura<4e rather than his stren^'th before attaeh- 
in;^ himself to an exiiedition, of which his a^'e of seventy- 
one could not ensure liis seeinj^ the close.' This misfortnno 
for some days delaytnl the march of the CMievalier de 
Toiiti, who went to the l)ay of Lake Michii^an to winter.' 

Mr. de la Sale could not have been informed of this re- 
treat, and ho was greatly surprised when, early iu tho 



vj 



' Frdiitrniic to till' kiiifi. Nov. "', 
KIHl ; N. Y. Col. 1)(MV, ix., i>. 147; 
CiiiiiHlii Doc, I,, ii.. !>. si. 

■ .Miinlnv, in le t'lcrcii, Ktalilicw- 
iiiciit (If la Foi. ii., |). l!tl, wiys llii- 
Isili. 'I'.iiiiv'w .Miiiioir in Mnr;;ry, 

II. 1'.! ; I,. II.' Col., i., J), r,:. 

•' .Mi'mlii'-'. in li' Clrri'i|, ii , ]>. I'.il : 
Tonty, Mciiioirc in Maiyiy. p. 1'.; ; 
l.onisianii II Col.. ]i. ^>X. 

* FallnT Oal'virl dr la liilioiirdc 
was till' Inst of n nolili' linrirundian 
house, lie was born aljout Kil.'i, 
niul iipiiiircnlly intc'p<l tlir Framis- 
can oi'iIiT at llie asii' of :il'. At'ti-r 
liolilinj; ri;-|.on.<il)li'ollii'fs in Kuroiic, 



he cniiii' to Ainci'ira in (170, and 
succriili<I Katlicr Allart ii, >.,,nmis- 
»ary nnd superior of t le mission. 
He dii'd, it would Keetn, Sept. 10, 
l<i*<0: Le CIeri'i|, Etulilisseniint do 
lu Foi, ii., p. 1!M ; Hennepin, I'e 
scriptioii de la Limisiiine, p. ;!0S ; 
|)i rouverte d'liu Pays, ete., pp. 4l!(- 
loll. 

'• I.e Cler('(|, Ftabli.ssenient de la 
Foi. ii., pp. I!)-,>-'.'00. Fnilier Meiii- 
lir'- was entertained diirin^r tlie win- 
tiT liy till' .lesuits at tlieir mission: 
III. ; Tonty, .Menioire in .Murijry, p. 
I:! : 1. II. Col., i., p. .'iS ; Canada 
Doc., Ii., iv., pp., (iO, (il. 



niSTOIlY OF NFAV FHANTE, 



213 



^ ^ 



Mr .!.• Ill 
Siilc 

.lr->'<'l|.|>< 

III.' Mii'iit- 
■>\y'\ t<i tliii 

KVH. 



Hprin^' of till- fnlliiwiii^' ynir, lie fniind no diic iit Fort i^'^'i-j 
('rt'vccii'ui' nil liis ri'acliiiij,' it.' Ilaviii;,' Htiitidiicd ii new --^r^- 
^'iirrinnii tlicic, lie ilispiitflicil iihh In work at u sccnml 
fort, wlii'li lie liail tnicftl (ho jciir bt'fon', and wliicli wiis 
(•alli<l I''iirl St, lidllis. ]T(' llicll )tln(T('dcd to Micliilli- 
iiiaKiiiac,' where the Chevalier (h^ 'i'onti had siiortlv iiel'oiv 
arii\ed witli his niirty.' Thoy nil set out from it toi^ctluT 
towards the end of Anj^iist to proceed to Catiirocouy/ 
mill after three months s]ient in running' ny and down to 
ret'iiiit a new hody of Freiiehnieii and t'oUect siiii|)lies, 
hi Sale, with his whole force, took up his nnirch for tlio 
Illinois, and there found his two forts in tho position in 
which he had left them.' 

lie descended the Illinois I'uvor, and on tln^ '2d of Feh- 
rnary, KiH'J, In- found Iiimstdf on the Micissipi." On tho 
■1th of j\rarch, with all tho usual ceremonies, ho took pos- 



' I -a Siillc found ti'i)ul)li' cnouj;!! 
nil I'rni'liint; Koit l''iiiiitciin('. Ills 
iiii'ii Imil lici'ii (lil)iiii(luil, iiiiiiiy lind 
dtwrti'il and rolilird liiiii. A vchhi'I 
IVimi Fiiuii'i' with a prcrliiuH ciirjrn 
I'lpf lii?ii wiiH wrecked, ninny of Ii'ih 
I'liliiMs loiiili'd Willi fiii'H were lost, 
luid Ills crrilitiirs liiid Hrizrd cvery- 
tliiiijX III' Clcrr", 11., J). ','():!. Ar- 
ruiifriiiir nmttiTs nx liost lie conld, 

he CllUeCtell || IlrW I'llVCe llllll Ket ollt 

from Kort I'lonteniic .Inly ',>:(, KiSO. 
He reiii'lied Ditrnit lit ihe end f>f 
.\nu'iist. iind !\!irliilliiiiiikiniic soon 
lifter. On the 4lh of Oetnher he 8et 
out for I'oi't Creveroiir. but. tiikiiip; 
the riislern Khore of ihe liiUe, niissed 
Tonty's |iiirty. He reuclu d the Kiver 
of the Miiiinis Nov. 'JS, iiiid the Illi- 
nois villiii;e Deo. 1 : l.e ('li'ici|. ii., 
pp. 'iOO-T; Tonly, I.. II. Cnl., i.. p. 
61). A Menioir of In Salle to I'ron- 
tenno, dated Nov.!!. llisO. descriliiiif; 
the ronte. is ^;iv<'ii hy Toiuassy, 
(irolotjie I'niticini' de la l.ouisiane ; 
Hist. Matr., v., II, Ulli. 

• He set out for MlcliiUiniakinae 
Muy 2;!, 10»1 : ]<e I'Kut), ii,, [i. 2l»;. 



Meiiihre HnvH nothlnff of Kort St. 
I.nni.s. 

' 'I'onty's party remheil Michilli 
liiukinnc nhont Corims C'hristl, in 
KIHl : .Meniolre in Mnrnry, p. H. 
('or]inH Christi fell thnt yenr.liine 5: 
Hlondel, Caleiiilriir lioiiiaiii, p. iltlli. 
The traiislntinn in l.onisianii Hist. 
Col. makes it Oetoher. 

' l.e Clercii, ii., p. 2(1S, ^'ivi'H no 
date, hut proliahly ill .1 line. Iteould 
not he as Inte ns .\iijrnst. innsniiieh 
anwefinil thnt he enilmrked on Lake 
F.r'w for the West Aiifrnft 2S, ami 
rcni'hed St. Joseph November H : FiO 
('lei'c<|. il,, p. •-'•.';!. 

■■■ This time la Salle went to Chi- 
<'n;^o. and took that mute to the Illi- 
nois Itiver. as .^laripii'lte and .Mloinv. 
had done: Tonty. Menmiie in .Mnr- 
jiry, p. 11 : le ('lei(<|. ii., yy. •,>! I -l.T. 
Meiiihi'e mentions Kort Crevefo'iir 
as in eod,] ('nniliiiciii, I'lid iiirntiniis 
no other : lb., p. '.'lii. 

'' .Menibrr. ill le ('lerc(|. I'.ulblissc - 
nieiit de la Koi, ii., p. 'JIT, snys tliey 
reiiched the mouth of the Sel^'lielay 
(Illinois), on I lie l'oU)erl^.MiRni^^ippi), 



I ,' I t i 



'i 

1,1 , 



I 



::!l 



\f i 



''•"l-M 



ii;*' 



f 



214 



niSTOin' OF NEW FRANCE. 



f-j 



l> 



I \v 



1681-3. session of the conutry of the Akausas,' aud on the !)th of 
April he explored the mouth of the river, where he made 
a new act of taking possession in form.'^ This is all that 
is certainly known as to this voyage. For as regards the 
circumstances given in the pretended Relation of the 
Chevalier Tonti, tlie credit to be ascribed to wliich may 
l)e judged by what is stated at the end, that according to 
the calculations of Mr. de la Sale, the mouth of the Mi- 
cissipi is between the twenty-second and twenty-third 
degrees of north latitude^, and forms a channel two leagues 
wide, very deep, and very easy of navigation." 

Tliis important exploration thus completed, and the 
whole course of one of the greatest rivers in the world 
secured to France by acts of taking possession, to which 
no objection could bo taken,^ la Sale re-embarked on the 
11th of April ;' but he certainly did not make fifty leagues 



He returns 
to France. 



.iu 



Feb. 0. Tont y. Mcnioiro in Miirgry ; 
Kclations, p. 14 ; l,i)uifiiunii Hist. 
Col., p. 5!), says rnd of April. 

' Mcmbri' (If Clircq. ii., p. 21-1) 
anil the .\c.'t iil' Taking Possession, 
Louisiana ![. C., i.. ]i. 47; Marirry, 
Ri'lationn, p. ir>, say 14tli. Tonty 
gives no date. 

■■' Le CleiT<i, Etal'lissenient, ii.. p. 
2;i7 : 'I'onty, .^'eniolre iu Margry, )). 
11) ; Lonisiana Hist. Col., i., p. G:!. 
Charli'voix gives a very meagre ae- 
fount of la Salle's voyage. We have 
two authentic accounts, Menibre, in 
le Clercq, and Tonty '». After entiT- 
ing the Mississippi, la Salle passed the 
mouth of the O/age (Missouri), and 
on the east the Taniarnas and the 
Ouabache (Ohio). On the i!llh of 
Janiniry, KiS'J, I'rudhontnie, one of 
his men, was lost, and lu' threw up 
a kind of fort while looking for him. 
This Fort Prudhomnn' long figured 
on maps. On .March M. hearing 
drums and war-cries from the .Vkan- 
sas. In- landed ai\d thri'w up an 
iuirouchment. Ou the i'id lor ;JUth) 



he reached the Taensas, and was 
well received. On the2(ith lie came 
to the Nalchi'Z, where he again 
l>laiited a cross and smoked the calu- 
met with the Koreas. On A|)ril 'i 
(lid) h(! reached the Qiiinipissas, wlio, 
iu sjiite of the calumet, attacked his 
men. He soon after found Malieou- 
ala.a Tangiboa town.jusl destroyed. 
On the (Ith (Tth) the river v.as found 
to divide into three channels. He 
took the weslprn, d'Aiitray, son of 
Jolin Hourdon of Quebec, the south- 
ern, Tonty the middh; one. 

■' See this corrujit edition of Tonty 
in Voyage an Nord. vol. v., p]i. l','!l, 
lol. The real narrative in Margrv, 
Meinoires. and L(Miisiana Hist. Col., 
i., does not contain these stateini'ius. 

'' Ferdinand de Soto more than 
once crixssed the Micissipi. which his 
historian, Oarcilaso de la Vega, calls 
Cucagna. He was even thrown into 
it after his death, but he made no 
settlement there. C/l'ii/i iiii.r. 

■■ Membre. ii , p. :i!), says lOth. 
They were out of provisions, uud 



Iff 



IIISTOKY OF NEW FRANCE. 



215 



tlio first (lay, as tlio Relation jnst cited pretends, for a man 
is xovy foi'tuuate ^vllo can jiiako seven or ei}:5]it goiuf^ up 
the stv(-ani in a caiioo. On the Llth of May he fell sick,' 
and detacluHl the Clievalier de Tonti, with instructions to 
use all possible diligence to reach Micliilliniakinac.'^ For 
his own part, lie proceeded to spend part of the winter at 
the Bay,' and did not reach Quebec till thc^ spring of the 
ensuing year, KiS.'J.' Some months after he embarked for 
France," taking witli him tlie Sicur de la Forest, Major of 
Caterocouy, a very worthy maa and good officer, who 
served the king most faitafnlly in America. 

Miiny clianges had taken place in the colony during the 
absence of :Mr. do la Sale, and many were not so favorably 
disposed towards him as they were when he began his 
explorations. The misunderstanding between the gover- 
nor-general and the inttmdaiit had reached such a point, 
that it was no longer possible for them to dwell together. 
It is certain that the court ascribed the greatest wrong to 
the Count de Froiitenac ; but Mr. du Chesneau, worthy 
man as he was, bad not complaisance enough to bear witli 
the haughty manners and domineering humor of the gen- 
eral, although th(! minister and the king himself had com- 
mended nothing so earnestly ; thus for lack of patience 
to leave the Count do Fronteuac in the wrong, he some- 



i6Ri- 



lived some days on potatoes and alli- 
gator, and on some dried meat found 
at the mouth of the river, tliat 
proved to be liunum flesh. 

' On his return up, the Quinipis- 
sas iipiiu ref'iiseil the calumet, but 
firearms dispersed them. A truee 
was nuide, but they attacked his 
camp at night, April ISth, and wen; 
repulsed after a light in which la 
Salle killed ten and wounded many. 
May 1. I:i Salli! was at Koroa ; 18th 
lie left Akaiisa with two can<pes, and 
fell sick at lAirt I'rudliomme, inu- 
hundred leaijiirs below the lIliMuis 
River : le (.'lercci. ii., pp. 2^0-,' W : 



Kcoall of 

Froutciiiio 

iinil du 



Tonty, in Margry, jip. 20, 21. Tonty 
went on to Michillimakinac, and la 
Salle, on recovering, followed by way 
of t'hicago. and late in Si'|itend)er 
reached the River of the Mianiis. 

■' 'Pcmty, Mem. in Margry, p. 21. 

' I lind no authority tor this, and 
it looks imi)rolial)le. 

^ He left I''ort St. I.ouis in Sei)t., 
l(J8;i : Tonty, Memoire in Margry, p. 
21 ; N. Y. (*ol. Due, ix., p. Til!). " 

'' 1I(' reached Quebec in Nov.. and 
Rochelle V.r. 2:i : h' ('lerc(i, ii., 2T1. 
'I'onty is obsi'ure. De la Rarre to 
Seignclay, Nov., 1083 ; N. Y. Co:. 
Doc., ix., p. 204. 



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16H2-3. tiinos shared it with him, iiud his niaj(!sty deeuu'd it best 

• ' to ivc-all Ix.tli.' 

Tiieir Mr. lo Fol)vrc d(! hi Barrc" was ajipointod f^overnor-p;en- 

'"lu'iTri'iT' cral, and ^Ir. do, ^NFcuh's iiitciKhmt. TluMr several ceiu- 
insnn.tions ,j,j^^i„„>^ ij^,.,j. ,|.^t^, ^i.^y^ jc^.j.' lu tlie iiistru(;ti(.iis which 



Hiveii tlieiii. 



accompany them, the king recommended especially to the 
former to maintain a harmonious concert of action witli 
Count de Blenac, governor-general of the French West 
Indies, because they were then convinced that these two 
colonies might derive great advantages from a nmtnal 
interchange of their products.' His majesty, in the in- 
structions which he gave Mr. de Mcndes, hisisted strongly 
on what he had so frequently and so iuefrectnally ordei'ed 
his pred(!cessor, to give all his care to living in harmony 
with the governor-general ; adding, that if he saw Mr. de 
la Earre, in the discharge of his functions, do any thing 
manifestly contrary to the good of the service, he should 
content himself with rennmstrating with him, and showing 
him the orders Avhicli he had received ; after that he was 
to leave him to act without annoying him, but to report to 
the council whatever hajiponed detrimental to the interests 
of the state. ' 



' Pcrrot.Moeurs etc 'oust nines, p. 1;!1. 

° Lc Fcl)vri' 111 Biiriv, in Franco had 
bi'rn maiti'i' di's riMnirtcs, a judi- 
cial (illici T. and then Inli'iidant of 
HourlMinnais. .Alinu'tcd liy tlic col- 
ony ol' C'aycnni', lie t'oi'ni'il tosriile 
it the Ncconil Frcndi l\i|uiiiociial 
C(nni>nny, wliii-li received letters-pa- 
tent in Uciolier, l(i(i:j. Under it de 
In Harre was made governor and 
lieutenant-general. lie arrived in 
Cayenne witli du Tracy May 11, 
lOUl : Montezon, .Mission de Cay- 
enne, I'uris, IS.")?, i>. <). In .Inly, 
idii"). this company was mergi'd in 
the West India ('om|iany ; .letl'erys, 
History of the Frencli Dominion, ii., 
p. !201. lie went to I'lance in Klli."), 
ITe '.roll' ■' l)escri|i'ion di- la I'riince 
Ei|uiuoctialu,cy-devant aijpelue Uvy- 



nnne, et i)ar les Espagnols, Kl Do- 
rado," jMiljlished by Jean Hibov in 
llilKI, Ilo. Dnring his aiisenco in 
France tlie iMiglisli cai)tured Cay- 
enne, lint de la Harre was sent out 
with a lleet in l(i(i(i, and. alter re- 
ducing Aniigna and Monserrat, re- 
covered Cayi'une. He next di'l'eated 
the English oft' Nevis : (irillet, in 
Mission de Cayenne, Paris, IS.^T, p. 
l!):!. etc. ; Du Tertre, Hist, des An- 
tilli'S. In Canada he lost all tho 
reimlation that he had gained in the 
West Indies. 

' See de la Harre'a commission. 
May 1, 1(iS'.i ; Arrets et Ordonnances, 
iii., p. II ; de Mi'uUes, ib., p. l(i. 

' N. V. Col. Doc . ix.,]). 1(17 ; Can- 
ada Docnments. 1., ii., )). l."i:{. 

'' Theoe instructions I do not find. 



li I 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



217 



New Franco liad for sovcr.al years been in great confn- 1682-3. 
sion, and for some time bolield a war menacing whicli was '—^r-— 
capable of plunging it once more into its former miseries ; thel'ro "uois 
moreover, its strength seemed to diminish from day to """"• 
day, for at the last census of the colony, taken in 1(571), it 
■was found to contain only eight thousand five hundred and 
fifteen persons, without including the government of Aca- 
dia, where there was but a small popiilation.' We have 
already seen that the Iroquois did not observe very ex- 
actly the articles of peace agi'eed upon with them ; but 
these Indians did not wish to declare war on us till after 
they had their measures well laid to make it successfully, 
and they devoted themselves especially to detach oiu- allies 
from us, or render them useless to us. 

Several things had contributed to draw this nation down 
on us again. After New York returned to the power of 
the English, Colonel Dongan," the governor, had paid 
great attention to supplying the Iroquois with goods at a 
lower rate than the French could do, because the company 
which then controlled all the fur-trade, took by preference 
one-fourth of the beavers, tlit tenth part of the leather, 
and other furs, and purchased all the rest at quite a mod- 
erate rate. Moreover, several untoward affairs had oc- 
curred which had soured their minds. Two Frenchmen 
having been killed by Indians near Lake Superior, the 
Sieur de Luth, into whose hands the assassins fell, shot 
them.' On the other hand, several insults received from 
these savages had been left unpunished, and this toler- 



! %n 



' Du Chesneau in his Report, Nov. 
10, 107!) (N. Y. Col. Dw., ix., p. 130), 
snys 9,400 in Cnniula and HI') in 
Acadia. Sec il)., ]i. 1(2. 

■•' Tlinnias Dongan, the real founder 
of Enfflish colonial policy, was born 
in Ui;!4, younger son of Sir .lolin 
Donarnn, an Irish baronet. After 
sei-vini; in the French army, he was 
reciilled to Enj;lnnd, and made lieu- 
teuant-govornor of Tangier. He was 



governor of New York from lOSiJ to 
1088. He became Earl of Limerick 
in 1008. and died in London Di^c. 14, 
171,5 : OCallaghan, Origin of New 
York Assemblies, p. 33. 

■' This affair seems misplaced. 
Dn Luth's exec'ition of two Iroiiuois 
for killing two Frenclinien is men- 
tioned by de la Bavro in 1084 : N. Y. 
Col. Doc, ix., p. 233. 



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218 HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 

i68i. ance, wliich had draAvn on lis their contempt, caused the 
^■^■y^-' proceeding of the Sieur de Liith to be regarded as violent ; 
as though tlie French, by long putting up with aflronts, 
had lost the right of avenging themselves. 

At last an unforeseen accident revealed the whole evil 
disposition of the Iroquois in our regard. In the month 
of September, 1681, a Seneca chief was killed at Michilli- 
makinac by an Illinoin, with .vliom ho had had some pri- 
vate quarrel.' In these collisions, the first resentment of 
the aggrieved party falls not on the murderer or hia na- 
1682-? tion, but on the masters of the spot where tlu oti"en:.'i! is 
given. Thus it fell to the Kiskacons, an Ottawa tribe 
among whom the Seneca had been killed, to offer satisfac- 
tion to the Iroquois, and on the first tidings which Count 
de Frontenac received of what hf d occurred, he dispatched 
a confidential agent to the cantons, to exhort them to sus- 
pend all hostilities till he had time to have justice done by 
the Kiskacons.' 

He at the same time invited them to send deputies to 
liim at Catarocouy, whither he was proceeding in person, 
Avitli whom he might treat of this affair, and all other 
"ubjects of complaint that might exist on either side. A 
few days after he received a letter from Onondaga, in- 
forming him that those Indians required him to advance 
to the mouth of the Oswego Eiver (Chouguen),' and this 
arrogant pretension, it was added, was undoubtedly in- 
spired by Colonel Dongan, under the impression that the 



insolent 
proposi- 
tions of 

tliose siiv- 
nnus to 
Mr. do 

Fronleiiac. 



' Tlie Senccn chief, Annanliac, was 
a ])ri8on(T in the handa of Bome 
Green Bay Indians, and th<! quarrel 
arose from thi; taunts of the Ilurons 
as to an Illinois girl held as a slave 
by the Seneca. An Illinois at last 
killed him with Tonty's knife, in 
presence of that otBcer : N. Y. Col. 
Doc, ix., p]). 104, 17fi ; Canada Doc, 
I., iv., p. (!9. 

■' N. Y. Col. Doc, is., p. 01. The 
envoy was the Sieur Lamarque : lb., 



p. 109. The Kiskakons was one of 
the three Ottawa nations who fled to 
the Mississippi with the Hurons. 
The others were the Sinagaux and 
Keinouches. 

' Tl<i8 is the proi)er name of tho 
river of Onondaga which empties 
into Lake Ontario. Clunictoi.r. The 
letter was from Father John do 
Lamberville : N. Y. Col. Joe, ix., 
pp. 170, 190. 



'i! 



3 I 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



219 



The 

jfcneral's 

reply. 



governor-r^enovfil would reject it with contempt, and so 1682-3 
break off all ne}.;otiation with the Iroquoi;4 cantons. 

In fact, Mr. de Froutenac repHed to the writer of the 
letter tliat ho would never consent to take such a step ; 
in tl-.e first place, because this condescension would only 
increase the insolence of the Iroquois : in the second 
place, because, even were it not against his dignity to do 
it, he could not undertake the voyage hi a becoming man- 
ner or securely for his person without great expense: 
thirdly, because he had not :, > t seen the Kiskacons, and 
did not know what resolution they had taken.' He closed 
by begging the writer of the letter to use every exertion 
to induce the Onondagas to adopt more reasonable and 
respectful sentiments. 

The latter not only deemed this impossible, bui even 
considered it dangerous to attempt it. He informed the 
general that the principal chiefs of the Iroquois nation, 
those even most attached to the I'rench, persisted in their 
demand for an interview with him at the mouth of the 
Oswego ; and that if he refused, there was every reason to 
fear that these Indians would proceed to some extreme 
measure, which he would repent not having prevented.' 

At the same time that this second letter was handed to 
Count de Frontenac, he was secretly warned not to go to 
Oswego unless well attended, iind that the Iroquois, con- 
trary to their wont, had spoken of him very insolently.' 

From whatever source thir, information came, Fron- 
tenac took great pains to give it publicity ; but what 
seemed at last to decide him against going to Oswego was 
his conviction that at bottom the Iroquois esteemed him 
and would not make war on him. He accordingly resolved 
not to derogate from that hauteur with which, after the 



Tlie course 

wliioh 
he adopted. 



' Frontemic's counnil mlvised liim 173, 174 ; ib., p. 190 ; Canada Doc., 

not to fi,o to Trolioii('i;ii('ti or La I., iv., p. 61. 

Famine, as tho Irotpiois asked, l)ut ' N. Y. Colonial Documents, ix., 

to insist on Fort Fronlenae. See p. 101. 

opiuious N. Y. Col. Doc., pp. 168- ' N. Y. Col. Doc., ix., p. 191. 




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220 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



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1682-3. example of Mr. do Couvcelles, he had always treated the 

''■—^r~--' Indians. He publicly declared that he took the Ottawas 

and all his old allies under his protection, and permitted 

the Kiskacons to build new forts for the be defence in case 

they were attacked. 

He did more ; some Iroquois, gained by Father John 
de Lamberville, their missionary, having yielded so far as 
to consent to treat at Catarocouy, he replied that he would 
go no further than Montreal, and that if the Iroquois 
wished to speak to him ho would await them there till 
the month of June ; but that period ended, he would re- 
turn to Quebec' This reply irritated the Iroquois, and 
they declared, on theii' side, that they would not treat with 
the governor-general except at Oswego. On this Mr. du 
Chesneau wToto in July to Mr. de Frontenac, who was still 
at Montreal, that in his opinion and that of several per- 
sons of experience, he should concede to the Iroquois 
what they required, the more especially as, according to 
information received from France, no reinforcement could 
be expected from that quarter." 
Expedient He added that there was a means of taking this step 
""bv^the'' without derogating from his dignity and without exposing 
'k Pf"'"'?'' liis person •, namely, to proceed in a bark, to be followed 
and why. by a briguutine, and when he was in sight of Oswego to 
invite the Iroquois deputies on board" The reply of the 
general was, that lie did not disapprove this expedient, 
but that he could not bring himself to adopt it ; that after 
the insolent manner m which the Indians had treated the 
last proposition which he had made them, it woul 1 be flat- 
tering their pride too mucli to go and meet them in their 
own territory ; that he was always disposed to listen to 
them, when he had seen the Kiskacois, provided they con- 
formed to their duty ; but that it was well to make the 
necessary preparatives for maintaining the war, and that 



' N. Y. Colonial Documents, ix., 
p. 191. 



N. Y. Col.Doc., ix., p. 191. 
lb., p. 174. 



t> 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



221 



Iroquoig 
deputies at 
Moutroal. 



they mur;t both act in concert on this occasion, although 1682-3 
tliey hail information of the appointment of their succes- 
sors, inasmuch as tliese gentlemen would perhaps not ar- 
rive in time to make head against an enemy who was 
always ready to commence hostilities.' 

A short time after the general, while visiting the cotes 
of Montreal, met the Sieur de la FonH, Major of Cataro- 
couy, who was bringing to him five Iroquois. They were 
deinities of the five cantons, who had orders to assure their 
father Onoiithio that they were disposed to live well with 
him and with his allies. The head of this deputation was 
an Onondaga chief named Teganissorens, who was 
strongly attached to the French nation, and had made 
great exertions to calm the minds of his countrymen, and 
had, he supposed, succeeded. 

Mr. de Frontenac gave him audience on the 11th of 
Sejitember, and on the next day repUed that it would never 
bo his fault that a good understanding was not restored 
between the two nations ; but as the Illinois were excepted 
from the peace which the cantons wished to maintain with 
our allies, and as Teganissorens had declared that they 
were preparing to make war on them vigorously, the gen- 
eral made that deputy fine presents to induce him to divert 
the blow. He promised to do so ; but we shall soon see 
tliat he knew not the secret policy of his nation, which 
had used him to cloak its real designs." 

He had scarcely left Montreal, when other deputies ar- 
rived representing the Kiskacons, the Hurons of Michilli- 
makinac, and the Miamis. Count de Frontenac omitted 
nothing to induce the former to make satisfaction to the 
Senecas for the murder of which I have spoken. They 
replied that they had empowered the Hurons to present 
belts to them on their behalf ; that they were not obhged 
to do more, not being guilty c the assassination ; but that 



Deputies 

from the 

otlier 

nations. 



N. Y. Col. Doc, is., p. 175. 
S<;e proceedings of conference, 



N. Y. Col. Doc, ix.. pp. 183-189; 
Canada IXk-., I., ii., pp. 200-213. 



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1682- 



HISTORY OF NKVV FRANCE. 



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Arrival of 

MosNrB. do 

la Barro 

and lie 

Mculca. 



■ JJ', 



tlie Ilurons, who souf^lit only to enibroil matters, far from 
discharging their commission, had inflamed the Iroquois 
still more against tlicm. The general insisted in vain in 
his endeavor to porsiiado them to further measures for 
the sake of peace. All that ho could obtain was, that they 
would act solely on the defensive.' 

Affairs were in this position when Messieurs do la Barro 
and des Meules arrived at Quebec They had even just 
learned that Teganissoren's deputation had been sent by the 
cantons wit ! no other object than to amuse tin' French, and 
that war hail uctually begun against the Illinois. Accord- 
ingly, they expected soon to see the Iroquois in arms in the 
midst of the colony. On the other hand, they were not 
long in perceiving that the creatures of Mr. do Frontenac 
would not find the same protection in his successor ; and 
it seems, in fact, that Mr. do Barre had cither arrived from 
France already pi'epossessed, or alloAved himself from the 
outset to be prejudiced against the Sieur de la Sale, in 
regard to whom ho avowed himself too soon not to give 
reason to judge that he did so without having actuallj' well 
weighed himself the conduct of that exp. irev. 

On the 14th of November, in this same year, he wrote 
to'tiio'coun to the minister that do la Sale's impi'udence had enkin- 
dled war between the French and the Iroquois, and thcat 
the colony might well be attacked before it was in a po- 
sition to defend itself. He added that the Recollect Fa- 
ther Zenobius, who had just arrived at Quebec in order 
to proceed to France, had been unwilling to impart any 
information to him in regard to the new discoveries ; but 
that he did not believe that much reliance could be placed 
on all that that friar might relate, or regard these discov- 



Mr. de la 



nKiiinst 

Mr. de lu 

Sale. 



' The conference with the West- 
ern Indians wns in August 1:J, l(i83, 
that witli the Iroquuis September 
11. For the former sen rnnndii Doc, 
II., i., p. 183 ; N. Y. Col. Doe., ix., p. 
17(i. 



1683 (de la Potheric, Histoire do 
I'Ami'rique Septentrionale, ii., p. 
118), to find Quebec nearly destroyed 
by a coiiflagralion in which, in .Vug. 
.l, says Mother .luchercau, nion^ 
wealth iicrisheil than Canada had 



'They arrived in September, left: Histoire ilel'Uotel Dieu, p. ?50. 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



223 



eries as very important ; finnllj'j that la Sale seemed to 1682-3. 
have very evil cli'signs.' 

In another lettor, dated April 30th, in the following 
year, he says that he is at last convinced of the falsity 
of all that had been published as to the discoveries re- 
ported to the minister by la Sale through a Recollect Fa- 
ther ; that that voyagenr was actually with a score of vaga- 
bonds, French and Indian, at the head ri (Green) bay, where 
ho set himself up as a sovereign, pillaged and sot ransom on 
his countrymen, exposed the nations to the incursions of 
the Iroquois, and covered all these acts of violence by Hie 
pretext of a permission which he had received f) as 

majesty to possess the exclusive trade in the cimutriea 
which he might discover ; that for this claim he had no 
foundation, as the bay (Green Bay) and the adjacent coun- 
try were known and frequented by the French long before 
he arrived in America ; finally, that his privilege would 
expire on the 12th of the succeeding May, after which he 
would be compelled to come to Quebec, where his credit- 
ors, to whom he owed over 30,000 crowns, impatiently 
awaited him." 

Such is the lot of those men whom a mixture of great 
defects and great virtues draws f . :>m the common sphere. 
Their passions hurry them into faults ; nud if they do what 
others could, not, their enterprises are not to the taste of 
all men. Their success excites the jealousy of those who 
remain in obscurity. They benefit some and injure others ; 
the latter take their revenge by decrying them ^uthout 
moderation ; the former exaggerate their merit. Hence 
the different portraits drawn of them, none of which are 
really true ; but as hatred and the itching for slander al- 
ways go further than gi-atitudo and friendship, and cal- 
\imny finds more easy credence with the public than praise 
and eulogy, the enemies of the Sieur do la Sale disfigured 
his portrait more than his friends embellished it. 



' N. Y. Col. Doc., is., p. 204. 



' Canada Doc., 11., iv., p. 153. 



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niSTORY OF NFW FRANCE. 



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KlVeot 

proiliiceJ 

liy li'iM 

IctterH. 



Fortunately for him his cniiso was cairiod to a tribunal 
■\vhcro thoy wore prcpoHs»'SHO(l in his favor ; and as he 
followed close on the letters written against him to tho 
court, his jireseiico there efl'aced at least a part of tho im- 
pression sought to be given against his conduct. It was 
not that Mr. de Seignclay deemed him altogether fi*ee 
from the faults laid to his charge ; but weighing his tal- 
ents in his own mind, he thought it his duty to employ 
them. He nevertheless gave him good advice as to his 
past conduct, and la Sale's misfortunes arose, as we shall 
see in the sequel, from not profiting by it. 
AsscmWy Meanwhile Mr. de la Barre had no sooner taken in hand 
nctabiiH (if tho reins of government than he saw that New France was 
ihe colony. ^^ ^^ extremely delicate crisis. This obliged him to con- 
vene an assembly, to which he invited not only the in- 
tendant and bishop, but also the chief officers of the troops, 
several members of the superior council, the heads of 
subaltern jurisdictions, the superior of the seminary, and 
the superior of the missions. He requested them all to 
give him their advice as to the cause and nature of the 
evil, and the remedies to bo applied. 
It iiitcrcsta In the first place, it was explained to the general that 
goveri'oTas tlie object of the Iroquois was to attract to them all the 
Bitmition of commorco of Canada, in order to transfer it to the Eng- 
ufluirs. jjj,]^ jjjjj Dutch of New York ; that, consequently, those 
two nations must be regarded as our first enemies, and 
that, in fact, they had for a long time been unceasingly, 
though covertly, stimulating the cantons to a inipture with 
us ; that those Indians, not to have too powerful antagon- 
ists to contend with, sought to amuse us while they were 
laboring to seduce our allies, or destroy one after another 
all whom they could not detach from our interests ; that 
they had begun by the Illinois ; that it was vitally impor- 
tant for us to save these Indians from sinking under their 
blows, but that was no easy matter ; that the colony could 
at most put under arms a thousand men, and even to effect 
that, part of the agricultural labors must be suspended. 



HISTORY OF NKW FRANCE. 



225 



1| 

1 '' 



It was noxt icpiTsciitod to liiiii tlnit hoforo oponly taldnp; 16*^2-^ 
np nrniH tlio Htorcliousos must firnt bo woll Hupi)lio(l with 
]ifovisions mid .■iiiiiimiiition, as noiir an ])nHHn)]o to tlio 
OTiciiiy ; for tlio roiiHoii that tin tho olnoot was not nioroly 
to alniiu tlio IroqnoiH, as wo oontontod oursolvos with doinp 
in "Mr. do Tracy's time, but to rodnco tlioni to such a 
point that thoy would no longor bo in a condition to mo- 
lost us, wo should bo oblijifod to roniain lonpor in or noar 
thoir country ; that Fort Catarocouy was of groat advan- 
tan;o for this dosipfn, inasniuoh as from that post w(> conld 
in forty-oip;ht hours fall on tho Sonoca canton, tho most 
roiiioto of all ; that it was indis])onsable to have three or 
four barks on Lake Ontario to carry provisions, munitions, 
and a part of the mon, wherever it raittht be nocossary ; 
that it was on tho shores or tho Senecas that war must 
first be carried, but before being involved in such an en- 
terprise it would bo necessary to solicit of the king two or 
three hundred soldiers, a part of whom might bo placed 
in garrison in Forts Catarocouy and La Galetto, to g\:ard 
tho head of the colony, while all tho forces were without ; 
that it would also be expedient to beg his majesty to 
send into the country a thousand or fifteen hundred em- 
ployees to cultivate the ground in the absence of tho set- 
tlers, as well as means for the storehouses and the build- 
ing of the barks ; that to induce the king to meet this ex- 
pense, it was necessary to convince him of the necessity of 
the war and of the inabilitj' of the colony to sustain it ; 
and especially to lay before him that the lack of relief 
from France was beginning to draw on us the contempt 
of the Indians, whereas were these tribes to behold French 
troops arrive, the Iroquois would, perhaps, think twice be- 
fore attacking us ; nor would our allies hesitate to aid us 
with all their might against a nation whose power they 
droadod, but over whom they would feel '"ortain of tri- 
umphing did thoy but see us in a posiaon to assist 
them vigorously. 

Mr. de la Barre drew up a report of this deliberation 

Vol. III.— 15 



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IIISTOHY OF NEW FKANCB. 



). |„ 



i^Hj-.V imd S(Mit it to till' court.' Tt wiim HtroiiRly approvoil, iiiul 
"-"^y—^ tilt' kiiif? fj;(i\(* onlfis to kcikI over nn Hoon iih poHHiMo 

TiiH kiiiir two Iiundred soldit-rs. His niiijosty wrote to the! novt'rnor- 
ToiaimTil.'' K'''''''"'''' '""1 '" '"'^ letter, wliifli is (lilted Au(^ust f), l(»7r{, 
inforini'd him that ("oloiu'l Doiigiin, j^overiior of New York, 
wotdd liavt^ received a very ex|)licit order from tlio king 
of Great Dritaiu to maintain a good understanding with 
the French, and that there was donht of his obeying his 
instructions.' Dongan did, indeed, receive such an order, 
but we shall soon see that lie pretended obcdionco only 
the better to deceive the French, and that bo was the 
prime nover of the bloody war waged ujion us by the 
Irociuois for nearly thirty years. In the same letter which 
we have just cited, the king recommended to Mr. do la 
Barro to prevent the English, as far as lay in him, from 
establishing themselves in Hudson's Bay, of which we had 
taken possession st m<' years before, and of which it is 
necessary to give the reader briefly moans of forming some 
idea. 
Deioripiion After doubling the northern point of Newfoundland, 

lliiclKoii'a steering nortlnv(^stwRrd, and coasting steadily along the 
land of Labrador, you advance till about 03 ' N. latitude, 
where you find a strait which bears the name of Hudson. 
This strait runs east and west, inclining to the northwest, 
and its outlet is at 01 N. At this place the sea forms a 
bay three hundred leagues, or thereabouts, in length, and 
this is what is called Hudson's Bay. Its width varies : for 
as you go from north to south it diminishes gradually 
from two hundred Icagiies to thirty-five. Its southern ex- 
tremity is at 51°. 

Nothing is more fearful than the country by which it is 
surrounded. On whatever side you cast your eyos, noth- 
ing can be seen but wild and uncultivated lands, precip- 
itous rocks rising to the sky, intersected by deep ravines 



Buy. 



' N. Y. Col Doc., ix., p. 104; 
Canada Doc, II.. i., p. 242. 



•' Um : N. Y. Col. Doc, ix., p. 
200 ; Canada Doc., I., ii., p. 259. 



mSTOUY OP NEW FRANCE. 



227 



)li«crviitliin 

iin Ihu ico 

of tliciso 

HUUD, 



ftnd stcrilo viillcy:-* wlicr.' the siiii docs not ])on('triito, ami i^>'^i-3. 
wliicli the snow hikI ^'liicids, tliiit ru'vor iiiclt, render nn- "^ '"— 
apiiroiiclitililc' 'I'lii' sen is ()|)iii only from the bc^'inninpf 
of July to till' end of Sr|iti nilici',' and cv^ tlicn tlicn- will 
1»o met at times iceberg's of immense size, wliieli eiiiiHO 
niiviji;iitors tlie p^reiitent oiid)iirnisHment ; for iit the mo- 
ment wluMi it is least expected, the tide or n cnnent wtronp 
enon^'h to H\ve('[) the slii)) alon^' iind render it uii^'overn- 
alile, sudih'nly invests it with so f^reat a number of theso 
lioatinj,' slioals, that as fur as tlio oyo can roach nothing 
can he seen l>ut ioo. 

Tiiere is no other means of protection against tlnsm < 
than to n)ake fast to the larj^est and keej) oil' the others 
with louf? ir<)n-|)ointed poles, a supply of which must bo 
laid ill when one of theso perilous voyaj^es is undertaken.' 
I?ut as soon a.s a passaj^o is opened, it is necessary to 
jtrofit by it at once ; for should a storm unfortunatidy 
eouK! on while the sliip is tlius bf.leged by icebergs, it is 
a groat chance if it gets clear. These icebergs are gen- 
erally formed by the waters of several torrents which 
empty into the bay. The heat of tlie sun, cv»>n in the 
dogdays, cannot melt tliem, and can at most loosen them, 
when they como down with a fearful noise, bringing a 
quantity of earth and sometimes rocks of considerable 
size.* As rund)lings are cpiite frequently heard in thi.s 
bay which might alarm navigators, it is well that they 
should know that besides the jiart contributed by tho tor- 
rents wlii(di dash from the high rocks into the sea, tho 
chief cause is a kind of boiling up caused by the islands 
and cakes of ice which lino tho whole coast of tho bay. 
This, it is presumed, occurs in this way : 



' Dc la Potlurio. Ilistoirti de middle of .luly to middle of Octo- 

rAmt'riquc Beiitfiitiionali', vol. i., Ikt. 

Lettri's ;> mid 4. Jcrcmif, Rilation ^ .Jcromio, Holntion de la Bayo 

de In Hnyi' d'Hiidson ; V()yii;;('f au d'Hndson, )i. IJOd. 
Nord, iii. * Di' In Potliirii', Histoire do 

' Jereiuii', p. ;!0(1, fuyn from tho rAmi'ri(|iii' Sept., i., up. t)l-3. 













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228 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



i' t' 



168; 



^1 fc 



Phenomena 
in the air. 



)■ . 



3- Tlic tide, which comes impetuously from the ocean to 
■~^ enter the bay, is stopped by the ice. This resistance 
cliaugos its course, and produces counter-cun-ents which 
cross each other, and, together with the nitre, of which 
these seas arc full, produce a fermentation, which makes 
the surface of the water boil up. These seas are, I say, 
full of nitre, and thidi cannot but bo the case, considering 
the quantity of melted snow and ice which they receive. 
Moreover, it has been remarked that the plates of lead 
used to cover the touchhole of the cannon, will be found 
in the morning covered with nitre, and that when any one 
is bled on the vessels or in the forts, the opening of the 
vein is soon all fringed with it.' Now it is certain that 
this al)undance of nitre, with the change of climate, the 
salt food to which they are compelled to resort on these 
voyages, rnd the little exercise taken, causes great mala- 
dies. Hence it is rare that a vessel does not lose half its 
crew. 

Another phenomenon which appears in the air would 
well deserve an investigation into its cause. In the clear- 
est weather there are suddenly seen in the midst of the 
night clouds of most brilliant white. Even when not a 
breath of air can be perceived, these clouds are impelled 
with very great celerity, and assume every kind of shape ; 
the darker the night, the more brilliant the light. It is 
at times so vivid, that you can read by it more easily than 
by that of the full moon. 

It will, perhaps, be said that this is only a refi'action of 
the rays of the sun, which at tliis altitude is not far from 
the horizon during the summer nights, and even while 
there is no wind in the lower region of the air, there may 
be in the iipper, which is true ; but what induces me to 
think that there must bo some other cause for this meteor 



' Dp la Potlicrie, ITistniro de flie enow-water, but to caves in the 
rAm('Tic|Uf -'fptcnlrionulc, i.. iij). (i'', rocks : i., p. 03. 
63. Hn (locB not awrilif the nitre to 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



229 



.Mcide of 
tnnelling 
on the ic'u. 



is that, during winter ovon, tlio moon often appears sur- 1682-3 

rounded by ruinljows of different colors, and all very ^ > — 

bright. For my own part, I am convinced that these ef- 
fects must be attributed in i)art to nitrous exhalations, 
which during tlie day have been attracted and inflamed 
by the sun.' 

Rut would it be believed that on some of these enor- 
mous cidips of iee, some of which equal in extent some 
of the islands in Hudson's Bay, men are found who Iiavo 
embarked on them intentionally? Yet wo are assured 
that Esquimaux have been more than once perceived on 
them ; and it is certain that if on seeing them thus borne 
about at the sport of the waves and tides on these floating 
shoals, fears are entertained for them, greater and better 
founded are felt for those whom they see risking their lives 
amid this same ice on vessels : for as these savages cany 
their canoes everywhere with them on the ice, they are 
never at a loss, come what will, or change as the weather 
may. If the ice-cakes dash near each other, they spring 
from one to another without diflficulty ; if they leave open 
channels of considerable size, they embark and sail on as 
long as the ice permits. Should an iceberg approach 
which they cannot avoid, they leap on it, and the very ice- 
berg which threaten d them with destruction shields them 
from shipwreck. This is not so Avith those on a vessel. 
If the ship is caught between two icebergs, the only alter- 
native is to escape to one of them, but then the difficulty 
is to live on it or leave it. It is easy to conclude that a 
sea so dangerous in its navigation is not yet well explored. 
Indeed, except some islands mot by the French and Eng- 
lish on their passage, and jioints on the coast where they 
have had settlements, all the rest has as yet been seen 
only at a distance. 

There is no doubt that among a great number of navi- 

' De la I'othcric, Ilistoirc' (ii> ie inoro accurate tliaii that of Chnr- 
rAm'ri|ii(' Si'picutriciiak-. i., \>. 71. Irvoix. Sec, too, Voyages au Nord, 
HisdeBi'rijitioii of t!i ■ aiirora liorHali? iii., p. 289. 



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230 



168; 



Freticli mil 

cliiiiiK to 

lliiilsoirs 

liuv. 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 

gators of various iiatious who, towards the close of the 
sixteenth century mul in the course of the seventeentli, 
' undertook to discover a passage to China and Japan nortli 
of America, several Avore aware of this great bay,' which 
conininnicates with the Cliristian Sea ; but it is certain 
that it was Henry Hudson, an Englishman, who in 1611 
gave liis name to tlie bay and to the strait by which you 
enter it." Nothing is known of what he did there, nor do 
Ave e\en know Avlu'ther he peneti'ated very far into it. The 
pretended acts of taking possession of the Avhole country 
made at various times by Nelson,' Thomas Button,' and 
Luxfox,' even were they as well attested as they are but 
indifferently, gave no stronger support to the claims made 
by that nation to this bay in the time we are treating of 
than the acts of Verazani, under the reign of Francis I., 
entitle us to claim Carolina, Virginia, and the other prov- 
inces of North America, which are now occupied by the 
British crown, since it is certain that the English possessed 
nothing on that bay when, in 1650, the Sieur Bourdon was 
sent there to secure its possession to France," a ceremony 
repeatedly renewed in subsequent years. 

It is true that in 166:5 two French runaways, named 
Medard Chouard des Groseilliors and Peter Esprit do 
Radissou,' to revenge some affront that they had received, 



). 



' Cabot entered it in 1517. 

» Ante, ii., p. 10. 

' Nelson discovered tlie river that 
bears liis mime, wliich was railed liy 
tlie Indians Paouirinioiiafraou, the 
Descent of the Straiiger ; .lereinie, 
Ui'lation de la Bave d'lludson. p. 
yaO. The French called it Bmirlion 
River. 

* Sir Thomas Hiitton's voyaj^e is 
described in Northwest Fox ; or, Fox 
on the Northwest Passage, 4to, Lon- 
don. 10:1.5, pp. 118-10. 

' liUkeFiix. As to this voy:ii,'e, si'e 
Northwest Fox. jip. 1(i'.)-'J,"il . 

^ De la I'otherie. Hisloire de 



I'Amerique Sejitentrionale, i., p. 141. 
.John Bourdon is said to have coasted 
all along Lahrador in a vessel of 
thirty tons : Ancient Register of the 
Council of Quebec, cited in N. Y. Col. 
Doc . ix., 11. I!04. 

' Medard Chouart de Oroseilliers 
was a native of Toiiraine and an ex- 
perienced ])ilot. He was an early 
emigrant to Canada, win i ■ he iiinr- 
ried a daughter of .Vbraham Martin, 
king's pilot. Ke reached .James Bay 
overland from Lake Assiniboin.sind, 
returning, endeavored to induce tlio 
(,!ueliec merchants, and suliseipicntly 
the French court, to send ships to 



HISTORY OF NEW P'RANCE. 



231 



conducted the Englisli to the River Nemiscau, whicli emp- 1682-3. 

ties into the head of the bay, and that the English erected ^^ 

at the mouth of the river a fort which received the name Two French 
of Fort Rupert ; that they subsequently established an- eo,',',";lct"the 
other among the Monsonis, and then a third at Qiutcliit- ^i'i',S„!° 
chouen. But France and Canada viewed these enterprises ^'"■''■ 
as usurpations. 

Colbert, nevertheless, in view of the close union then 
existing between the two crowns, deemed it most expedient 
to dissend)le for a time ; but, to prevent a title by pre- 
scription, Mr. Talon, having formed a design for seeking 
an easy route to Hudson's Bay by the Saguenay, profited 
by a new deputation from the Indians of those parts sent 
down with the object of obtaining missionaries. To ac- 
company them on their return he chose Father Charles 
Albanel, giving him as associates two Frenchmen, one of 
wliom was the Sieur Dcnys de St. Simon, a Canadian gen- 
tleman, nephew if the Deu;ys whose Memoirs on Acadia 
have been so frequently cited.' 

They set out from Quebec August 22, 1671," and on the Father 
17th of September learned that two English vessels had Mr ,ie" 
anchored at the head of Hudson's Bay, and were trading ^'go'to"" 
with the Indians.' This information compelled them to i^yll^yufe 
send back to Quebec for passports, which were at once ^"s»e"ay- 
given ; but this delay had made them lose the proper sea- 
son for navigating the river, and they were forced to win- 
ter on the shores of Lake St. John. They resumed their 
march on the 1st of June in the following year, 1672, and 
on the i3th eighteen canoes full of Mistassin Indians ap- 









■•^s 






uf. 



Hudson's Bay. Failing to induco 
tlii'in, he went to England, and, with 
Bndisson, conducted nn English ves- 
sel, conimanded by Zacliarlah (Jil- 
lani, a New Englander, to the liny. 
01di;iixoii.I?riti^li F,iii]iire li., p 511), 
says it was in 1(1(17. IJobsdii's Ac- 
count ot Six Years' Ret;idence in 
Hudson's Bay, 8vo, London, 1753, 



Appendix 4, says 1G68. As to them, 
see N. Y. Col. Doc, is., pp. 304, 7!)7 ; 
de la Pothcrie, Hist, de I'Am. Sept., 
i., pp. 141-2. 

' Relation delaN. F., Ifi72-;!,p. 42. 

•' August 6 : lb., p. 4.1. 

■'■ They were informed by pome At- 
tikumegues and some Mistnssirini : 
lb., p. 44. 



r 






a 



232 



HISTORY OP NEW FRANCE. 



I' 



■ ;i 



I 



1682-3. peared in the attitude of men bent on disputing their 

""^ ' passage. Father Albanel advanced alone to address them, 

and told them that the French having cleared the country 

of the Iroquois war-parties, it was but just that they should 

be allowed to pass. 

He then exhorted them to resume their old custom of 
coming to Lake St. John to trade, as they would never fail 
to find goods there, and would always meet a missionary 
to instruct them, as had been done iu times past, a thing 
the English did not do. The Mistassin chief thanked the 
missionary for the peace which the French had secured to 
them, as well as for the zeal which he displayed for their 
instruction. He even besouglit him to remain with them, 
but Father Albanel told him that for the present indis- 
pensable business summoned him elsewhere, and he begged 
the chief to await his retai'n to Lake St. John.' 

On the 18tli the travellers entered the Lake of the Mis- 
tassins, to make the circuit of which requires, it is said, 
twenty days of good weather ; " and on the 25th they 
reached the sliores of Lake Nemiscau, which is much 
smaller.^ On the 1st of Jiily they repaired to a spot called 
Miscoutenagechit, where the Indians who had solicited a 
missionary awaited them, and received them with great 
demonstrations of joy. Father Albanel perceived, never- 
theless, tliat they were apprehensive that he would oppose 
their trading with the English, who had advanced 
there and built a trading-house ; but he reassured them, 
and told them that he had in view only the salvation of their 
souls, and that the French thought only of securing the 
tranquillity and safety of the country against the Iroquois.* 
Fourth Some days after he left that village with his two com- 
"cs'i'imrof panions, visited all the country a'-ound Lake Nemiscau, 
^''Bay."'" ^01^; embarking on the river of the same name,' en- 



' Rcl. de la N. P., 1073, pp. 47-8. 

' Albnni'l says the lake is so oallpd 
from its great number of large 
rocka : lb., p. 49. 



" Rel. de la N. P., 1873, p. 49. 

Mb..p. .W-l. 

' Nemiskausipiou ; lb., p. 51. 



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HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



233 



1685. 



The 

two Kri'iidi 

riiimwiiyB 

return to 

CiiiiikIu. 



tered tho bay into which it onipties. At several points he 
made, iiursuant to liis instructions, acts of taking posses- 
sion,' sifrni'd them with tlio Sieur de St. Simon, and caused 
thorn also to ho si<,'nod by the chiefs of ton or twelve In- 
dian nations, whom he took the precaution to asscnd)le to 
witness that ceremony.' Matters remained, nevertheless, 
on the same footinf,' with regard to the Enf,dish for several 
years, and they enriched themselves while the court of 
France contented itself with assurinf» its rij,'hts thor(^ 

On the otlu^r hand, the two deserters who had led tl-o 
Enf,'lish to Hudson's Bay, either from some private pique 
or from a reawakening love for their native land, had re- 
turned to France, altliouf^h Radisson had married the 
daughter of Sir (David) Kirk, and the French king had 
permitted them to return to Canada, granting them even 
favors thei'e that they hud not deserved. Some years after 
a Northern Company was formed at Quebec, which under- 
took to drive the English from Hudson's Bay. It deemed 
it impossible to employ in this entei*prise persons better 
qualifi(Hl to ensure success than the aiithors of the evil, 
who now offered their services, and were the only persons 
acquainted with the country. There was not one but was 
convinced that they would seize with avidity so favorable 
an opportunity of repairing their fault, and perhaps aveng- 
ing their own wrongs. 

They set out in 1082, in two ill-fitted vessels,' and wont They 
straight to the first fort, but found the English so well t„ drive t!io 
intrenched that they durst not attack them. Thoy then ivmn Ui'e 
skirted along the western shore of the bay in searcli of "^' 
an advantageous post where they might establish a fur- 
trade, and on tho 2Gth of August they entei'cd a bay, into 



' r^i 



.1 •! I 



<*•.* ■; 



< Rel. dp la N. F., 1673, p. 55. 

' De la Potlierie, Histoire de 
rAmt'riqiin Spiitentrioniile, i.,p. 143. 
Albancl does not state this. Ilo 
rearliod Clicgoutimi An nist 1, and 
embarked on the vessel <>i Mr. Denic, 



Captain of Tadoussac : Rel. de la N. 
F., 1072, p. 55. 

' Thoy asked permission to go to 
Hudson's Bay, and wlien Frontcnac 
refused, tiicy asked to iroseiilinLr near 
Anticosti : Canada Doc, I., iv., p. 218. 



I '1 






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2^4 



HISTOHY OK NEW FRANCE. 



; / 



J 



16S3. uliicli two liirgo rivers craptiod through a common mouth.' 
—^,~--' One is Bonrbon Rivrr, which has beeu asctnuled to quite 
a (liHtaiict> witliout <liscoveriiiR its source. A French ves- 
sel liad wintered tlu re in 1075, and p;ivt 11 it the name it 
bears. Pes (troseilliers gave tlie other the name of Saint 
Teresa, after liis wife, a sister of Kadisson." This small 
bay where the two rivers join, is called by the English 
Port Nelson, pretending that it had been discorered in 
Kill by Nelson, Henry Hudson's pilot. 
What Bieur Jereniie, fi-om whom wo have quite a good Relation 

oociirred hi- of Hudson's Bav, wliere he made a verv long stay, and 
uiid till' ^vas in command at the time of the treaty of Utrecht, avers 

Kiigli.-li. _ _ _ _ -^ ' 

tliat while lladisson and his l)rother-in-law were wintering 
in V Teresa's River, some Englishmen were encamped on 
the oaidcs of Bourbon River. The French discovered the 
Englisii befoi'e the latter had the slightest suspicion that 
they had such close neighbors, attacked them when they 
were intoxicated, and made them all prisoners, to the 
number of eighty, although the French had with them 
only twelve men ; that they also found quite near them 
six English sailors abandoned there by a Boston vessel, 
who were destitute of provisions, and were vinaware of the 
presence of their countrymen on JBourbon River.' 

But a Memoir which wns presented the next year to Mr. 
de Seignelay,' and of which I had the original in my 
hand, gives (piito a diflferent version, and is undoubtedly 
entit.'jd to greater credit than the narrative of that travel- 
ler, otherwise a v-ry iudicious man, whose testimony can 
be depended on when he speaks of facts of which it was 



' At River Kakioukiouay (Qui va 
et vient), Aug. 27 : Canada D(K'.. II., 
iv., p. 218. 

"> It was at Til 30' ; De la Potho- 
rie, i.,p. 144. 

' Des Grosoillier's post was on the 
islands, three leairnes \\\< the river. 
He di.«rovere'l first the six Bo.-iton 
men wliose vessel had been carried 



off by the ice, and never was heard 
of. Then, on Epiphany, he captured 
the London party, which was seven 
leagues u]) Bourbon River : Jeremle, 
Relation de la Baye d'Hudson, pp. 
322-3. 

^ Des Oroseilliers to Seignclay : 
Canada Dec, II., iv., p. 176. De 
Meulles to name : lb., p. 818. 



. fi 






HISTORY OK NKVV FRANCE. 

in his ronch toolitain porsonnl mforiiiation. According,' to 
this ISIonioir, HiulisHou aud his hrotlicr-in-linv had Hcarco 
1h'^,miu tlu'h' c'Mtiiblishmont on St. Tfii'H.i IJivcr, wluii ji 
Uoston vossol iip{u)arod at thi" mouth of the river (piito 
ucav thi'iv u-anii).' 

Some days after a largo London sliip anchored in tho 
same phiee, and alarmed tho Bostonors,' who had no com- 
mission, as well as tho French, who were not yet sutK- 
ciently intrenched to make any defence if attacked, as 
th(!y would a))parcntly ho ; but it soon excited the com- 
j)aHsion of both. Great cakos of ico, driven by tho tide, 
struck it so violently that they made it dra^,' its anchors 
and drift out, where, notwithstanding,' all tho efforts of the 
crew, it was stove in by otluir masses of ice. 

All on hoard escaped on tho very icoberps which had 
caused their niishaj), and which carried them ba<'k to tlw 
mouth of St. Teresa Iliver." Then the commandant, who, 
on his arrival, had summoned tho French to withdraw 
from a country which belonged, he said, to the king his 
master, asked and without difficulty obtained hospitality. 
EadisHon and des Groseilliers oven gave them provisions 
of which they were hi absoluto want, and permitted them 
to throw up huts on the banks of Bourbon River, after 
requiring a written promise not to fortify tlnnr post or do 
any act that could prejudice the rights of the most Chris- 
tian king. 

This promise was ill kept : the English no sooner re- 
flected on their superiority of numbers than they set to 
work to intrench themselves ; they then took steps to sur- 



' De !ft PotUerie, HiBt. do I'Am. 
Sept., i., p. lit. Till) wholi^ crow of 
the Boston craft was ten men. 

' BoBtonnnis was used in Canada 
to moan tlio British colonists gener- 
ally in America, and is still so used 
liy old men. Tlie word jmssed from 
theCunadianB to tho IndianH. Kveu 
the Mohawks called tlie English set- 
tlers near them Wastonronon (Bos- 



ton peo])le). Sen Brant's letter, Col. 
Ulster Hist. Soc. ; Potier, Uacines 
Huronnes. Tho same expression 
spread to the northwest coast, and 
in the Chinook jargon Boston is tlie 
term for American. See Oibb's Chi- 
nook Jargon. 

^ They escapi'd in boats ; De la 
Potherie, i., p. 144. 



286 



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286 



HISTORY OF NEW TOANCR. 



l63j. 



They iigiiin 

irivi- lip 

Ilii.Uoi.'s 

Hii.v til ilic 

Kii^li:>li. 



priso tlio FroDph, imd dopiivn them of all jiowcr to injnro 
tlicni ; Init tlio Ficiich were too ((iiick, aiid luiido huvo of 
the English. The Memoir from wliicli I (h'livc tlicso 
fiiftH (lot'H not Htnt(* in wlnit niiiniit r tliin was done, imd it 
iw ([uito i)rol)al)lt' tliat HadiHson and dcHdrosoillins H»'i/iMl 
Bonio luoniont when tho Enp;llHh wuro off thoir ^^uard, or, 
it may Im, intoxicated, as it is stated in JonMnio's ll(\lation. 

^]^' tint as it may, so f,'roat a numbor of prisoners soon 
became a },'reat end>arrassment to tho French, whoso pro- 
visions, moreover, began to fail ; accordingly, as soon as 
the season permitted a vessel to pnt to soa, they embarked 
a ])art of the Englishmen on one of the vessels which they 
had bronght from Quebec, and loft them at liberty to go 
where they choso. They then Bet out tliemselves, with 
the rest of tho prisonoiu, on the ship which they had re- 
served and on the Boston bark, which they seized without 
nnu'li dilhculty, and then returned to (Quebec,' where their 
manner of procet'ding with the English displeased those 
interested in the Northern Company. Thoy were also an- 
noyed on several points relating to the fur-trade, al- 
though they had brought back a heavy cargo of peltries. 
This all ol)ligod them to return to France, where tuey 
hoped to receive greater justice." 

Whether they were really guilty, or whether the minis- 
try had been prejudiced by their enemies, their hopes were 
balHed, and the despair which they conceived made them 
turn to the English a second time. Lord Preston, then 
embassador from Great Britain to the court of France, 
learning their discontent, persuaded Radisson to go to 
London.' lladisson followed this advice, was well received 
by Sir (David ?) Kirke, his father-in-law, who obtained for 



' De la Potherip, Hist, de I'Ani. Boston interloper was carried to 

Sept., i., pp. 144-5, dot's not mention Quebec. 

till' rapture of t lie London imrty. but "The English vD.isel is said to liava 

nii'rrI,VMiystlmMliel"r.'ii.".miivi'them been cnninmniled by Gilh\in. 

a bark and j rovinion.s, on wliicli they ' De la Potherio, Hibt. de TAm, 

suilei" *'')r the head of the bay. The Sept., i., p. 46. 



II 



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Caiue du Fonds dk la Bayi 1)1- Hudson 

que Ls ^n/flow avtu-Uetit ILlYK J.l.UKS l\vS' lic/Itn huj'dt- Li^Uaruitiy^ 

I'.chelli lit- Licurs M.Minr« Je France cl dAiidlrtfrrp 



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HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



237 



him from the court a pension of twelve hundred Hvrcs, 
whicli lie enjoyed till his death. The next year, 1685, ho 
was sent with two ships to seize the fort which he had 
himself erected at the mouth of St. Teresa River, and 
where Chouart, his nephew, son of des Groseilliers, had 
remained Avith only eight men. On arriving in sight of 
the fort, and making the signals agreed upon between the 
young commander and his father and uncle, he was at 
once received.' 

According to another Memoir, it was the elder des 
Groseilliers who remained at Hudson's Bay ; for the au- 
thor ]irctends that Eadisson and young Chouard nego- 
tiated with Lord Preston through one Gods.' Nevertlie- 
less, I find in a letter of the king to the Marquis de 
Denonville, that that general had orders to assure young 
Chouard that lie sliould be rewar led, and to promise fifty 
pistoles to any one who should seize Eadisson and deliver 
him to the officers of his majesty. It is, moreover, certain 
that Chouard died in Canada and Eadisson in England. 
According to the Memoir just cited, it was at this time 
that tlie English gave the name of Port Nelson to the 
mouth of St. Teresa Eiver. 

The loss experienced by the French on this occasion 
forms a basis for judging of the importance of this post 
to trade, for it was estimated at thirty-two thousand 
beavers, six bales of martin, two of otter, and other infe- 
rior peltries, tlie whole valued at 400,000 livres.' And yet 
this was the proceeds of only one year's trade, for Eadis- 
son had taken to Quebec all that was in the stores when 
lie set out from the Bay. "We shall see the measures 
adopted by the Northern Company to obtain redress for 
this perfidy, after relating what occurred in the colony 
during that interval. 



1683. 



' Jeremie, Relntion de la Baye » De la Potherie, Hist, de I'Am. 
d'lludson, p. ;VM. Sept., i., p. 147, says 300,000. 



» Qodet ; Ite la Potherie, i., p. 145. 






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HISTORY OP NEW FRANCE. 



241 



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BOOK XI. 

Monsieur de la Bakre was preparing for a war against 1683. 

the Iroquois, yet without liaviiig lost all hope of nialdiig r ' 

terms witli those savages, and still disposed to ti'oat witli 
them when he could do so with honor. Accordingly, hav- 
ing been informed that they were on the poinL of marching, 
to the number of 1500 men, against th(5 Miamis and Otta- 
was, although they had given out that they wore going to 
attack the Illinois only, he sent them a confidential agent,' 
who reached the groat village of the Onondagas, the ren- 
dezvous of the braves, on the very eve of the day when 
they were to take the field. 

This envoy was quite well received, and without much liui taith of 
difficulty drew from the Iroquois a promise to suspend tlie 
expedition and send deputies to Montreal to treat with the 
general there ; but it was soon perceived thai this decla- 
ration was made simplj- to lull the French. They had de- 
clared that their depiities should be in Montreal before 
the end of June, and yet in May Mr. de la Barre received 
intelligence that seven or eight hundred men from tlie can- 
tons of Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca were on tli(> march 
to attack the Hurons, Miamis, and Ottawas ; and that the 
Senecas, with some Cayugas, were, towards the end of 
summer, to scatter in bands througli our settlements." 

The general, in forwarding this information to the min- 
ister, advised him that this jiroject had been formed at 
the instigation of the Enghsh, who employed in these n(>- 



lldilllOlS 



'Ic la 



iVi'iii ihu 



' L(; Mdync : De In 13ane to Soig- ' Di' la Barro to Scigiu'luy, Miiy 

luluy. Nov. 4, liiS;; ; N, Y. Col. D„i'., 30, 1083; N. Y. Col. Dor., ix., p. 

ix., p. 20,'. 197. 
Vol.. III.— 10 



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242 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



1683. gotititioiis Froiicli nmawjiys, whoso dosortion tlicy enconr- 
"^'^^'^'^ afj;('(l, !ui(l wlioiii tli(\v then sold as servants to the ]ihniters 
in Jamaica ; tliat, so tar as he could jud}j;e of the actual 
disposition of the Irocjuois cantons, the French must re- 
solve absolutely to abandon Canada or make an effort to 
destroy at least the Henecas and Cayuj»as, the most bitter 
of all against the French, and who could easily put 2,000 
men in the iield ; that he bej^ged him, therefore, to induce 
the king to send him soon four Imndred men, so that early 
in August, at the latest, he might enter the enemy's coun- 
try Avith sutheient troops to bring those savages to rea- 
son ; but that ho deemed it necessary, before all else, to 
obtain from the Duke of York, to whom New York be- 
longed, an order directing the governor of that province 
not to thwart him in his expedition.' 
Priaer.ftiio Some time after the vessel sailed which bore this letter, 
iiiiiiJius of the governor-general deemed it proper to make another at- 
frnvoniDi- nC tempt witli the cantons. He sent to ask at what time they 
01 .. ^^^jjjipL'ted tliat their deputies would come to Montreal to 
keep the promise they had given. Tliey replied that they 
did not recollect having made him any promise, and that 
if he had any tiling to impart to them, he could come to 
them for the purpose.' He at the same time received cer- 
tain proof that the English of New York, to whom the Iro- 
Cjuois trade had for some years brought considerable profit, 
had given these Indians goods at a loss, with a view of 
rendering us odious to that nation, by 2)ersuadiug them 
that the French had no object but ])lundering them ; that 
they stimulated them unceasingly to exterminate all the 
triVies with whom we traded, and that in tlie cantons all 
Mas preparing for waging an irreconcilable war u])on us. 
In reality the Iro(piois found it much more advantageous 

' De 111 Havre to Scijjnolny ; N. Y. a promiso tliat deputies from tho 

Col. Doc, ix., 1). I'.lT ; Caiiiiila Doc., other cantons would I'omc in August: 

I!., iv,, p. -ICA. etc. ■ Dc la MiiiTc to Scignelay, N. Y. Col. 

- Le Mnyiir was scut, ami riliinu'il Due, ix., p. :303. 
July ^0, with thirteen Seiiecas, and 



' I' ' ^ 






HISTORY OP NEW FRANCE. 

to trade witli tlio En<,'lisli und Diitcli than with the French, 
beaver paying' no duty in Now York, and trade being open 
to private indivi.hiids. Tliere was, eonseqnently, more 
profit to be made hy purcliasers, and tliis enabled them 
to artbrd tlieir goods clieaper. Still, as the cantons did 
not wish to employ open force till extremities, and really 
drcailcd thi^ French more than they cared to show, depu- 
ties IVom tlie Five Nations arrived in the montli of August 
at ^Montreal ; l)ut they were authorized only to make vague 
protestations of sincere attachment, and nothing more 
could "he drawn from them.' 

31aiiy circumstances concurred to throw sus]ucion on 
this emliassy, and the least ch>ar-sighted were convinced 
tliat tlie cantons simply wished to gain time, in order to 
throw tlie general oil" his guard. In fact, they no longer 
concealed their design of making war on our allies. It 
was known, moreover, that one of their parties had ap- 
proached Fort Cataroco\iy with the intention of surpris- 
ing tlie garrison and intrenching themselves in that post. 
In Ihie, the missionaries who were among those Indians, 
and all who were best acciuainted with the character of 
tlie nation, warned de la Barre to beware of them; but 
lie disregarded alike the advice of the one and the re- 
monstrance of tlie other ; he received the Iroquois depu- 
ties very cordially, showed them much kindness, and sent 
them back loaded with presents."' 

He sank still lower in tlit> estimation of many on his 
seizing Fort Catarocouy, which belonged to Mr. de la 8alo 
or his creditors, as well as Fort St. Louis, in the Illinois 
country, to which he sent Mr. de Baugy, lieutenant of his 
guard, to cominaiKl in his name.' To crown his 'misfor- 



243 



1683. 



Mr. .Ifhi 
15arru. 



' N. V. Oil, OdC., ix.. p. ■2\H. S(.( 
la lloutim, Voyiig-cs. i., ]i. (I!). 
'' N. Y. C'dI. Doc , is., p ao;j. 
" N, Y, Col, l)(ii-., i\„ p|i, 'jo:;, an ; 



^ SiM' till' Judiriiiciit tbriiicd of de 
hi Biiire bydi' .Mi^ullcs. tlu' intcndnnt : 
X, V, Col. Doe., is,, j). 228, The in- 
ti'iidant (Ui'hiitmt, Uistiiirc dii Ciiim- 



la Sall.-8 proli'st, ili.. pp. •>{{-:,-, da. p. IT) says ,hnl ihr war was pro- 
Touty, Louisiana Hist. Col., i., p. (iO. vokfd l,y il„. avaiitv ot tlir trad.Tt;. 




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214 



IlISTOHY OF NEW FRANCE. 



1684. 

Tlio 
Iroi|iii>ig 



1683. tunes, ho was (Iccoivcd by the Iroquois; and those who 
" '^ sliowod him most forbearance, said openly that liis lul- 
vanced ago vondircd him credulous when ho shnuhl dis- 
trust, timid when ho shonLl shov/ energy, sensitive! and 
distrustful of those who deserved his confidence, and 
deprived him of the vigor necessary for acting as became 
him in the crisi*' 'n wiiich he c olony was placed. 

Bo that as it . ji /, :, .'io very time that he relied witli 
most assurance > > t^k ■• ^testations of tlio Iroquois, an 
FmloimV *™y °^ those Indi u,:- tuui the field to capture Fort St. 
111,'uiirh. Loui.s, On their wa^ they I; I 'ourteon Fronohmen wlio 
were going to trade with the Illinois, and wore travelling 
without mistrusting any thing. Those the Indians at- 
tacked and defeated, plundering them of fifteen thousand 
francs, worth of goods.' Li the sequel, they gave as an 
excuse that they took these traders for some of Mr. d(! la 
Bale's ])e()ple, whom Mr. de la Barro had permitted them 
to plunder, a statement not entirely destitute of founda- 
tion.' This occurred on the last day of February, 1084. 
The Iroquois piirsued their route towards Illinois Iliver, 
and api)eared in view of Fort St. Louis, where they sup- 
pos(!d thoniS(>lves entirely unexpected.' 
Tiiey are Tliov woro mistaken. The Siour de Baugy and the 
tort St. Clievalior de Tonti had boon warned of their march, and 
. " Avere n-tidy to receive them. This the Iroquois discovered 
on th(>ir first attack, in wliich several wore killed, and on 
the 28th of March they retired.' Mr. de la Durantaye, a 
Breton gentleman, formerly a captain in the Carignan regi- 



' Dp In •Bnrrc to ncmfriin, tluiio 15, " Lii SuUo's Remonstrance, N. Y. 

1084, N. Y. I)(.c. Hist., i . p]). iu. 70; Col. Doc, ix., p. 21."). 

N. Y. Col. Doc. ix., p. 2.".3 ; dc lu 'Tlu'vapprarcd March 21 : Tonty 

Barre's Memoir, N. Y. Col. Doc, ix., in Mnrfrry, p. 23; Louisiana Hist. 

p.2;i!l: Bilmont.llistoirc (111 Canada, Col., i., p. (10. 

p. 10 ; Coldcn, History of the Two * Tlicy kept up tlic sif-gcsix days: 

Nations, p 7'-'. rciircson* it as a lb. ; de la Bnrre's Memoir, N. Y. Col. 

seizure of arms riid ainiminition Doc, ix., p. 21)0; Canada Doc, 11., 

wliicli they were carryin;,' to the iv., p. 2.51. 
enemies of tlie Iroijiiois, 



\ 



IITSTOliY OP NEW FRANCE. 



21.-; 



nusnt, had marclHnl from ^Mic'liilliiuiikiuac to tlio relief of 1684, 
Fort St. Lonis 011 tliu first rumor of the approach of the 
Irocinois; hut lit! apparently heard on the way that the 
sic^c jiail liccn raised, and at once returned to his post,' 
wlienci' we shall soon see him set out on a more important 
expedition. 

M<>anwhile, Mr. de la Barre recovered at last, thouf:;h Mr. ,k. 1,1 
Kouiewluit late, from his lethargy, and now thouglit only rJ!\lT^,.„ 
of carrying on the war.' What tended most to arouse '""'• 
liim was the information he received that all the cantons 
were making great preparations, and had sent embassa- 
dois to the Indians of Virginia to assure them that they 
should not be attacked while they were engaginl with us. 
This resolution adopted, the general deemed it more easy 
and less dangerous to anticipate these Indians by carry- 
ing tlie war into their country, than to drive them from 
the colony if they once set foot there. But as the rein- 
forcements which ho had received from Fr.inco were very 
insignificant, and what he could still hope for would not 
arrive in time, he was obliged to have recourse to his 
Indian allies. 

Mr. de la Durantaye, who commanded at Michillimaki- 
nnc, and Mr. du Luth, his lieutenant, who was at the bay,' 
received orders to notify the nations in those parts that 
Ononthio was about to nnirch to destroy the Iroquois; 
that he wished to begin with tlie Henecas, and that he 
invited them to join him at Niagara, wliitlu'r he would pro- 
ceed with all his forces about the fifteenth of August. 
Most of these trili(>s were not less interested than the 
French in the destruction of the Iroquois, who seemed to 



..■'! , ■: 






' II<! kciit on t(p lM)rt 8t. \.<y.\\n Col. Doc , ix.. p. 2;!0; PciTot, Mn>ura 
with sixty men mikI I'atlicr .Mloinv.: ct Coiistuiiics, p. :!'2) to tlir mrri'liiints 



'Polity, IMciiioir in .Mai'jriy, p. '^2 ; 
liouisiiinii Hist. Ci;]., i., p, (iii. 

• De .Miiillt's iiscriljcil the (Iccliini- 
tinn of wr.r Holcly to !ii ''h.'miyc iind 
uthcf nuTcliunts: I)i..pii;<-li (\. V. I'crroi, Mo'iirs el ('(>ll^tunll■H, p. i:;-.'. 



uml sonii' of tiic clcriry. 

■ (iri'l'n Riiy. He avoids t\v.; nunio 
Biiir dcs riiiints. Du I. nth was lit 
I-'aiiialiisliii'oiiiii, or I'"on(l du F.ai- : 



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210 



1684. 



lie Willi 



HISTOHY OF NKW KUANCE. 

iiHpirc to cxcicisi' a kind of (loininiition over the whole of 
this i^wat coiitiiunit, Mini luiikc tliomsclvi's soli* nmstcrs of 
the trade: iiovcrtlu'lcsrt, do lu Duniiitayo and dii FiUtli hud 
nnu'h difficulty in raisinf^ tlio fv)i'co.s uccurdlnf,' to their 
orders.' 

TlioHe in the ii('i^,'hhorliood of tlio bay showed tho 
iliiii.uiiy mciitest rehu'tanee, and this should have been foroHeen.' 
fiihiv.).. Ther(> liad \toou very ("xciliii'' dillicnit' s between tlieni 

juili llllll. ' 

and tlie Freneh, because Mr. do la Sidt;, to prevent any 
Olio tradinfi; in tho parts reHcrvod to him, had ordered tho 
Indians to ])lnnder tho goods of any one wlio had no 
eoninussion from him ; and tliis order, which slumld nt>ver 
have been f^iven to these barbarians, had well-ni^di en- 
kindled a bloody war between them and ns. Minds were 
still somewhat excited on both sides, and tho moment 
was by no means favor.djlo for inducing,' those western 
tribes to join their forces to onrs af.;aiust tho common 
enemy. 

Fortunately, Nicholas Peri'ot, who was not far oft", came 
to the aid of the Sieur dn Luth. Ho showed tho Indians 
that they were far more interested than the FrcMich in 
exterminating,' a nation which wished to give the law to 
all others, and from whom, after all, wo had nothiiifc to 
fear for ourselves.'' Thus Mr. do la Durantaye soon found 
himself at the head of five hundri'd warriors, Hurons, 
Ottawas, Foxes, and other Bay tribes, and of two hun- 
dred Canadians; but the assembling,' of this force was not 
all, the commander had no little to do to snccecd in march- 
inj,' theses auxiliary forces to Xia^ara. 

Most of these Indians, I know not how, fi;ot it into their 
heads that Mr. do la Barro's ex]icditiou would bo un- 
successful, and various accidents which happened durin<^ 



' l>e llcullt's to Si'ijriichi.v, N. V. but tlw Ottnwiis, KiUnjxMW, niul 

fol. Ddr., ix,. l>. '-:i1 : ilc In I'litlii'rir, Siiinircis. witii tlic (Irocn Hiiy trilirs, 

Histciii'i' (Ic rAiii('ri(|in', ii., )'. IT!'; n't'iisiMl it: l'crri)t, p. i;':!. 
I'cinit, MiMii'H it ('i)iisiiiiiic.-, ji. 1:!;!. • Pcrrcit, Ma?urs et Coustumi^s, p. 

'■■ 'I'hr 'luiDiih ri'Ci'ivfil till' liutrlu't, l;};). 






IIIMTOHY OF NEW FRANCE. 



247 







llic iiiaicli Ii;i,l (•(iinplctfly (liscoiu-cittMl tliciu,' so tluit tlicy i(>U- 

wi'ic a liiiiidivd timos on tlio jioint of dislmiiiliiij,'. It wiis — ' ' 

still worse w lien tlu'v iviu-lunl Niiv<'iira aiul I'uilod to fmd , 'P'""", 
the K<'"«'''fil <»i' any I'lcnfiiiiicii tiuTo. "ini mo.i 

Then tlicy coiupluiiiod liittcily that tlioy had beru lianr u'ltiio 
• liawii IVoiii their (.'ountry only to lus delivored up to tiin "wirM^iT' 
Iioipiois, and there was every renHon to api)reheiul that "ueci>.^" 
tliey would adopt some prejudicial coarse. * 

Their coniniaiiders, themselves unaware of the cause of 
this delay, wished at tirst to ascribe it to the head-winds 
which had for some timo prevailed on Lake Ontario ; but 
this resource Avas soon exhausted, and the intelli^'once, 
which they received a few days after, that peaci^ had been 
made with tlu^ Irocpiois, completely disconcerted them. 
They could not avoid imparting this informati(m to the 
Indians, and they had evei'ything to fear fi'o'>i their re- 
si^ntment. Th(^y escajunl, however, with soiiic^ reproaches, 
wliich the Indians made with a calmness that betokened 
far deeper resentment than if thoy had spoken with im- 
p(>tuosity.'' 

The chiefs told them that it Avas not the first timo that Their. lu. 
they perceived that their interest did not enter into the ""ttu'e"'' 
enterprises of the French, except so far as avo found it to "'^"'*-"' "' 
our oAvn advantage; but that thoy would no longer be 
dupes; that Onoiithio Avould never in future draw them 
from their homes but Avhen it became tl.em, and that 
tJiey would leave him to setth* his dift'erences Avitli the Iro- 
tpioi , against Avhoni they could defend themselves Avell 
enough, Avithout his aid, Avhencver attacked. 

La Durantaye, du Luth, and Perrot omitted no means 
to appease thcnn, and flattered themselves that they had 
succeeded, by persuading them that they had not been 



pcaou. 






ii 



iii 






:*'/• 



^■■■n 



' Pcrrnt, >[nnirs pt Constiiiiics, ]i. I'Ami'riciuc Soptontritninli', ii., ]), 

VM ; (1(! la I'otlicrii', Ilisloirc dc Kil. 

l'.\iiirri(|u,. Sc|.t., ii., p. l.-)S, otc. 'Dclii Potlicric, llistciircdi' I'Aiii.'. 

■ I'ciTot, Mmiir.s ft Coiistiinics, ji, ri(|Hi' h.-iitrntrioMiiIi', ii , p. l.Vi ; 

luO ; De la Potlicric, IIi«toire de Perrot, MoeiWH ct CouHtumea, p. 137. 



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2i8 



IIIHTOUY OF NEW FRANCK. 



I *i 



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'^'^4. fiiif^'ottcii ill llic tiiiilv <if pc'io" just coucliuli'd ; tliat this 
""■"""'"""^ jit'iu'c wits ill ]iait tlicir \\oik, Hiiico it wiih only the t'ciir 
of liiiviii",' nil tlicsc niitioiis ujx)!! tlum tliiit could Imvo 
liroii^'lit tin' fidiiuoiH to ti'i'nis ; iumI that tlicy should ho 
Avcll siilislii'd tliiit it had cost tlicm so litth^ to ii'storo 
tviiii(|iiilht V throuj,'hout the wholo hind. These reasouH 
Hoonicd to satisfy thcni, and thoy rptuincd homo ((uito 
traiu|uilly.' 
Mr. (1, III Ihit nuittors had jxisscd far less honorahly for 'Mr. dc la 
Willi ih" Ihirre than tlicso ofticcrs mudo u show of Iwliiuinj,'. That 
*Ne'w yI^ik. Rfuoral, haviii}!; niado his i^rcpaiations, set out from Que- 
bec for ^lontreal, where the troops had orders to assenihle. 
While on hin march he dispatched Sieur Bourdon to Col- 
on(!l Don^iui, (,'overnor of New York, to inform him that 
if he wiHhed to avenge tlie Mood of twenty-si.\ Euf^lish- 
nien nmssncred in ^laryland the ])revious winter hy the 
Senecas, he niij,'lit join him ; but that at least lii^ reckoned 
enough on (he promises made him in conse(|uence of tho 
orders from the Duke of York, to feel sure that he would 
in no way traverse an expedition so just as that he had 
now nuv'ertaken ; that it aimed to ri'press an insolent na- 
tion who wcmld not spare tlu! Eiif^lish if they could suc- 
ceed in havinj^ nothing further to four from the French.' 

This step was not generally ai)proved, many fearing that 
this negotiation would give the Iro(piois all the time to 
fortify theii towns, and enable the English, whose dispo- 
sition was not doubtful, to find moans of succoring those 
Indians ; but there was ajiparently in this fear some preju- 
dice and ill-lmmor, and we shall see in fact that nothing 
contributed more to bring the Iroquois to terms than this 



' Perrot, Mcbuts et Const., p. 1.S8. followed in July by oni' of tlio Sieur 

' De In Uiirro's Mnmf)lr, N. Y. CV,1. de SHlvaye, whose instructions are 

Doc. ix., p. 240 ; de MeuUes, il)., p. in N. Y. Doc. Hist., i., p. 70 ; N. Y. 

24(!. De la Bnrre to Donftan, .June Col. Ooc!., iii., p. 4r)(), with Donf^mn's 

1."i. 1084, (Ir)c'K not iilluilc to Mary reply, ib., p. 71. The ri'ply of the 

land ; the letter of .Inly !24 (Ioch : SeiitM'ns to Donjrnn in Salvnyo's 

N Y'. I)i)f Hist . i , ])]i. (i7.(il). This I'n'si'iicL' is in Colilcn, Ilist. I'ivoNa 

embassy of Bourdon in June waa tions, p, 74. 



1 



IIIHTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



240 



conduct of ^[r. do la Biirvo. Hut it is unfort'Uiiito for ii i^'«4. 
luuii ill an oxiilti'd ponition to linvo nmde pcrHoniil oiii'iuios ^-*'>''~-' 
by wavM tlint cnii lie suspt'cttid of iiaviu(,' any olijfct Imt tlio 
I'ulilic >,'i)()d, and <if not knowing liow to t'oiiiniand cMtconi. 

'i'lic gt'iicml took anotliLT precaution wiiich should nat- iiiHjiru- 
urally liiivo Bocurod huccosh to Iuh ontorjjriHo. TliiH wua ''""'"°"•■ 
to divide tho cimtouH, no as uot to hdvo all to doal with 
ftt tho sauK! tinio. For tliis purp<yS(i ho scut IicUh to 
tht^ Ononda^as, Mohawks, and Onvidas, to induct! thciu to 
remain uoutral botwecu him and tho Sonocas, wlu) liad of- 
fondod, and whom alono iio propoK"d to attack.' Ho then 
dispatched tlic Sifur du Tast, Captain, with tifty-six' picked 
men, to convoy a hu'f,'e quantity of jjrovisicuis and ammu- 
nition to Ciitarooouj", and guard that post, Mr. d'Orvil- 
liers, who commanded tlioso, having received orders early 
in tlic s})ring to make a recomioissanco of tho enemy'? 
territory, and select the most suitabh) phico for a binding. 

D'Orvilliers discliarged his cummissiou most satisfacto- xiiu KnnoU 
rily. Ho was, indi'ed, one of tho officers of tho colony on "'^"'*" 
whoso ])rudence, genius, and firmiu;ss tho governors-gen- 
eral of Now I'rance placiul the great(;st reliance, as long as 
they possessed him. All being thus arranged, tho army 
received orders to march. It was composed of seven hun- 
dred Canadians, one hundred and thirty soldiers, and two 
hundred Indians, chietly Iroquois from Sanlt St. Louis and 
Hurons from Lorette." It was divided into throe corps, 
and the general loft Quebec on the 9tli of July' at tho head 
of tho tirst, having Avitli him the Baron de Bekancourt and 
his brother, tho Chevalier de Villebon." 




I 



' De la Uarru's Memoir, N. Y. Col. 
Doc, ix., p. '2'A',). He nlso seized Te- 
piineout and twelve otliers whooiimo 
to rntity tlie ]ionce : ib., N. Y. Doe. 
Hi.^t., i., p. TO. 

' De 111 Burre'K moir, N. Y. Col. 
Doc, ix., p. 'HO, sin tivo or six. 

■' See Uoturu of the troops, N. Y 
Col. Doc, ix., p. 234 : Dutiist with 
130 ; Dugue, vau, 20.') ; Villebon, re- 



serve, 227 ; D'OrvilJiers, rear, 314 ; 
total, 782. De .MeulleH says, loosely, 
000 French, ;!00 Indians; lb., p. 
24.-). 

■• De la Barre's Memoir, N. Y. Col. 
Doe., ix., ]). 240. altliouf;h de Meulles 
to Seignelay, N. Y. Col. Doc, ix., p. 
2:i2. says 10, with 200 men. 

^ The Haron de Hekiincourt is not 
mentioned in tho return of troops. 





i'': 


a' 




1; I 


1* 


^ ^ 
"•ii 


1: 
..1 



'! 



.liV 



I' 1 



' ! 



'» 






)i' 



J' 



It 



i r^ 



i h 



f^r 



250 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



16,^4. Ho rc'U'hcil !^^ontl■^^'^l on tlio "Jlst, iuul 11 tVw days liter 
""'■^' tlio otlier two corps joiiUHl liim niuler tlio coimiiiiiul of 

All the troops ciu- 



liitonniainn ^lyssirurs d'Orvilliers uiid du Guv 

rtx'eui'd 

, i>,v •)"'•• biulvL'd on the 2Gtli or 27th, and on tho 1st of Aimust 'Sh- 

(Je hi ISarre ° 

oil de hi Biirre learned, by channels that could not. bo sus 

tlio rimic'h. 



pected, that the cantons of Onondaga, Oneida, and Cay- 
uga had obliged that of S(>neca to accept them as media- 
tors between it and the French, and asked the fSiour le 
Moyne to negotiate this import' lut af*air.' 

The gi'ueral at the same time reoci^•ed a letter from 
OnoniLi}>;a, written by a very trustworthy person, which 
informed him that his proposed campaign against the 
Senecas would not cause them any great injury, however 
successful it might bo, inasmuch as these Indians had re- 
tired to a place of safety M'ith all their sto^'t^s, and that his 
campaign Mould liave no effect except to unite the wholo 
nation against us ;'' bixt that if he wcidd be contented 
with satisfaction on the part of that canton, tliey would 
be found dispost.'d to make it, the sachems having secretly 
informed the writer that if the French general was willing 
to forget the jiast they would do more even than should 
be recpiired of them, and would refrain from all hostilities 
against our allies ;' that, licwever, if they made these ad- 
vances, it was not that they dcanned they had any thing to 
fear, inasmitch as the governor of New York had ottered 
them four hundred horses and as many foot soldiers, if 
they wi.shed to sustain the war.' 

Yet there is no reason to doubt that if Colonel Dongan 
had ke])t to his offer it would have boon accepted, and 
th;it Mr. lie la IJarre would have found himself in a very 
great t'mliarrassmeiit ; bu'.. Dongan wished the Senocas to 



' The younjrcr LnmbiTvilli', from 
OnoiidiiirH, iind Mili't, from Oni'iila, 
johiril liiiu Auf;ust 1 ; N. Y. Col. 
Doo.. i.\ , ].. -J II. 



•■' Letter, July 18, 1084, ib., ].. 2.15. 
■* There \ti nothing of this in do 
Laniberville's hater, but de lu Barre 

so ussi'rts ill his dis|'nteh to the king. 



•SeeFiithev.lolui de I.iimldi'vilK's Nov. i:i, l(i8-i; N. Y. Col. Doc, ix., 
Letteri^, July 10-11, ib., pp. •i'yl-'.i. pp. 2i'6, 251. 






■■1^ 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



251 



pay too liigli a ])iiro foi tlie aid lie offered, and lie assumed 
too ]ii,i;Ii a tone with a liau,<j;lity tribe that never has loved 
or esteemed the En,L;lisli. This jj;ov(^i'nor had be^nn by 
settin-- uj) th(> arms of the Duke of York throu^diont the 
whole Tr(i(|uois country.' He then sent to forbid the can- 
tons, ill th;it ])iiuce's name, stylinj^- liini their sovereif^n, 
to n(>o(itiat(> with the French without his intervention. 
Finally, he dispatched to Oiionda<;a a man named Arnaud,' 
with orders to jiropose to that canton, and throu.^h it to 
the otliin' four, to profit by tlie aid which he was perfectly 
williiii,' to rjivo tliem, in order, once for all, to free them- 
selves from the tyranny of the French. 

This commission, im])rudently given, was executed as 
l)adly. Arnaud addressed the Ononda<i;as as a master, 
and asked them whether they wonld not obey the governor 
of the ])rovince, who re])resented tlu; Duke of York, their 
h'gitimate ])rince ? This exordium shocked the Ononda- 
ga - : oiH! of their chiefs at once called heaven to witness 
th(> insult offered to the whole nation, as well as the mis- 
conduct of the English envoy, who wished to trouble the 
land. He then addressed Arnaud in a tone which should 
have made him sensible of his imprudence, and of the in- 
di^natioii it had awakened in his auditors : 

"Learn," he said, "that the Onondaga places himself 
betwecMi Ononthio, his father, and the Seneca, his brother, 
to prev(>nt tluur lighting. I would have suppo.sed that 
Corlar' would hav(> t.ikeii his position behind me, and ex- 
claimed : 'Courage, Onondaga! do not sutler the father 
and the son to kill i>acli other.' I am greatly surprised 
that his envoy should address me language just the re- 
verse, and oppose my rcjstraitiing the arm of both, Ar- 



16R4. 



All iiiihicky 

iimnii'iivrc 

(.t'Clcni'l 

DoiiL'nii 

KIlVl'S tlio 
colony. 



••■i 



' T>o In llirrr In llir kiiiu', N". V. iiy.il wrll kiiDwn iiitrriiri'icr: ()'( al- 

Col. Doc, ix., ]). ','r)l ; .liilin (Ic I, am- liiirlian, X. V. Cnl. D.ic.ix.. ji. ','."il. 
liiTvillc 1(1 <lc hi l^iUTc. X. y. Cdl. ■ I liiivc Hlrciuly siiiil that the In- 

Dnc. ix., p. 0()T : Doniran tn Blaytli. diiins thus styh' tlio fj;r>vcriiiii-iif Xrw 

wnit, X. Y. Cdl. T)cw.. iii.. ]i. :ii;:!. Ynrk. ChirUrui.v. Sfi- ante, vnl. 

'' AraoUU 'iiiuclihii'ii Viflc. 1)1' Allia ii.. p. 1','4. 



[ ^5 



:f 



■■I 

-I'.. '.I 

ill 



I 



252 HISTORY OP NEW FHANCE. 

1684. nand, I cannot believe that Corlar's mind is so ill made 

« ' as you say. Onontliio does me great honor by being 

willing to labor for peace in my cabin : would you have 
the son dishonor the father? Corlar, hear my voice! 
Ononthio has adopted me as his son : at Montreal ho 
treated and attired mo as such. We there planted the 
tree of peace, and have also planted it at Onondaga, 
whither my father ordinarily sends his embassadors, be- 
cause the Seneca has no sense. His predecessors pursued 
the same conduct, and all profited by it. I have two arms : 
I stretch one over Montreal to uphold the tree of peace ; 
the other is on tlu^ head of Corlar, who has long been my 
brother. Ononthio has for ten years been my father. 
Corlar has long been my brother, and this because I so 
chose. Neither is my master. He who made the world 
gave me the land that I occupy : I {im free. I respect 
both ; but no one has a right to command me, and no one 
must find it amiss that I resort to everything to prevent 
the land from being troubled. Nor can I longer delay 
proceeding to my father, since he has taken the pains to 
come to my very door, and has reasonable propositions to 
make me." ' 

From this discourse it seems that the Sieur le Moyno 
had reached that canton before the envoy of the governor 
of New York. It is certain at least that he was very well 
received there, both because he was ]iersoually loved and 
because he brought back a Seneca who had long been a 
prisoner at Quebec, and whom Mr. de la Barre placed in 
the hands of the Ouoiidngas to show them what unboui'ded 
ccnifidence he placed in them. On the 27th of Au;^ust 
some of the sons of the Sieur le Moyne, who had accom- 
panied their fntlier to Onondaga, reached La Galette, 
from which ]i()int th(>v proceeded to the governor-g(>neral, 
and informed him whnt had occurred boUveen Arnaud and 



• De la Banc (N. y. Col. Pnr., ix., I olden fxivrs a report of it, Hist, 
p. 31'^) pives tliis in substanco, l)ut I Five Nations (1728), p. 79. 
do not find the addrr.:s as here given. 






^ 






HIFTORY OP NEW FRANCE. 

the Onondugas, as well as tlio disposition of the latter in 
regard to peace. Ho added that these Indians had in- 
duced Father de Laniberville, who vas much respected in 
that canton, to -write to the f^overnor of New York, in or- 
der to inform hira of his envoy's conduct, lest the report 
of that offu-er should be an unfaithful one. 

This information was hif^hly c;ratifyiurr to Mr. do la 
]]arre, because sickness, caused l)y the want or bad (inality 
of the provisions, had reductnl his little army to the most 
wretched state. The evil increased even to such a dep;ree, 
that there was every reason to fear that he would be ob- 
liged to retii'f! without awaiting the Iroquois delegates, a 
step that would undoubtedly have exposed the nation to 
the jeers of the Indians, and perhaps even have induced 
the Oncndagas to change their system. Mr. de Meules, 
intendui't of New France, informed the minister that the 
army would not have run out of provisions had they not 
usiilessly lost ten or twelve daj's at Montreal, and two en- 
tire weeks at Catarocouy. He adds that the whole colony 
murmured ahjud at the general's conduct.' 

It cannot, in fact, be denied that there was room for 
censure in the steps taken by Mr. de la Parre to make war 
Avith dignity, and still more in the nnmner in which peace 
was concluded. To bring the Iroquois to it, not only was 
an eagerness disjjlayi'd which these Indians perceiviut but 
too soon, but he sull'ered them to put it at the very highest 
price, and give us in every respect the law. It is true that 
the condition in which tlu> deputies from the cantons found 
our army gav(> them to understand at once that we were 
not in a condition to inflict great injury on the Senecas ; 
but it was not ditlicult to persuade thera that we were not 
reduced to what they bebeld, and this should have been 
done. They found Ah'. (h> la I'arre encamped on the shore 
of Lake Ontario, four or five leagues from the mouth of 
the river towards Montreal, in a l)ay to which the extreme 



253 



1684. 



Kxtrcmity 

ill wliicli 

Mr. ,1,! Ui 

Hurro tliuls 

liliimcU'. 



He iiiakeB 
|ieiii,'e on 
ai»li(jnor- 

alilo 
conditions. 






1 1 si 









"l,( 



' N. V. Col. Dnc , ix., i)p. 'Hi-'}. 






, ^ 



I ii 



i'< I 



). 



254 



1 684. 



'ilie kiiiir 
sends iniii| 
TO Cauailii 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 

scarcity which his army had endured for a fortnight, gave 
the name of Lti Fa in inc.' 

Garakouthie and Oureonati, the two leading chiefs of 
the disputation," spoke quite well," and had they been alone 
all would have gone otl' to the satisfaction of the French 
general ; hut the Seneca deputy made an address full of 
arrogance, and on the proposition made hiiu to leave the 
Illinois quiet, he replied that he would not let tlieni go 
till one of tlie two aides had entirely destroyed the ether.' 
This insolence shocked the wliol(> army extremely ; but 
they were still more surpi-ised to see Mr. de la Barre con- 
tent himself with replying that they must at least lieware 
lest, in endeavoring to strike the Illinois, their hatchet 
should fall on the French who dwelt among them. This 
he pronused, and peace was concluded on this single con- 
dition. Tlie deputies from Onondaga made themselves 
security that the Senecas should repair the injury which 
their -warriors had done the French, whom they had plun- 
dered while on their way to attack the Illinois ; but they 
exacted from the general that his army shouhl decamp the 
next day ; and he himself immediately set out, after giving 
his orders to carry out this last article.'' 

The court had not anticipated such a speedy conclusion 
'.'^ to tlie war, still less one so dishonorable to the nation. 
Mr. dc la Barre had scarcely reached Quebec when he re- 
ceived a reinforcement of troops which v, ,,;[,; 1 have put him 



' The name seems to have bee., 
previously jriven : N. Y. ('i)l. Doc. 
ix., p. '^M. V'olili'ii, Five Nations 
(ed. 1T2S), 11. Tit, says that Kaiholiage, 
as hi' calls it, was ten leajrucs from 
OiionJaK'a- l-^a lloiitan, i , p. -Jii, 
Bays eigliteen Irafiiirs. It is said to 
be S'lliiion River, Oswejjro County, 

-' Then' weri; nine Oiinnilafias, 
three Oneidas, two (iiyus'as, 'I'e- 
ganneout, the Seneea, was present, 

■' Outreouati, called by the French 
(irande (lueule, or liiir Tliroat, was 
the only s])eiiker mentioned. See 



his address, N, Y. (A. Doc, ix,, ]). 
24(). f .1 iiiminn, finding tirande 
(Jui'ule not higli-soundini;'. made if 
iido an Indian iiiune, (Jraiifrula, and 
dressed up Ins discourse accordingly ; 
N'oyages, i,, p, ol, Coldtai, History 
I'ive Nations (1727), ]). S.l, and 
Smith, History of New York (1757), 
ji, 4(i, adopt his version, giving tlu' 
name as (iaiangula, or (iarrangula. 

^ Teganneout does i,ot ap])ear to 
have s|i<iken, 

'^.•lal?arre'sM.'iii.,N,Y,Col,l)(ic, 
ix., p. 21o ; N. Y. lioc. Hist,, i,, p, 7(i. 



i ' 






THSTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 

in a coiidltioii to dictate terms to tlioso from whom ho liad 
just received them. Tlieso troops were eommaiHh'd by 
Messieurs de IMontortier and Desnos, captains of sliii)s of 
the Hno, to wliom some Memoir.s add a third, namely, Mr. 
du Rivau,' but the king's letter which they handed to the 
ffovernor-ffeneral does not mention him. 

Til is letter (ixpressod that it was his majesty's intention 
that Messrs. de Montortier and Desnos should command 
in the most advanced and important ])osts of th(^ colony; 
and it seemed, even, from the terms of tlie letter, that their 
authority there was to be independent of Mr. de la Barre. 
This p:ave that general's enemies occasion to say that these 
two ollicers were surveillants whom the king had sc^it to 
scrutinize his conduct ; but it is much mon; natural to be- 
lieve that his majesty, deeming Mr. do la Barre engaged 
in a difficidt war, and convinced that his advanced age did 
not allow him to proceed easily to every place where the 
presence of a chief officer would be necessary, had sent 
them to him as men to whom ho could transfer many of 
his cares. 

This letter is dated Augiist 5th. In another, dated on 
the last day of July, the king says to de la Barre : " As it 
benefits my .-service to reduce the Iroquois in number as 
much as possible, and as, ioo, these savages, who are very 
strong and robust, will serve usefully in my galleys, it is 
my Avill that you do everything in your power to make a 
great number of thorn jirisoners of war and sliij) them to 
France." ' It was too late to think of fultilling this order 
when Mr. de la Barre received it. I do not know whether 
in the sec[uel the order was repeated to his successor, or 
served as a rule for him, when the Avar was renewed with 



' Ln ITontan. Voya-jrcs. i., p. TiT, posts, p. 02, and return, p. OS. Ht'- 
mcntions thr ihn'i' as iirriviiifx at nault dos IJivaux is incntionod bv 



Qiicbi'c to pass thf winter and 



Ki'hnont, Hisi 



(In Canada, 



as connsi'llois to di' la Banc; and 17, as govcrum of Minitreal in 



that t'lc tliird bronjrlit a fn r ccmi- 
pany, whiph he nmnnandiMl in \>rr- 
Bon. lit' mentions their esaniininir 



Mm. 

• X. Y. Culimial Documeuts, ix., 

p. -im. 



255 



i6,-<j 



' 'it ' 



'ill 



m 






y I 






'I 



.:k 



i \'J 






I I " f 



^^1 



256 



nisTonv OP new france. 



1684. 



Acuiiiu. 



the Iroquois.' Wo slmll see iu clue time its pernicious ef- 
fects when obeyed. 
Mr. do This same year New France acquirocl an officer of great 
iipiwiiitud nierit, wlio rendered it most important services. Porrot, 
^Mom'uuui"' governor of Montreal, disagreeing with the clergy of tlie 
.Mr.'perrot Seminary of St. Sulpice, who, as already remarked,' had, 
frrred'to ^^ seigncurs, the right of nominating to the governorsliip, 
the )f()v- {^jj(, liii]fr to maintain harmony, made Perrot governor of 
Acadia, and a]ipointcd as his successor at TMontreal the 
Chevalier de Callieres, ex-captain in the Navarre regi- 
ment." The limits of his government Avere fixed the next 
year at Lake St. Peter's. 

Meanwhile, in the colony little dependence was placed 
on the peace wliicli had been concluded at Famine Bay. 
The Iroquois had there seen us in a situation not calcu- 
lated to ins])iro them with an exalted idcs". of our power ; 
nor had they ever consented to include our allies in its 
terms, altiu)ugli they promised not to molest them. Tliey 
had oven expressly exchided the Illinois by name and we 
had so great an interest in the preservation of that nation, 
that 've could not avoid defending them t case they were 
attacked, . liicli no one doubted would soon happen. Ac- 
cordingly, the late reinforcements from France, although 
an-iving after the promulgation of peace, were deemed any 
thing but useless. Still, for nearly a year nC'thing was 
heard of the Troijuois ; liut towards the close o." July, in 
the ensuing yv'ar, WSo, de la Barre received tw«) letters 
from Father de Laniberville, missionary at Onondaga, 
which caused serious thought. 



' It wtts r( pen 1(1 : N. Y. Col. Doc, 
ir , |.. 1 ;!.■). 

' Ante, pp. 23, 83, 123. 

'' liO, llnntan, Voyn<ros, i., p. "i?, 
Letter November 2, HiS4. The 
Oheviilier Louis TIeetor 'le f'nllieres 
Bonncvuc, niter twenty j ears' ser- 
vice ii; wiir, assmiied llii' f^ iverimr- 
sliii) of ^•ontrenl iibout NoV('iiibir. 
1084 : N. Y. Col. Uoc, ix., p. ^'49. 



He stood bif;li in favor with Denon- 
ville, and was on tlu> Seneoa expe- 
dition in 1087. The nest year ho 
went to France and iiroposed a plan 
for reducing New York, lli' was to 
command the expedition, and be the 
French {governor of New York. lie 
returned to Canadp, and took nn ac- 
tive part in the Indian war. In 
1099 governor-general ; died in 1703. 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



257 



"IIIOIS. 



That r('lip;ions iiil'onncil him tlmt the Senccii.s Imd ro- 16R4. 

iiiiiiiifd at hoiiK^ all winter without f^'oing out to limit, for "-~^r— ' 

fear that the French niidit mako a ilasli at their eautou . \>^"''»* 

irilnnnMtiiin 

in case thev learned that it was striitiied of its braves ; 'wcivo.! 

,, 1 '• 1 1 '" '■cijurd to 

they coinplained that the Mascoutius and Miamis, proud H'o. 
of the avowed protoetion of Onouthio, had made war on 
them, takiiii,^ and killing' several of theh' peoi)le ; that the 
Mascoutius had even liurned their prisoners, and boasted 
that they had done so at the instigation of the governor- 
general ; that the five cantons had recently renewed their 
alliance, to strengthen themselve ;, they said, against the 
Fr(>nch, in case of rupture ; that the Mohegans had ])i'oiu- 
ised them a body of twelve hundred men, and the English 
a still lai-g(M' force, with arms and supplies of all kinds ; 
that there were several Iroquois parties actually in the 
field against the Miamis ; that the Senecas refused to de- 
liver tlie thousand beaver-skins agreed upon ^ith them as 
the first instalment of payment for what was due the 
French ]ilundered on their way to the Illinois, and that 
they excused themselves for this delay by reason of sev- 
eral losses which they pretended to have recently sus- 
tained, Avhile it Avas known that they were carrying more 
than 10,000 beaver-skins to Orange. 

As for the promise they had made to meet tlio governor- 
general to concert measures with him suitable to the posi- 
tion of afJ'airs, Father Lamberville stated that they deemed 
themselves entirely released, 1st, bocaiTse the roads wm'e 
bad ; 2d, because one of their young men, returning from 
Quebec the last summer, having fancied that they wished 
his life, had tied acrt)s« the Avoods, where he starved to 
death, and the French, who, according to them, were the 
cause of his death, had neither bewailed nor covered him.' 
Fuially, that the Onondagas liad left nothing undone to 
induce them to keep their word ; but that their sole reply 



' Tlmt is ti) say, luvl not madrimy Pffl.iifitiiu, Mrpiirs di's Saiivnii'i'S, ii., 

i'iim|iliiiiciits (11- piTsiTits to his fam- p. 414 ; Kclatiou du la N. F,, 1(J4U, 

ily. C/iiirln'i>i.i\ As to this euptora, p. fi. 
Vol. hi.— 17 



H i 



f 






2.18 



1684. 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 

AViis : "You nvo soon to <,'o to Montrciil on ^-our own fon- 
ccrns ; do tlioiv wli;it you (Iccni ])ro)icr ; yon sliall not be 
(lisavowecl," a fo)'ni of spcccli wliich, anionj,' tho Indians, is 
puvoly coniplinu'iitary, and liinds to notliin^,'. 

A few days afttn- this Utter was received by do la Bavre, 
tli(> Marquis do Denonville' landed at (Quebec with new 
(.'o'enior'-" troo])s.' He liad been appointed povornor-general of New 
gciuiui. p^-j^jigf, tijg preceding year," that is to say, immediately 



Mr. (1(1 

V>('MOiiville 

urrivcrt ill 

<*un:iilu lib 



I . 



I "", 



). 



' .Tnmf's Rint' (In Brisay, Mnrqnis 
(Ic ni'inmvillc, intiTi'd tlin Kink^'n 
Miii'kt'tci'rs. nivl was nt this time 
ciilonol of tlic (Juccti's lii'ffiiiiciit iif 
PrnfrtxHis. On bcinpiipiHHnteil jrdv- 
ernnr of Cnnadn in 1085, ho sold liis 
roninitssion to tlif ^[l•S!^rs. Atcrrcy, 
Riiys I.n Ilonlnn. He liroufrlit out to 
Ciinii'ln his iniiri'liioinHs iind their 
(liiu^jlitiT, Mile, lie Hrisny. who cn- 
tcri'd the Until IMcil with the view 
of lit'coniinL'' 11 nun, Imt wiis with- 
drawn hy hiT mother, iind heciimen 
('nrnirllte nt I'hartrcs: .lucheren'.i, 
Ilistoire de rilotel Dieu. p. 200. 
After a most unfurl iinate udminii-i- 
trntion, this tvorthy nohleiiiiin was 
supersedeil in Kis!), and on his re- 
turn to France was, tiirouRh the in- 
terest of tile I"»iiUe de Hi^aiivilliers, 
apiv i"ted witli tlint nohlenian and 
the ,L.i.'at Fonelon, siiI)-!rnvernor of 
the Duke of Bnrgundy and thi^ 
Princes of tlie Blood, sons of the 
Great Dauphin. See I.a Ilontan, i., 
p. 107 ; de la I'olherie, ii., p. Vi-.i ; 
Juehereiiu, ]). 100. ITis wife is.-ipolten 
of hi the hit,'hest terms by Mgr. de 
St. Valier, Ktat Present, p. SO. Oi'- 
nonviile is the only trovernor after 
C'ha'.iiplain who In-oujiht his wife to 
Canada. Madame d'Aillehoust was 
in the colony on lier husband's ap- 
pointm(>nt. Denonvillediedin 1710. 

'•' In the same vessel cnnie John 
Baptist de la Croix de Chevrieres de 
Pt. Valier, nominated to the see of 
Quebec on the resignation of Mgr. 



I-aval. He was horn Nov. 14, lO.'iiS, 
lit Oreniible, where his f;randfatlier 
and his uncle had be'n liisliop. Ho 
was cliaiihiin to I.oiiiB XIV. when 
nominated, and before areeiiting 
winlied to visit his new diocese. Ho 
came out with Denonvllle as viear- 
peneral of Mgr. Laval, reached Que- 
bec July 20, lOS.-), and, after an ex- 
tensive visitation, sailed IHtli Nov., 
lOsii. lie wasapjiointed l)isho|) ,Iu1y 
7, 1IIS7, consecrated liy A lip. Colbert, 
coadjutor of Rouen. January 25, 
1088, and August 1 reached Queliec. 
lie Went to Europe in 1702. and oa 
liis voyage hack to Canada was taken 
!)y the English, and did not n ach 
Canada till 1714. H- died at Que. 
bee 20th December, 1727. See a 
sketch of his life in the reprint of 
the Ktar Present, Quebec, IS.Ti; 
Les Ursulinesde Quebec, ii., p. 14(1. 
For tlie original see ante. vol. i., p. 
83. lie iiidiight over nine priests, 
one of whom died on the sen, and 
anotlier soon after landing ; Elat 
Present, pp. Q-H. Yet the Liste 
Chronole.gique, Quebec, 1S,'?4, men- 
tions only one as arriving. Tlie 
Hospital Nuns had more than three 
hundred sick on their hands : Ju- 
clit— can. Hist, de I'llotel Dieu, p. 
28.^. Mgr. de I-aval was not imme- 
diately permitted to return to Can- 
ada : Lttres, 1087: lAlieille, ii.. No. 
20. iii.. No. 24. 

■' See liis commission. January t, 
1085. Arrets et Ordonnances, iii., p. 



niSTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



250 



after tlio n^tnrn of tlic vessels whicli took out Mossrs. Dos- 16H4. 
iioH and (le Montortii'i' to Caiitidii ; tli<' kiiif^ sooiuf», hy tlio '-^<'~~^ 
information f,'ivf'n liim of tlio inuniior in which jioaco had 
lioon oonoludod witli tho Iroquois, that it CH)nld not bo 
lastiii.L(, ,111(1 as Mr. do lii Barro's advaiiood a^'o and infir- 
mities incapacitated liini from jmsliin}^ on tlio war vif^or- 
ously, Ills majesty felt tho nooossity of snpersodinp; him, 
and selected the Afaniuis do nenonvill(\ colonel iu tho 
dra<,'ooiis, estiniahle alike for his valor, ii])rij;litiiess, and 
])iety, resolving to make ono raoro eft'ort to pnt tho gover- 
nor in a jiosition to establish tranquillity in tli(> country. 

Mr. do Deiionvillo, giving himself but a ft;w days' rest Recon- 

, -1 fi 1 • 1 1 1 1 •, Killers wnr 

to recruit alter a i^assage winch had been (jmtc severe, wiih tim 

ascended at oneo to Cataroccmy.' TIk; Hieur do la Toivt '^'ce«si,'rV,'"" 
had been restored to it by orders from the court," to com- 
mand there in tho nnme of Mr. de la Halo ; but having so- 
licited permission to proceed to tli Illinois country, whore 
he ex])ooto(l that the 8ieur do la Sale would soon arrive, if 
he was not already there, Mr. d'Orvilliers had been again 
appointed to command the post.' During the governoi-- 
genoral's visit, learning that tho Iroquois had conceived 
a great distrust of the French, ho left nothing undone to 
reassure them. He saw, nevertheless, that this nation 
was exalted to a tone of insolence which must of necessity 
be brought down, and ho informed tho minister that the 
hostilities which tho Iroi[uois continued against tho Illi- 
nois was a sufficient ground for making war upon thorn ; 
but that it was nc^cessary to be perfectly ready before de- 
claring war, because the Indians ah\ays are. 

There is every presumiition that tho injunctions so ofton Tim 
made to his predecessors in reganl to P'rcnchi'/i/huj the iiiecdiniiy. 
tribes of this o< >ntin(>nt, as it v.as tin n expressed, wore I'e- 



4S ; instrurtiDiis N. Y. Col. T)<)c, ix , Ssllc's rt'iiKinstrauci- njininst de la 

p. 2Tt. The ronimission was regis- Barrc's seizure of the fort, ib., p. 

tennl a1 Quebec .Viiiriist :?, IflS"). 21:! : liis new comniissioii, ib.. p 23.') 

I X. Y. Col. Doe., is.. |. ■,>:;!, ' N". Y. C'ul. Uoc, ix., pp. 2T-i, 

•' lb , ix., pp. -iHH. 21)4. See 1« 384. 



; t 



). 






* 



' t 



2(10 



IIISTOHY OK NEW FKANCK. 



i''ivf. p- atcil to tliis new gnicrul, for in tho li'ttcr just ritctl hv 
tliii^ alhulch to tho sulijoct : " It wiiH lon^ holiovod tluit 
it was Docossary to ilraw tho ludiaus near na to froiiohify 
tliciii ; tlioi'c is every reason to acknowledge that it wus a 
niistaivo Thosi? who have approaeliod us have not be- 
coniu Fi'oncli, and the French wlio freqnontod them have 
hecnnie savafj;eH. 'I'hey afl'ect to dress and livo hko them. 
It is not so witli tlie Indians assenibh'd in vilhif^os amid 
the cok)ny. >«othin;^ is ht^tter rej^Mihited." ' Ho adds, in 
conchision, that he found tho colony totally unprotected.' 
This was an old complaint, renewed from year to year, 
and always in vain. 

I liavo already observed that in clearing new land tho 
C()h)nists tlionj^'ht only of settling apart from each other, 
so as to 1)0 able to extend more, without reflecting that 
this prevented mutual assistance, and by embracing au 
iiiinieiise territory, compared to the scanty population 
contained in tlu! colony, no one could be safe from tho 
enemy's insults ; but in vain did the conrt issne orders to 
remedy this great evil, and to reduce the pai'ishes to towns : 
it was never able to enforce tlu!m. Every one feared for 
the publii' in general, and no one feared for himself in par- 
ticular. Ncn' did experience even make those wiser w!io 
had fallen victims to their own imprudence. They made 
U]) tlu'ir losses when they were in a condition to do so ; 
those which could not bo rei)aired were soon forgotten, 
and the ]irospect of a slight temporary interest blinded all 
to the future. This is the genuine character of the In- 
dians, and men aetun to inhale it with the atmosphere of 
their countiy. 

Tlie information acquired l)y tho new governor as to the 
affairs of Canada," to which he devoted himself seriously 



I N. Y. ("ol. Df)c., ix.. |>. '27;. For ■' N. Y. Cor Doc, ix., ]<. 2S0. 

an ni'CDunt of tlic inissioiis nt this "• Cliarli'voix cays little of the in- 

tinu", iVdiii iictuul vi;4tiiiioii. si'c trnuil coinliiinii of Caniidii itself 

M}rr. St, \'i\lier, Elut I'l'i'sent, iip, Mr. ile Meules did iniich to iiii|iro\e 

47-70. Queljee. He turned an olff brewery, 



'i.i I 



IMSTOHV OF NFAV FRANrE. 

durliif,' tlif winter, contiiiiu'il him in the opinion that wo 
never coulil make Hinccro fricimls of tlio IroquoiH, and tlnvt 
to avoid hininj^' idwiivs on our himds .'i tronl'lrsorni' and 
(hnintions ( iiriiiv, they nnist, :it any cost, bo dt'stroyod or 
huiniii.itrd and weakened to Much a point an to ho coni- 
))eiled to seek our alliance and adiiero to it. Ho was, 
aliove all, eiiin irieed that then? was only this means of 
maintaiiim^M'ommercu, winch theymi^dit calculate on soon 
iielioldiiiL^ reduced to nothinij, if thing's remained any 
short time in th.eir actual condition; and that tlu- lro(|uois 
alone aricst jgress of the ^,'os|iel aiiion^' the In- 

dians, a jioii which touched the Manpiis do Deuouvillo 
at least as much as the care of preservint,' the colony.' 

On the other hand, all Acadia and tlm nei'ddjorin'' 
coasts were (>xposcd to the incursions of the Ku<,dish, and 
Mr. de Meullos, who had proceeded thither the year pre- 
vious in order to make a visitation of tlieni, had found that 
fine country and all the French settlements in the utmo.st 
desohition." 

Eadissou was still at the head of the English in Hud- 
son's Ba\, and it was almost impossible for the French 
to trade any longer in the North ; nor, in line, was com- 
merce more free in the "West, since tln^ Senecas had drawn 
the Englisii to Niagara, whence the latter, by means of 
the lakes, from which they cut oil' our communication, 
could extend their trips as far as Michillimakiiiac. They 
had even already begun to show themselves in the vicinity 
of that post, and they laboriMl earnestly, by means of the 
IriKiuois, to debauch from us the Indians of those parts, 
who were our greatest resource in the fur-t)-ad(>. 

To })rotect Nt>w France from a misfortune which was not 



201 

16K4. 



li 



•' I 



abandoiiiMl siiici' Talon's dny. inln ii \'aliiT, Klat I'l'i'sciU ; I.i's rrsuliiics 

]ialac(: till- tliciiiti'iidaiit. Tlie I'lims dc Quebec, 1., p 4:10. 

(if nn old storcliimse luadi- way Ibr ' N. Y, Col. Doc, .;., pp. 'VM, 320, 

till' cluirch of Our l.adv of Victory ; etc. 

but, Oi'tober 'JO, lii-^i!. llie rrsuliiic ■' X. Y. Col. I)oc., ix.. p. ■iH-'i ; Can- 

C'ouvcut was destroyed by fire : St. ada Dociimeut.-i, II., iv., p :!:21. 



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WEBSTER, N.Y. 14SS0 

(716) 872-4503 



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262 



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I'Mjcd of 
I'orl lit 
Nju);uiu. 



niSTOHY OP NEW FHANrB. 

as roiiioto as inaiiv supiioscd, (lie Maiipiis do Dt'iionvillo 
pi()|)().s((l to tlu' iniiiisttT, li_v his letter of May H, 1()8(), to 
" erect a stone fort at Niapira caiuilile of lioldiiif,' four or 
five liniiilred i,ieii. He re]ireseiite(l to liim that tliis post 
thus piar(h'(l wonhl alisohitely elose the passage of tlie 
Eiif^lish to tlie lakes, and put us in a conditiou to prevent 
the Tro(|uois from lirinj^'ini,' them their furs, more espeeially 
as by means of Fort Cataroeouy wlicrc^ harks ('(mM he 
kejjt sheltered from the winds all the v- liter, it would he 
easy to navigate Lake Ontario freely, we commanding 
both extremities ; and these Indians, whose territory ex- 
tend;; along this lake, would no longer hav«i any outlet for 
hunting-parties excej^t such as we chose to give them ; 
that then, as there is almost no hunting in their territo- 
ries, where there are Hcarcffly any wild animals, and not a 
single beaver, Hiey would be at our discretion in regard 
to trade. This v ould entail a loss of four hundred thou- 
sand francs a year to the English, by wliich we would 
profit.' 

Moreover, he added, if we wished our allies to l)e able 
to aid us when we shall be at war with the Inxpiois, it is 
of absolute necessity to hav(i a jiost where they can aa- 
Remble and take refuge in ease of reverse or bad weather. 
In tine, it did not seem to him doubtful that such a for- 
tress, within reach of the Iroquois, would keeji them in 
fear and res]>ect, arrest tliat great niunber of French de- 
serters who generally went in that way to tlie English, and 
then seived them as guides to reconnoitre the advanced 
posts of the colony. Moreover, we should perhajis suc- 
ceed in time in gaining tlie Iroipiois, by enabling them to 
see nuire clearly the dilVennce between (Uir habits and 
those of the settlers of New York. 

After having thus shown the necessity for this work, the 
general, to meet the objection which might be made on the 



' N. Y. ('ill. DiH',, ix.. 11)). visii-S. lljsiciricHl Skct<'lii'Hii!iil Ijdi'jil Nmiii'H 
For llif uuiuu Niuj;uru, wu .Miii-Mhull, ni \\n: Niuguru KiDiilirr, [if). 1:J-13. 



/* 



till' 



l! 



HISTORY OF NKVV FRANCE. 



263 



^Tonii,! „f rxpoiiso, sn^r^',.st..l (.. tlic rnitiistor to cstal.lisli 16H6. 

it f.iriii. (lie CI. pit;, 1 of wliicl, slioulil 1)1- the cxcliisivc tni.lo > ' 

(if tlic post, wliicli would soon Ixtouks the ct'iitn- of all 

tho Caiiailiiiii tiado. Ho avcnv.l tliat in tiim; tliis farm 

would aflord tlio kiii<,' vcrv ronsidc'rahlc suiuh, without 

•IniiiK any injury to the settlors in Now Fianoo, inasniuoli 

as all tlio furs that wouM l.o ohtainod at Niaj,'ara would 

otli.rwiso -o to till. EnKlish. Nor was Mr. do IVnonvillo 

til.' only ono wlio thouKht so, f(jr tho Company of (^uohoc 

Moivhants for Northorn Trade oarin^stly solioitod this 

privilof,'o, l)in<linjr th.nisolvos, in case it woro ,'rantod, to 

supply tho warohousos at Niagara with all tho ]^oniU tlnit 

could 1)0 oxohant,'od for furs, to ronow tho loaso ovrry nino 

years, and to i)ay his majesty for the privilo;;.' a sum of 

•'!<»,<)()() livros a year. W(. shall shortly see what provenfed 

the fultillinent of this project.' 

About a month after writing this lottor, th(> Koneral re- u.u.r f„„„ 
(•oived rne from Colon.-l Don-aii, dated May '22d, stating ...o'lli.r ,.|• 
in substance that tlu-Mvat collection of provisions mado ''^^i,'''^ 
at Catarocouy induced the Irocpiois to think that there '^'•"""^ '''«-•• 
was a dosiyn of declaring war against thorn ; that these 
trilios being subjects of the British crown, to attack th,.m 
would b<; a manifest infraction of the jx-ace between the 
two kings ; that he iiad als.. learned that there was a de- 
sign of building a fort at Niagara, and that this inform.i- 
tion had given him the greater astonishment, as they could 
iiot be ignorant in Canada that all that country was with- 
in tho dependence of New York. 

The reply of Mr. d(> Denonvillo was, that tho Tro.piois 
feared chastisement because they felt guilty ; that, n<;v- 
ertheless, tho suppli..s s.^nt to Catarocouy need not have 
alarmed them ; that having always a large garrison in 
that ])ost, and op])ortunities for forwarding supplies not 
occurring frecpi. ntly, it was neco.ssary when they did arise 
to avail of them to send uj. coiisideral>le convoys ; that it 



OcricrnI'D 
ruply. 



' N. Y, Col. D()c., ix., p. 290. 



/* 



i 'l 



f 



l. f 



^1 ! 






i 



2fi4 



1686. 



Eiitor|>ii>o 

(Jl l'c.|..l|,'l 

JlKjigaii. 



niHTORY OP NEW FRANCE. 

lui^'lit well l>o that snmo Ficiicli ilcsntcis liad oii^'iiiatrd 
or supported tho Hiispicions of tlio Inxpiois, Imt tliat the 
rpports of th('H(^ va^alionds (h-servod 110 credit, *he more 
ospceially as they were interested in sowinj^ tronhU) and 
division hetween the two eohtnies ; tliat Enghmd had no 
foundation ftn* its i)ret«Misions to tho sovereignty of tho 
Tro(|uois country, and that they nnist kiK)w that tlie French 
liad taken possession of it hi'fore there were any Kuj^hsh 
in New Yolk ; that, niori'over, the two moiiarclis, their 
masters, liTiii},' in ])erfect understandinj,', it did not beeonio 
the lieutenants-general to seek to trouhlc it.' 

In this step of Colonel Pongan there was nothing to 
snr]U"ise the ^lanpiis de Denonville. The whole conduct 
of that ollicer, from his taking ottiee, had convinced tho 
French that thev should always find him in their way, 
and they were well informed that he would lose no o])por- 
tunity of stirring u]) the Iroipiois against them ; hut they 
did Jiot, peihaps, yet kno v all thi'v had to fear from so 
dangenms a neighbor, whom all the authority of tlic Duk.) 
of York, on whom he de])en(led imnndiately, coiild never 
induce, ev(Mi after that ])rince ascended the throne, to re- 
main a calm sjiectator of all that occurred between us and 
tho Iroquois. In tine, they were soon after enlightened 
by a channel above sus])icion.' 

During the summer information arrived that tho Iro- 
(piois had made an irru|)tion into the Saguiuam, a very 
deep bay on the western shor*! of Lake Huron, and had 
attacked the Ottawas of >richillimakinac, wlioso ordinary 
hunting-ground it was.' Father (h* Land)erville dis- 
covered at Ononilaga that this hostility was the fruit of a 
deliberation of all the cantons, whose de|)uties Colonel 
Dongan had convoked at Albany ; that ho had warned 



' N. Y. ("ol. T>o(- , iii., i>i). 4r),5-8 ; Ma n land : Told™, pp. 48-62. i-tr. 
D<ir. IIiHt., i., ]>]y ris_9. ' X. Y. Cdl. !)(»• , i\., pp 2;i:i, •><Mi. 

■ Ooii^'Mii lirM many (■(nit'iiini'is I'lTrnt iimkrs im iilliisidii to it. 

with 111.' I'ivi' N'liilnii- in iiLiiiril l<) Sivfiiiy IlnnnH iiml lliirty fix Otttt- 

tlii'ir iiiro:i(i.-< into Viri;iniiL iin(\ whh were carrifd off. 



inSTOHV OF NEW FKAN(E. 



S6S 



IIh'Iu that tlic inw {^'ciicrnl of tin- Frciidi wiis rcsolvfil t(j i''!^f>. 

(lonlurc will- 11-,'aiiist tliciii ; that Iir .xliorted tli.m to an- r- 

tioiimtc it, to |.liiii(l.r tlic riviuli imd thfir allies wher- 
ever thev fouud tliein, adiliii},' that tiiey would easily etl'ect 
this, as thev would tiud tlieiu oil' their guard; and that lio 
had assured them that, eume what would, he would not 
forsake tlieiu. 

The missionary had liueii warnod of all these intrigues 
by the C'hiistian Iro(|u.>is, and even hy idolaters, who 
lovi'd him greatly. He liad beeu unabh; to pr.nent tho 
meeting held at All.any, but h.i had labored sueeess- 
fully to divert a j.art of the temjx'st formed th.'re, and, 
after obtaining i: promise from the lu^ad saciiems of th.^ 
Onondaga canton that they would uever consent to any 
enterprise during his absence, he set out to inform Mr. do 
D.'nonville of all that he knew. Dongan, who was scxm 
informed of his departure, gues.sed the reason, and it was 
then that he wrote to the French general the letter re- 
cently UK'ntioucd, and which arrived before Fatluir do 
Land)er\ille.' 

At the same time he sent exi)resses to all tho cantons to 
hasteu the execution of the design couceivcd at Albanv, 
uud he summoned the Onondaga cantons to deliver up to 
him Father James de Lami)erville, brother of the one who 
had gone to Quebec, and left by him as a hostage in that 
canton.' He did more: he umhjrtook to seduce from us 
the Iroquois Christians of Sault St. Louis and the Moun- 
tain, sending them word that he would give them, in his 
jurisdiction, a tract where they would b<' better and more 
safely situated than in the French colony; and as he was 
not ignorant that they were retained in (mr interest chiefly 
by the tear of h.sing their religion among the English, la; 
gave them on this point every assurance that they could 
desire, adding that the king, his master, as well as himself, 

' D.'iiniivilli.'s M.riiiiir.', N. Y. ' Di'nntivill, lo Siiundiiy. .N. Y. 
Col. Doc., \\., !>. -^'M ; Doc. lliol., i., Vnl. Doc, U.. [,. aU7 ; Doc. llisl., i., 
l> i:iy. p. i;w. 



f: 



I ! 



206 



HISTORY OF NKVV FHANCE. 



1686. worn Catholics, and tliat tlii'V should liavo in New York 
~' iiiissioiiarii's nf tin' saiii(< rclij^ioii.' Yrt h(> {gained noth- 
ing, fithcr with the Christian InxjuoiH or oven with tho 
jjagans, ami the canton of Onondaga refused to surrender 
Father de liandicrvillc to him. 
Thfl He succeeded lietter at first at Michilliinakinac, whither 

nr.i\.ii ,ii for some tinio f)ast all tiie Indnms wlio liad been gatheroa 
iniikiimr. at Sault St. Mary's had n'tired. He sent tluun English 
tiaders, who took great care to announce in advance that 
t:iey woidd sell their goods much cheaper than tho French 
could do. They were very well received, and conducted 
their ♦rad*) in perfect liherty, because, unfortunately, Mr. do 
la Durantaye was absent. He arrived almost at the mo- 
ment when they had just departed, and he wished to 
pursue them instantly ; but the Hurons prevented him, 
and sent an escort to the English, which conducted them 
till tliey fell in with the Senecas coming to meet them. 

Nothing was fraught with greater danger than this 
opening of trade between New York and th(» nations 
whom we had till then regarded as our most faithful allies.' 
Accordingly, Mr. do Denonville thought that he must no 
longer def(>r making war on tho Senecas, who were tho 
intermediat<' ageids ; but, before all things, it was neces- 
sary to present a front on all sides, have a strong garrison 
at Catarocouy, send n considerable detachment by Sorel 
River on the side of the Alohawks, to hold that canton in 
check, and excite the jealousy of Colonel Dimgan. 

Nor was it less necessary to have magazines at various 
j)oints, and ])ut them beyond danger. For all this, and to 
compose this army, which the general wish(>d to command 
in person, only eight hundred men could bo drawn from 



Forces of 

tlie 
""loiiy. 



' Dongnn's Hc|K>rf, ili , iii., p. !!1(4. p. !I7: IlarriHon, Henry, p. 113 ; Ilar- 

TVintriiii lirmifrlit out .IrmiilH Irom wy, Tlios., ]>. 114; I)(»c. Hint., iii, 

Kli(.'lainl li> ri'pliiiT the Krciicli : p. ~'.i. 

Oliver's ('i)lle('ii(ms. Scot.'liKiigliHli '•' IVncmville to Sfijrnelny, N. Y. 

MeinlitrH of tlie Soriety c,t .lewun, Col. Doc, ix., p 21(7; lb., iii., p. 205 ; 

London, isl'i; F<i-Wj«,(iiig«',('Uttrlu8, In llontau, i., p. 08. 



nis'ioHY OF Npnv France. 



2G7 



(lie cdloiiy ; nor was iniicli (I-'ixmkIciico to ho placed on tlio i6Hr). 

rtKuIiir tniiips. who w.ic liltic nsn] to war, for tlio moHt f"— ' 

part ill ariiu'd, aii<l wlio had no knowh-dj^o of tlio tnodo of 
cinryinLT on war in Aincrica. It was, oonsiunifntly, of 
necessity to (lissenil.le till reinforceni(>nts arrived which 
were exjiected from France!; and the only point was to 
seek ]tretexts to cover all these prej)urati()nK.' 

The lirst tiling' to wiiich the f,'ovcrnor-f^('noral turned his Kutii.r.io 
attention was to send Father de Lanil)orville hack to his ".nviM'/ 
mission, and he loaded him with presents for all tht' 'fp,m ','l!ir 
Oiionda^ra chiefs whom he had most hope of },'aininK and i,?lVi'S. 
pnservin;,' in onr interest. It was time that the missionary 
made his appearance; in that canton, tlio governor of New 
York liavinj,' jirofited i)y his ai)seiice to revive in the minds 
of the Indians fears of a Frercli incursion when they 
least expected it. He had jjersuaded them that Father do 
liMndierville did not wish to he among them when tho 
troops of his canton cnuw to bear fire and sword thnmgh 
their towns, and that In? would take care never to appear 
there jigain. In a word, lie had negotiated so successfully 
that all the cantons had asseinliled, and a part of the war- 
riors were already on the march when that religious ap- 
peared once; more at Onondaga. 

His jiresence in a moment changed the face of afTairs. 
He spoke to the chiefs with that frankness and that in- 
sinuating manner tlifit had won him the esteem and affec- 
tion of tiiat nation ; he di.ssipated almost all the suspicions 
that had l)een instilled into tluMu, and the pres(>nts, season- 
alily distriliuted, completing what his suavity of manner 
had successfully hegun, the warriors wer(> recalled, and 
no more was s.aid of a rupture with the French. The rest 
of the summer was sjieiit in negotiations, sonietinH>s to 
exchange tht; prisoners made on hotli sides, and some- 
times to i)ring <mr allies hack to sentiments more suited 
to their real interest.' Those entrusted with the last part 

' .\. V. Col. 1»(M'., i\ . pp. 'JiHl-iUHI. Allmny Imi- ivuioviil >>{ Kroncli, N. 
' ti<H< t'ctition iirCoiiiiuiwioniTHdt Y. Col. Doc, iii., p. 41S. 



P t 



; h 






[i-o 



368 



I 



; 1 



/ V 



si ^ 
!i ft 

Li « 



I 



16H6. 



ol'llmi 
iiiitidii. 



HISTORY OP NEW FRANCE. 

snrcfpdctl so tliat tli(\v induced tlic ITurons and tlio Otta- 
wiiH of ^licliillinmkinac to como down to Catarocouy to 
confer with tlic (,'ov('inor-Ronoral. 

Towind.s the end of Sc])ti'ml)('r Father do LainhorvilU) 
asain returned to Queliee, to rejiort to tlio iSIarqniH de 
Deiionville the disjiosition in which the Iroquois actually 
w»'rc. He told him that the Ononda^as alonti had f,'iven 
up the prisoners taken from our allies, and that tho 
Sen<'caH had pleaded as an excuse that their cai^tives 
would not return to their tribes. This report confirmed 
the f^eneral in tho opinion that it was time lost to nefjo- 
tiiite with that nation. Ho had even already decided on 
his course ; l)ut he would not disclose it to tho missionary ; 
he merely let him see that ho was resolved to drive the 
Senecas to the wall.' 

" That Father," ho says In a letter which he wrote to 
Mr. du Sei;^nelay, under the date of November 8, " loves 
these Indians p-oatly, althouf^h in daily danger of being 
killed bj- drunkards; nevertheless, he admits that there are 
no hopes oi their convi-rsion unless tlun' are humbled ; 
that their only desif^u is to destroy tho other Indians in 
'^••^er then to fall upon us, and this is tho jiolicy of Colonel 
D> f^'aii. That •,'()' ernor lavishes great kindr..;ss on our 
deseiters, from whom he derives great services, and I am, 
myself, obliged to manage them, till I am in a position to 
punisli them. I havo sent back Father do Lamberville 
with orders to cimvoke all the Iroquois nations at Cataro- 
couy next spring to talk over our affairs, and as it is ne- 
cessary to have a faithful interju'eter, and as tho Recollect 
Fathers, chaplains of that post, do not know the language, 
and all our interpreters, except a son of Siciir lo Moyno's, 
are ignorant fellows, I havo selected Father Milet, and I 
have roqU(>sted th(^ llecollect Fathers to yield the place to 
him till the war is endinl, promising to restore it to them. 
Father de Lamberville is to send rao back his bi-othei', in 



' Dt'uonvillf to Sfigncltty, N. Y. < 'i.l. Doc., ix., pi). 297-8 ; Doc. Hist., i., I:i3. 



Hlf'TOIlY OF NRW FHANCK. 



269 



onlii' lliat lie iii.iy luivr less dinicullv in ri'liiiiif,' .iloiit*. i(iA(>. 
Tlw poor FutlHT, witliiil. kiiowH iiotliiii^' of our (lcsij,'iis, imd '^^^'— 
T rf;;rct to expose liini. T Iiani tlmt tlic five caiitoiiH iiro 
iiiakiii",' up ii larj,'!' force aj^'aiiist the INIiainis lUid tlio lu- 
tliaiis of ((in'eu) Lay. They ih'stroyt^d a vilia^^'o of th(( lat- 
ter, Imt tlie liuiiters overtook and defeated tlieni with loss; 
they now wish to takt^ their revenj^e. Tliey have recently 
made t,'reat havoc uinf)n^' tlie Illinois; they no lon<,'er 
keep any terms with us, and plunder our cauoes wheruver 
they find them.'" 

Wliihi these thini,'s were jiassiuK i» tho midst of the .MrnirH at 
colony, alVairs jiiid o!ic(> more changed face in Hudson'.s "Tiny."* 
IJay. Tlie Kn^'Iish always treated our eKtahlishnient on 
Kt. Teresa's Kiver as an usurpation ; hut the court of Lon- 
don had been couvinced on this point, and the two kinf,'s 
had af^M-eed that each ))a:ty should remain in possession 
of what h(> occupie<l. I'.oth courts acted, doui)tless, with 
e(pial sinc«'rity ; hut as in En^'land the nation is not always 
in harmony with tlu; soveitign, and does not rof^ard the 
deliherations of tho council as laws which require their sub- 
mission to them, i)recantion must Vie taken in treating 
with the court. This the French had not previously 
tlumfjht of doiufi;, and we have seen tho consetpiencos. 

It was afterwards known that Colonel Dongan, who 
then exercised (((////« ,//// the functions of <,'overnor-^(>u- 
oral in New En^dand, had had no slif,dit share in the 
ticachery that deprived us of the fort on St. Terosa'.s 
liiver, an act as to which the most Christian kiuj,' had 
made ;j;reat but ineffectual complaints to the kinjj; of (Ireat 
Britain throu^'h Mr. de Ij.irillon, his embassador near that 
prince. Charles II. disavowed his .subjects, but he had 
not tho ])owor to restore to his ally what had been wrested 
from him through the troacliorv of a desurtor." 



' N. Y. Col. DiK!., ix., )i. 2'.IH : Due. fcnt r)f tlic IrcMpiois i« aj)|iiiri'ntlv 

Hist., i., p. l:!'-> ; Ciiiiii'ln Doc, I , iii., tliat l)y tlif Oiitn^rnmis iiirntii.tii'il in 

p. 110. Cliarlovdix diHs no! citi' la Ildiitaii. Vo_va<rrs. vol ii , p. KIT. 

VLiljally or l■olllim^cm^l_v. T',. de- • «'o11<m'1. ,.; Tn-alii*, i, iip. 41:i-(;. 



'J 



f 



I :> 



.rt-j 



< > 



( 



270 



1686. 



li"M-< ill 

Cliniiila tn 
PXI'i'l tirr 

Kii(;lii<li. 



RncccKn nf 
tlic fX- 
puililioii. 



niSTOIlV OK NRW FUANfR. 

On tlio otlicr IiiiikI, IIioho iiitorcHttMl in tho Nortlu'in 
CiMiiitanv, to wliicli tlu' Kinf,' liiul concotlrd tho fort Hcizcd 
liv tlif I''n;,'lisli, Hfcin^^ no j^ospcct of ol>tiiiniii(,' from Iuh 
niajt'sty a force Huflicicnt to rrjilacc thciu in ])osHossion, 
r»'Hi>lv«'(l to raise iiieanH llieiiiselves.' Tiiey asked ^Ir. de 
Denonville f(»r Holdievs, and an officer to eoniniand tlieia. 
Tliat j^enenl ^,'ninted them eii,dit.v men, ahnoHt all Cana- 
diaiiH, and as eomniander the Clievalier (h' Trove, a retired 
(■a]>tain and a man of resohition. Sainte Ileh-in^ d'lher- 
ville, and Maricourt, all three sons of Mr. le Moyno, vol- 
unteered to aeconipany the exjWMlition.' This little force 
Bet out in March, 1(>80, and, after underf,'oinf,' man}' hard- 
ships, arrived at the head of Hutlson's Bay on tho *20th of 
June.' 

It l)e}^an operations at once, and tho first fort to which 
the Chevalier de Troye laid sief,'e was that of Monsi])i, on 
th(^ ^Fonsoni River. It was a stodjiide fort, and had four 
Itastions covered with earth. In tlie middle was a house 
forty feet sepiaro and as man} high, terminating in a i>lat- 



' Till' F'^ri-nrli Uin^'. l>y n dccrcf in 
counril. iOt)i Miiy. IdH,';, ^rnvc thr 
B«««'iut<'H II ffTixM of St. Tfri'sa 
HiviT ; Di- la I'oIIht'h', i.. ,). 1 J7. 

' Jami's Ir Moyiu'. Sii-ur di- Sto. 
HcliTir, HiToiid lioii lit' Clinrlos lo 
Miiyiic, rcnivcil his naiiH' from an 
iHltiiiil (i|ip(iHitc Montrrnl. Horn at 
Montreal .Viiril 1(1, KI.V.I. Aftcriiiany 
Bi-rviccH, 111' wii.t inor'ally wnundt'd 
at lieaiiport. r>'|iulKin^ th<' Kn^xlinli, 
in Octolicr. HUM) ; Daniel, Une PaRi- 
dp Notre llistnire. p. 23(1. I'tler le 
Moyne, Sii'iir d Ilx-rville, one of tlie 
fjrealest I'iriich naval (■oimiiiviiders, 
third wm of Charles le Moyne, horn 
at Montreal .Inly !(!. t<liil : niidsliip 
man at fonrtein. .\fter his serviee 
at lludsonV Hay, <ook Kort l'em(|iiid 
in IttlMI, reiluced Newfoundland, an- 
nually visited Hudson's Hay. In 
Ki'.tT totally dileated the Knglish 
there. Sailed from Franei' in ItiiJH 



for the Misslfwippi ; found mouth in 
l(l!»!t. In 17(10 tiK.k Nevis, and died 
at Havana ; Daniid, I'ne l'a>;e de 
Noin- Histoire, )). 22:t. I'aul le 
Moyne, Sieur de Maricourt, fourth 
son of Charles le Moyne, horn at 
Montreal l.lth Deeemher. 1(l(i:i, suh- 
seqiiently nef;otiated a treaty with 
the Ir»<|uois, and diwil at M'lntreal 
.March 21. 1701, leavinjr no issue, 
though twice married : Daniel. I'ne 
I'np' de Notre Histoire, pp. 22H-:iO. 
l-'allier Anthony Silvy, S. .1., accom- 
panied the I'ort'e : De la I'otlierie, i., 
p. 1 17. See his letter, .luly DO, KiHO, 
in St. Viilier, Ktat I'n'sent, p. A'.). 
He arrivril in Canada JiOth Septem 
her. I(i7;i ; dieil in Canaila in 171 1 : 
Martin, Catalogue in Carayon, Do-. 
Inedits, xiv., p. llti. 

' De la Potherie, Hist, de lAm. 
Sept.,i.,|i. 147 ; Collection of Treaties, 
i., p. 447. 



■i . 
I 4 



IIISTOUY OK NEW FRANCE. 



971 



form.' Tliis fort was iit (list cscaladcd and tlio palisadoa i^'S6. 
cut down witli axes. Tli(« cannoiicrr aloiir att<'iii|ttcd a lU- 
friu'f, and died l>iav«ly. All tlio ront askod for quiirter, 
and wdf Miadt! prLsoiiriH of war.' Tlioy woro Hixtcon in 
iiunilxr, and had twclvo cunuon, cij^dit and six ixniudorH, 
tlir(>n tiiousand iiounds of powder, and ti-n of load. 

D'Tliirvilli- then «'nil)arkid with nino nii-n iu two hiirk 
canoj'H, and procu'tulcd to attack n small vosscl lyin^,' at 
anchor, with fourteen men aboard, the j^eneral of tlw Hay 
l)eiiir,r there in person. They made, however, a very feehlo 
resistance, and surrendered without any condition except 
that their lives should l)c spared.' Sainte Hehiuo had hoen 
detached at tln^ same time with fifty men, and finding near 
tile shore a vessel unguarded, enil)aiked witli ids men and 
Hailed to Fort Kupeit, fifteeu or twenty leagues distaut 
from Monsipi, and situated, as proviousl) remarked, on 
the River Xeniiscau. He landed near the place without 
any o]tposition, and at once mounted to the assault; but the 
garrison, astoundiid at this intrepidity, cried tpiarter and 
threw down their arms, so that no one was killed. This 
fort had just been rebuilt, and the guns wore not yet 
mounted on tlie carriages.' 

After this second cai)turo all tlie French united, and, 
embarking on Iberville's and Sainte Helene's two prizes, 
.sailed to Fort (Juitcliitchouen,' the reduction of which cost 
them only the voyage, i)owder, and cannon-balls. The 
garrison, after standing a considerable cannonade, capitu- 
lated." The great English stores were at this place, and 



' Dp In Potlicric, in liisdfscription, 
siiVB thirty feet. Fatlicr Silvy (St. 
VnliiT, Eta' Pn'sent, pp. 4:i-i)) ciiIIh 
it Monsoufipiou. 

'' Dc la PdtliiTJc. Hint, dc I'Am. 
Sept., i.. p. 1,-)1 : St. ValiiT, Ktat 
Pivs<'nt, p. 44. 

■' St. ValiiT, Etat Pivscnl, p. 44, 
my.- lie liiid iwi'lvc iiicii. ( 'Iiailcviiix 
fcilIowH dc la PothiTii'. IliHioiii' dii 
rAiui'riqui! Soptuntrioiialc, i., p. 153. 



They call tlie English commander at 
the Hay Brijruiiir : II)., p. I,'54. 

* Oe la Potherie, Hint d.> lAm. 
Spi)t., i., p. I,V,>, Hays they Imilt the 
t«)at, started .lune 2.5, were off Ku- 
pert 1st July. 

» I).' la Potherie Hist, de I'Am. 
Sept., i., p. 1,"),5, writes Kichicliou- 
aniie. 

'^ De la Potherie, Hist, de lAin, 
Sept,, 1., p, 15(i, utc. It surrendered 



^ 



f 



u 



rk 



,1 



> . 






1 



I 



272 



HISTOHY OK Ni:\V FHANcK 



|68<). l)oeiiin(> Hit' j)riii."i|ml fruit >>{ IIijk i'X|>i-(|iti<iii, which miv«» 
^"^■^'''~' thr Kniicli the iniiNti it of all (hf Mdiithcni |iiirt of Uml- 
hom'h IJiiy. However, the furn foiiinl luiioiiiited to only 
fifty thousaiid crowns, which Hceineil to hIiow that the Iti- 
(liiiiiH (lid not gather there in any ^neat iiuinlier, or tluit 
tlin Kn^'lish did not yot know liow to treat with thorn* 
trihes. The ^,'arriMt)n of Qnitchitchouen waH Kent to Port 
Xelrton' in a vcsHel j^iven to them.' 

It appears from some hittern written towards tlio cIohc 
of this year, that this exjjedition excited f,'n'at outcry at 
fiondon, and it is ceria!:i that it wns made a crime in tlx* 
kin^^ of 1',11^'land, to whom his sulijects then ascril)4' 1 every 
disaster. What is still more astonishing is, that the pleni- 
potontiariefi of (^iieen Anne, at tlio Con^'ress of I'trecht, 
(h'manded compensation on this account, laying the (him- 
a^'c at a very larj^e amount, as thou^jh we were not entitled 
to exact still heavier for the invasion of the fort on .St. 
Teresa's lUver, for which the capture of the three forts at 
the head of the hay was only just reprisal. 
A inijcitid Some time after the expedition of the Chevalier de Troye, 
ii. lu it was a;;reed Ketween tiie two kin};s that I'ort Nelson 
.I.iini.V ' should remain in common to the two nations, who nii^^ht 
""'hi'o!'" traile tlien; in all free(h>m ; liut this project, which required 
sulijects as well disposed as their sovereii,'ns to live in har- 
mony, was deemed impracticahle liy all who saw matters 
more closely." The Manpiis de Denonville rej>resented to 
the king his master that the pro|)in(piity of the English in 



July 10, inSfl. Set- nrtirht* grnnti-d 
llttnry SiTp'nt. >fov»Tiior lor tho 
IIiiiIhoh'h liny ('niiipHiiy. ili.. \>. KM. 
Fiitlicr Silvy, in St, Viilirr, Hint 
PrrHcnt, |p. A't, HHVH it \\n» titkcii (in 
Htf. AiincH (Iny, ut't<T iM'injr ridilli'd 
witli iiiir liiinilrrd imd twenty IiuIIh, 
in IcsH tinin iin lioiir. 

' T<i till' iKliind lit' Cluirlrs l'"j(t(in ; 
Df III I'otliciii', i., |>. Ifi'J. 

■'Tlii'ClicvaliiTdc In Trnyi' Ktiirti'd 
for Muntroal uguiu Augimt lU. lUHU : 



11), p. 10«. Drnnnvlllo mils lilm 
thf niOHt Intflli^ciit nnd ctlicirnt nf 
liiM <-ii|itHlliH. " Mi'ttiT ciindiii'l than 
liiTxIiililii'il \h ini|M)S!'ililc." Ilr waH 
|iliir('d lu till' tort ill Niapira. and 
diisl tlirrc with all hlH men in 
1(W7. 

' S<'c instriirtiiiiiK tii Knmlrnac, 
.Iiini' 7, l(ls!i, N. Y Col. !).)<• . ix.. p. 
•I'.'S ; ('iiniiila Dim', I., iv . p. I'.IS. 
Till' lii'vnliitiiin in Kii^laud titiippud 
thr proiHiUc'd adjuHtnii-nt. 



HIHTOHY OF NEW rRANCB. 



273 



olltl'tlHC, 

. ix . p. 

p. Ills. 

htl>|l|H.'d 



Hiicli iTiiiotc |)iiiIm wmild III' II cniitiimiil Hourci' of linstili- i<^'"> 
tit'M on iiotli hiih-M, mill ti iIuhj^i-iouh t«'iii|itatiiiii for niirii- ""^<''~^ 
Ih'ih of lilii'i'tiiH's, whom llii> Inist Nulijcrt of iliHmitiHfiu-tion 
woiilil induct' to takr iffii^^i' tit I'ort Ni-lsoii. 

Hi* iiilili'd tliiit tiio Kii^dJHli iiKM'olnuits, ]»i,viii^ hii^'liiT for 
lu'iiviT tliaii till' Frifiicli, would iiIwuvh have tlio prcfori'iiro, 
and (■oiisi-(|iii'iitly would ahiioNt nionopoli/.i' thi' tradi*; 
that in i'ii.hi' it was ihrnii'd advisalih' to luaki* a ronipro- 
iniwi in IludMon'H liny Ix'twi'cn the Hulijccts of thr iwo 
crowns, it wiih bettor to withdraw Tort NcIhou from tho 
IiuihIh of the En>,diHli and rcHtorn tluin tho tiirci' forts 
just captured from them ; tliat all thrci' were not, liy far, 
woitli I'ort Nelson alont' for tradin^^ purposes ; and thiit 
on thu tirst rnpturu it would ho vory easy to retaku tliwm 
l»y nn overland march, as tho Chovaiior de Troy*? had 
dono. 

In tho sprinK of tho ensuing j-ear tlio govornor-generftl Trfutv m 
recoivod an order from tho king which would Inive lieen i,I.'i'«',!.',Vtfiii 
nioro erticacious in avoiding all the disadvantages wliich ',',';„'r'' 
the general wished to avoid, and to reduce the Iro(|uois '^'„'|'„riLlt!'^ 
to traiupiillity, than tiie most successful expedition, liad 
the English, who solicitiul it, acted in good faith. " Hav- 
ing been informed," Huid his mivjesty, " by Mr. de I irillon, 
my embassador extraordinary to tho king of Kng.,^iid, that 
tho ministers of his liritannic majesty had projjoseil to him 
a treaty of neutrality between my subjects and his in tho 
islands and countries on the mainland of America ; and 
considering that I could do nothing more advantageous to 
my said subjects than to secure thorn the means of carry- 
ing on trade, cultivating the ground, and advancing their 
settlements unintenniitedly, I would havo accepted tiiis 
pro])osition, and sent to snid Sienr de Barillon the neces- 
Btirj- jiowers to conclude this tn-aty, whiid. '.as been hap- 
pily terminated on the 115th of the month of S»'pteinber 
last. I disitatch this letter to make knowii my intention 
that you should publish and register it in tin sovereign 
council of t^uebec, and that you give e.\act attention to its 

Vol.. 111.— IS 



I 



i > 






» -i 






r ^^, 



274 



1636. 






The 

Vililllli- it. 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 

oxocntion, without doviatiiij.^ from it for iiny roasoii wliat- 
cvcr. And as by tho 1 ttli and loth articles of tliat treaty 
it is especially agreed that orders kIuiII be sent to the gov- 
ernors and other officers to proscciito as pirates all the 
private shippers who liavo no lawful commission, and those 
wlio hold on(; from any prince or stat'> with which either 
of the two nations is at war, my intention is that in case 
any of these ships arrive in your jurisdiction you have 
them arrested and pioi^ecuted."' 

It is beyond doubt that such a treaty, if it could be re- 
lif,'iously observed, would be equally advantageous to all 
European nations which have coloni'^s in the New World, 
and that it would contribute infinitelj- to the progress of 
religion among the nations subject to the Catholic jn'inces ; 
but experience, on i?iore than one occasion, should have 
convinced them that the English would not observe it, and 
there is everj- reason to infer that they proposed it only to 
lull the French into false security. This was not doubted 
for a single moment in New France, nor were they long in 
l)crceiving that their anticipations were not unfounded. 

The 'erv- next year they made an attempt on the fort at 
Quitchitcliout'u, which bore the name of Sainte Anne after 
we had taken po.ssession of it ; but they found there the 
valiant Iberville, who repulsed them with loss, took a ves- 
sel from them, ajid burned a house wiiich they had built 
on the seaslKU'e." Colonel Dong.'in, on his side, never de- 
sisted from his constant intrigues with the Iroquois, who, 
sure of support whenever they needed his aid, grew more 
insolent every day, and no longer kept any bounds. This 
had obliged Mr de Denonville to declare war on them in 
the month of September in the preceding year, 168*>, 



' See Treaty, Novt-nilHT 16, 1f)8Ci : 
Menioirt'8 <lrs CoiiiiiiiHsiiiri's, vol. ii., 
p. 8t ; Coi'iis I)ij)lc)iimti(iiir, VII., 
pnrt ii , p. 141 : nlai>, Provisiomil 
Treaty concerning Aniericu, Me- 
niiiircH (li's Com., vol. ii , p. Mil. Sic 
letter of Louiw XIV. to de Denon- 



ville and d( Cliampigny, N. Y. Col. 
Doc, ix , i>p, '.yi-i, 3;iO ; Order to Don- 
{Tun. N. Y. Col. Doc, iii., p. .'504 : In- 
strument for Preventing Acts of 
Hostility, il)., 'M. 

■ Canada Documents, II., v., p, 
5i!. 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



275 



Tilt' ^'('iicral liiid then aj)])an>nt]_y rccoivod from Franco 
all tli(* ri'iiif<)rc<!iii<'iits wliicli he had snliciteil, for, after 
writing; to Mr. (li< Sci^'iielay, on the Gth of June in the 
sanii^ year, that ho could not draw from the colony for this 
war more than nhw hundred men at most, and that with 
.so small ,1 force he was not in a jwsition to undertake 
any thin,-,', he says, on the fith of Auf,'ust foUowiuf,', that 
he expected to he on Lake Ontario before the month of 
•Time, 1(587, with two thousand Frenchmen and six hundred 
domiciliated Indians;' but the declaration of war' was 
])reeeded by a step which it is not surprising; that the king 
ordered, as we have seen" that this prince had done even 
ill ]\rr. (h) la Barre's time, but that Mr. do Denonville 
cannot \w ]iardoned for undertaking without having fore- 
seen and represented the pernicious consequences, still less 
for executing it in a way that could not have been pre- 
scribed. 

The king's project of filling the banks of his galleys 
with all the Iroquois prisoners that he could capture, was 
in no way illegitimate, after the repeated acts of treachery 
of that fierce nation, as they had almost always kept the 
French who had the misfortune to fall into their hands in 
a bondage far more severe than that of our galley-slaves, 
io say nothing of those whom they put to death in the 
most fearful torments. To this may bo added the right of 
conquest in the IMohawk cimton under Mr. de Tracy, and 
the acts of taking possession made before the very eyes of 
the Iroquois, and in some sort with their consent ; but they 
knew little of the Indians, who imagined that they intended 
to fetter their liberty by this ceremonial: and even had all 
this entitled us to regard them as subjects of the crown, 
which I by no means gainsay, it seems to me that nothiu" 



1687. 



The 
giiveriior- 

BoruTiil 
prL'parL'S to 

ruari^'li 

ngaiiisl tlie 

Iro'iuoi:*. 



f 



' Tlif letters of. luni' I) and Aufrust ' War was iiroHiiiiiiiMl at viiioluv 

arc not in the N. Y. or Canndn with fxtniordinary solemnities : St 

("olleotions. An to liis prepanvtion. Vnli-r. Etat Pr'si'nt de rEglis*-, p. 

see St. Vnlier, Etat Present de !)0. 

I'Egliw" (reprint), p. HO. ' N Y. ('<•:. i>(M\. ix , pp. .nr,, :j34. 






I, 



276 



HISTORY OP NEW FRANCE. 



} 



% 



i fV 



f 



■» 



1687. can juHtify tho pevfiily esorted to in treatinp; with tlicni. 

—~r'~'~^ It is at least certain that tho kinp, in his onler to Mr. do 

la Barro to send them to the galleys, spoke only of such 

as should be made prisoners of war, alwayi taking the 

ground that they were revolted subjects. 

Tim loniinir Bo that as it may, Mr. do Druonville believed himself 
' cliK-ir justified in using all possible moans to weaken and intimi- 

Hii'r't'iM'l'iid '^''**' s-ivages wliose perfidy, unheard of cruelty, and con- 

•■"'',,"' '''" duct on all occasions rendered unworthy of being treated 
with any regard of ordinary rules. On this principle, and 
not reflecting sufficiently that he owed to himself what lie 
deemed not duo to the Iroquois, he, before declaring war, 
under various pretexts, allured several of the leading chiefs 
to Catarocouy, and when they arrived put them in chains. 
He then sent them under a strong guard to Quebec, with 
orders to the commandant to send them in the ships to 
France, to be conveyed to tho galleys.' In this it cannot 
be denied that he committed several faults, which cannot 
bo excused by saying that he was not sufficientl}' ac- 
quainted with tho Indians, and gavo himself up too com- 
pletely to bad advice. 
Evil con- The first is, that to draw the Iroquois chiefs into *Lo 

*iMr"iup." snare he employed the two missionary Fathers, de Lam- 
berville and Milet, from whom he had concealed his dc- 



' riinrlcvoix, misled apparonily by 
In Hoiitnn and Frontpnac(N. Y. Col. 
Pop , ix., p. \M), niisiiliin-s and cnn- 
t'ounds tills inafttT. The soi/.urc of 
tlicKc Inilians wos cirrii'd out by 
Cliar.ipifiny. who led the van of ttic 
anny, in ,11101'. Klf'7, ,.> Catarooimy. 
The Indians taken were not ihii'f's 
inv'tpd to ronfiTencc : Cluiinpipiy, 
Letter .htly 10, KW, N. Y. Col. 
Doe., is., p. :i:!2 ; Di'nimville, ib., p. 
3(iO : St. Valier. Htat Pivsent, pp. 
01-2. Some were Indians taken by 
Cliampifrny on Lis way. and trcateil 
as s]>ies : others were lr(ii|iinis ro- 
Bidiug at K iiie, etc. liilniunl. Ilis- 



toire dii Canada, p. 20, says forty 
men and eighty women and children 
were taken from (ianeyousRe. Kente, 
and Catarookhy : the men with Ilor- 
ehouasse, a Cayuga, beinfr sent to 
the galleys. Mgr. de St. Valier says, 
loosely, nearly two hundred W('re 
take'., p. !I2. The army moved Juno 
11. Oureouate was taken by Pere 
June ISltli. Those seized at Cataro- 
couy were taken about July." : and 
Lamberville reached IVnonville Juno 
2!l (N. V. Col. IVi-., ix.. I.e. ;io:!. :)tl2), 
and triust have left Onondaga before 
news of the :fi/,ures could have 
reaclu^d there. 



I r, 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



277 



mtrn ior did ho rofloot tlmt by so doing he would con- 1687. 

tribute to tliiow jx-rpftnal discredit on the ministry of tho . ' 

gosjK'i hil>orcr.s in t: o mind not only of that nation, but 
also of all others on that continent. Secondly, that he 
could not avoid punishing the innocent with the guilty; 
foi- lie might well infer that those who on his word would 
come to Catarocouy, would not bo tho sole authors of 
niiscliief, as in fact iia))iiened. Thirdly, he culd not bo 
assur.'d of entiivly .subjugating a nation whom so striking 
a blow must natuially rend<>r irreconcilable, and provoke 
to the greatest excess of fury against us. Finally, tho 
circumstances of this seizure were mo.st odious, and unfor- 
tunately this alone remained. Mr. de Denonvillo had 
promised himself to humble these Indians, and the obli- 
gation of disavowing his act, to which government was 
driven, rendered them more insolent. He embittered them 
much mon^ tlian ho weakened them, and by comi)(41ing 
tliem to have recourse to the English in ord(>r to wreak 
their V(>ngeance on us, he gave the latter great advantages 
in attaching the Iroquois firmly to them.' 

Of tho two missionaries whose services the general had Captivity of 
employed to lure the Iroquois into the snare, one. Father jiiiet' 
.Milet, shortly after fell into the hands of tho Oneidas, 
who at first doomed him to the stake, and made him un- 
dergo all the surt'erings which are the usual prelimiimries 
to that cruel torture. He was, nevertheless, jjreserved, 
almost at the moment of execution, by a matron, who 
adopted him, withc'irew him to her cabin, and treated him 
well.* I shall have occasion to speak of her hcreaftia-, 
and show in what manner heaven rewarded her generous 
conduct. 
As for Father de Lamberville, in regard to whoso fato 



' ('linrl('voi\'(,v.Tsi<,n(,rtliiiiiift"iiii' Fntlicr I.iimlHTvillcK nccouiit loi.j; 

Bt'cms inui-li ixajrf>iTati'<l, nnd, US' \vr> iit'tiT. 

liiive shown, cnniint ) ,• ronmrili'd ' Milot was not takon till lO'.tO: 

with dates anil facts. It was ) in- Milet, Hrlation de sa t'aptivit.' |,anni 

hapH liaHi'd on men' rt'coll.'i'tion of ieu OniicistH, X. V., It;s4, Svo, ],. .jti. 






i 



278 



I 



\(>!^J. 



'r,! 




-f 



I 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 

^Fr. do Dvnoiiville had not umensouaMy entertained so 
niucli uneaHiness because ho hud remained in the hands 
of the Onondagas, ho owed his safety and his liberty to 
the great estooin and the sincere attadiment felt for him 
in that canton. Wlion the tidings arrived of wliat had oc- 
curred at Catarocouy, the sachems .summoned him, and, 
after stating the fact to him with all the energy that men 
are capable of in the first impulses of what is deemed 
•well-founded indignation, when he expected to meet the 
most bitter proofs of the fury which ho beheld depicted in 
every countenance, one of these sachems addressed him 
in these words, which we heard from his own lips : 

" It cannot be denied that reasons of every kind would 
justify us in treating thee as an enemy ; but we cannot 
bring ourselves to it. We kno\\ thee too well not to be 
convinced that thy heart had no share m the treachery 
thou hast acted towards us ; and we are not so unjust as 
to punish thee for a crime of which wo believe thee inno- 
cent, which, beyond a doubt, thou dost detest as much as 
we do, and of which wo are convinced thou art in despair 
at having been made the instrument. Still it is not safe 
for thee to remain here ; all, perhaps, will not render thee 
the justice that we do, and when once our young men 
have .sung th" war-song, they will behold iu thee only a 
faithless man who has betrayed our chiefs to a har.sh and 
unworthy slavery, and they will hearken only to their fury, 
from which it would Uv. longer be in our power to rescue 
thee." 

They did more : they compelled him to set out at once, 
giving him guides, who conducted him by by-pnths, and 
did not leave him till he was out of danger.' No doubt 
was entertained that Garakonthii'" was the chief author 
of such noble conduct. This Indian was deeply attached 
to Father de Laniberville, and the affection which that 



' Thrrp sci'ins no nlluKion to tli'm it was not Daniel, wlio died iu 
elsfwlicn'. lilTti, l>ut liis brotbiT, a far inferior 

' 11' a (iarakontUie figun'd in tliis, man. 



' 



W- 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



279 



inissioiinry uhvays inaintaiiiod for liim gives every reason 
to infer tliiit la; r('j,'anle(l iiim as Iuh deliverer. 

All was ready to bot,'iu the war when Mr. do Druouvillo 
declared his inteiitidiis iu the manner wo have just de- 
scribed. His jilans were quite well arranged, and it must 
be conceded that if the result of the expedition did not 
altogether meet his expectations, this was more his misfor- 
tune than his fault. The Chevalier do Touti, returning 
from a voyage which he had made to the mouth of the 
Micissipi to seek tidings of Mr. de la Sale, being at 
Montreal in the month of July of the preceding year, had 
received orders to return at once to the Illinois,' and 
there to proclaim war and assemble all of those Indians 
that he possibly could, and to lead them do\ni in June of 
this year to the vicinity of the Seuecas, in the direction of 
the Anda.stes and the Ohio ; then to send out small par- 
ties in order to si)read alarm through the enemy and cut 
oft' the retreat of their women and children, which it was 
believed they could do securely only iu that direction.' 

The Indians around (Green) Bay were greatly incensed 
against the Iroquois, who had quite recently carried oft" a 
considerable nundjer of their women. The Marquis de 
Denonville did not fail to profit by the fortunate moment 
to induce them to swell his army. Still, he did not deem 
it advisable to disclose his whole project to them ; but ho 
begged them to join Mr. du Luth, whom he directed to in- 
trench him.self at the head of the strait (Detroit) towards 
Lake Huron, an important post for the assemblage and 



' Memoir of tlie Siciir dp Tonty in 
Margry, pp a:}-4 ; Louisiana liist. 
Col., i., p. 07 ; Drnonvillc to Seigiic- 
lay, NovcinlKT 8, l(18(j, N. Y. Col. 
Doc, ix., 1). liOl. D.'nonvillc'B letter 
infornii'il Tonty that la Salle was at 
the mouth of the .Mississi]>|ii. He 
stHrte<l from Miclilllimakiiinc on St. 
AiKlrew's <lay, and went hy way of 
Chicago to Fort St. Louis. Hi' h'ft 
it February 10, reached the gulf, 



and wished his men ♦i coast around 
to New York. He readied Montreal 
at the end of July, and stalled in 
September for Illinois, which he 
readied in December. The Indians 
assembled at the fort in April, 
marched on the 17th. and on the l!)th 
May were at the fort of Detroit, 

■' T(mty's Memoir in Margry, pp. 
S;!-."). The allusion to the Auduates 
is unfotinded. 



1687. 



I'Inn of 

euiiipulitn 

AKiii'ist the 

Seiicous. 



IS" 



I 



" V 

-"5 1', 



280 HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 

'687. security of tho difliTeiit unities who were to come from all 
quarterH of Caiiudii to the general remlezvoiis of the army 

Boisf^uillot aiul Niihoias Perrot, who were tradiiif^ near 
the MicisHipi, were notified to bo at Michillimakinac at a 
time ajipoiuted, with all tho French who were in their 
company or vicinity, except such as it mif,'ht be neces- 
sary to leave to protect their property ; and to notify 
the Sioux that if, during their absence, they molested 
our allies in the least, they should bo made to repent it 
bitterly.' 

Finally, Mr. de la Durantaye, who still commanded at 
Michillimakinac, and who, by his wisdom, vigilance, firm 
yet mild conduct, had won the esteem and affection of all 
the Indians settled around that ])ost, had orders to as- 
semble all these different bodies of troops and lead them 
to Niagara, there to reconnoitre the country well and 
harass the enemy while awaiting the army, in case he was 
the first to arrive ; but to make a distinction in favor of 
the Onondagas, and content himself with making them 
prisoners, both because they had acted better than the 
other Ir()(|Uois and to servo as exchanges for the two Fa- 
thers de Lanibervillo, in case those two missionaries should 
not have had time to withdraw from that canton before 
the declaration of war." 

All this was successfully accomplished, except that the 
Chevalier de Tonti could bring down only eighty Illinois 
of tho six or seven hundred on whom he liad reckoned, 
because they heard that the Senecas were in the field to 
dash down upon their villages. The information was true ; 
but this party having been informed by an envoy of the 
governor of New York that the French were on the point 
of entering their canton in arms, was compelled to retrace 
its steps. Meanwhile Tonti, seeing himself too slenderly 
attended to carry out all that Mr. de Denonville had pre- 



' Perrot. Mcnurs ft ("oustuiueis des '' Di'nonvillc to Scijjiifla.v, June 8, 
Sauvagi'8, pp. VM, 303. 1U87, N. Y. Col. Doc., ix., p. 337. 



HISTORY OP NEW FRANCE. 



281 



Hcribod. Imd no altornative but to join Mr. du Luth at the 1687. 
ontranco of Detroit River.' ^— y— ^ 

Nor was it witliout ^reut difHculty that the majority of ti,o 
the o:!).>r Indians wore induced to take up arms for this ""pn'Tm' 
expi'dition. The Hurons and Ottawas liad even been on "'%l!,','r""' 
the point of contracting an allianoo witli the Ironnois and ,""""""' 

III 1 1 1 T ^ 1 > "">■« (rinii )..in- 

althoiigli (le la Lurantaye and du Luth, who were at .'"f"'" 

till* . i .'■.,. . IruinK^ia. 

tlie Ju'ad of a pretty considerable number of French, kept 
them in awe, still, had not the missionaries found moan.s 
to win over the two leading chiefs of these nations, tliero 
can be no doubt but that they would have then joined tho 
Senecas or remained inactive. The governor-general ro- 
iwrted to the minister that these Fathers had on this oc- 
casion warded off the greatest misfortune that could befall 
tlie colony." Ho contributed not a little Iiimself, for the 
two chiefs of ■« hom I have spoken having, at tho persua- 
sion of tlio missionaries, come down to meet him, he suc- 
ceeded, by his winning manners, in binding them to his 
interest. 

All these arrangements were made, and in part carried snp;„oness 
out, before tho declaration of war, witlvK.t the Iroquois 
learning what was preparing against them. Tho first tid- 
ings which they received through Colonel Dongan pro- 
duced no other effect than to make them a little more 
watchful of our operations ; and even then they soon 
calmed down. The departure of the younger Father de 
Lamberville, which had been colored with a plausible 
pretext, had not opened their eyes ; and the presence of 
the elder, who seemed very tranquil, and who in fact was 
utterly unsuspicious, reassured them absolutely. 

Meanwhile the governor of New York unceasingly kept 
using every means to rouse them from this letliargy, and „„„„,,„„„ 
seeing that he could not succeed, he turned his attenti(>u Jl'plnene,'! 

' Di'iionvill.' to Scifrmliiy, August ' D.'mmvillo to Seipncliiy, .runr « 

•r., ICHT, N. Y. Col. Doc. ix,. 1). :):!!»; 1(1H7, N, Y. Col, I)„r., ix,. p :!■,>.-) 

Toutys Memoir, L. U. Col., i., pp. I'ather Enjulrau w.is th,. superioroi 

08-0. these western missionaries. 



of the 

Ir<n|iioirt 

;liinii4; our 

prijiaM- 



Cr.lmipl 

l)"ll!.'ll|| 






'V 



289 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



I 



16R7. 









V 



Sl 



wholly to Mr. do Drnonville, whom he Hiittorcd himself ho 
would 1)0 able to nmuso, but ho did not. At last, loiirninpf 
that all GUI' French and Indians wore on tho j)oint of 
marching, ho notified tho Iroquois, who began to distrust 
something. Yet this did not prevent their sending their 
chiefs to Catarocouy, where they trusted they would in- 
timidate the general, or involve him in some negotiation 
which would give them time to anticipate him.' 
Tho French But the French army was already encamped on 
the small island of St. Helen," which is in front of 
Montreal ; and on the 7th of Juno Mr. do Champigny 
Noroi," who had the year previous succecsded Mr. do 
Moulles* as intendant of New France, proceeded to the 
camp with tho Chevalier do Vaudnniil, who had recently 
arrived in tho colony with the rank of commandant of the 
troops.' All was ready, and on the lltli the army began 



iirrny 
boiriiii ilH 
lulvuiici'. 



' See Correspondence, N. Y. Col, 
Df)c., iii., pp. 4.55-H, ix., p. .311 ; Doc. 
Hist., i., pp. 14:!, 11"). Donfinn sold 
them powder nml lend, nnd jrave 
them R considernl>le quantity as a 
present : Colden's Five Nations, ed, 
1727. p. !)7. 

' La Hontnn, Voynpes, 1., p. 89. 

' .lolin Bocliart, Seigneur de Cliatn- 
pifrny, Noroy, Verneuil, etc., was 
made Intendant Ajiril 21, IfiSfi : Ar- 
rets I't Ordonnnnres, iii., p. .T1. He 
arrived in Si''])teml)er (Juehereau, 
Histoire de I'Hotel Dieu, p. 289) or 
earlier (In Hontan. Voyapea, i., p. 
72). He belonged to one of the most 
distinjrnislied families in civil em- 
ploy in France (ib., p. ~'4), and was 
related to de l.nuson, n former eov- 
ernor : .lucliereau. Histoire de I'Ho- 
tel Pieu. p 2.'<9 He was succeeded, 
in 1702, by Mr. de Benuharnois : N. 
Y. Col. Doc., ix.. p. 740. 

* De Meules, appointed May 1, 
1082 (Arrets et Ordonnances, iii, p. 
471, was removed in lOSO, on the un- 
just charge of looking too much to 



his own interests : La Hontan, i„ p. 
72 ; Juehereau, Histoire de I'Hotel 
Dieu, ]). 2H9. 

' Philip de Rifraud, son of John 
Louis de Hiiraud, Seigneur et Baron 
de St. Cornette, who died in 1(159, 
then entered the king's musketeers, 
and in 1070 had risen to the rank of 
brigadier and colonel, Apjiointed to 
connnand the detachment of eight 
hundred men sent to Canada, he ar- 
rived in the Arc-en-ciel July, 1087 
(N. Y. Col. Doc, ix-., p. ;!31),"aft.'r a 
voyage of thirty-three days (St. 
Valier. Etat Present, p. 91). accom- 
panied Denonville to Western New 
York (ib., p. ;i:i4), distinguished him- 
self at Quebec, where he held the 
rank of colonel in the regular army, 
and was promoted in consequence to 
the CHiitaincy of n uian of war : Dan- 
iel, Une Page de Notre Histoire, p. 
S.W. Was in Frontenac's Onondaga 
expedition, and in 1098 became gov- 
ernor of Montreal, succeeding Mr. 
de Callieres, whom lie succeeded as 
governor of the colony in 1703. 



'ih 



i . I 



'\ 



HISTORY OP NEW FRANCE. 



283 



Jt 



its advanco on two luindit'd hattcanx ami as many Indian 
canoes. It was oomposod of oi<,'lit Imndrcd and thirty-two 
mon of till' kint^'s troops, about a thousand Canadians, and 
three hundred Indians.' 

Tlu^ perfect liarniony wliicli existed between tho gover- 
nor and the new intendant, based on tho most sincere vir- 
tue and a siiiiihir zeal in both for th»> king's service, liad 
difl'used this same concert in all the c()r])s which consti- 
tuted this little army, and cau: 1 abundance to reign. 
Mr. de C!liampigny accompanied it for three days, at tho 
end of which he took the lead with a detachment of thirty 
men, with tho view of so anticipating ev rything that 
could arrest the troops at Catarocouy, that they should not 
be obliged to make any long stay there ;' but tho vigilance 
and activity of Mr. d'Orvilliers had provided for this, and 
the intendant found scarcely any thing to do. 

Mr. de Denonville followed close, and that general, on 
arriving at Catarocouy,' received a letter from Colonel 



1687. 



n 



After Hovcnden Wnlkrr'B repulse 
he wuB iiuiile governor of Uevel, in 
Lnngucdoc. in ITIO; Commander 
Orand Cross of the Order of St. 
Louis in 1713- lie died OctolxT 10. 
1725, at the cnstle of St. I.ouis, i.}\ir- 
hec. He is i\t first stvled ClievnliiT, 
nnd fromal)i)ut 170') Miiniiiis. Even 
Mr. Daniel, in his elalionite sketch, 
does not tell how heac(|uired the title. 
' Cliamiairny to Sei^rnelay, July 
10, lf)S7, N Y. ("ol. Doe., ix., p. :i:il, 
gives eifiht hundred nnd thirty reg- 
ulars, nine liundred and thirty uiili- 
tia. hesideg one hundred sent in tho 
convoy, Indians three hundred. He 
says it moved the Kith. The Me 
moir of the Voyage and Ex))edition, 
N. Y. Col. Doc, ix., p. ;!.")!l. says 
eight hundred regulars, eight hun- 
dred militia, distributed on the 10th 
in the l)atteaux,eacli carrying eight. 
The regulars were under Captains 
d'Orvilliers, St. Ciri]. de Troyes, nnd 
Valrennes ; the militia under Her- 



thier, la Valterye, Orandville. and 
Longucuil le Moyne. La Hontan 
(vol. i., p. 00) makes regulars and 
provincials fift.'cn hundred. Bel- 
mont. Histoire dn Canada, p. 30, 
says eiglitei'U liundred regulars and 
militia, one hundred and sixty Iro- 
(|uois from the Snult and Mountain, 
forty Ilurons, sixty Ahiinkis, and a 
few .\Igoii(|uins. Smith. History of 
New York (17.")7). p. 51. says, loosely, 
two thousnn<l troo]is, six hundred 
Iiidia'i.-.. Mgr. de St. Valier, Etat 
Present, p. ill, says the army was 
composed of thirty-two companies, 
in eight l)attalions, four of regulars 
and four of militia, one hundreil and 
fifty Indians from the Sault and Lo- 
rette, fifty fVom the Mountain, one 
hundred from Sillery. 

' Chatnpigny to Seigni'lay, July 
10, 1687, N. Y. Col. Doc, ix.,"p. :«l. 
La llontnn Nouveau Voyage, i., p. 
90, says he started June 0. 

'■* He reached it .luno liO : .Memoir 



ii I 



r: 



TV 



li 



If 



28t 



If 



'fi 



16H7. 



('oli.Mcl 

litter 

li. Mr. .!.• 

l»tiii>ii\illu 



Tlio 
goniTiir« 



I). f.!ll of 

tliu 
Kiiirli»h 
I'll I.iiko 
Iluriiii, 



HIRTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 

Doiif^tui written nt'iiily in tlio Hiiin« Umo tlmt that gover- 
nor wiiH nccustonipd to ftsKumo wlinro tlio IrocpioiH wero 
confonu'd ; that in to Ray, tlmt he niado great coinjilaints 
of tho Frciu'li making war on the subjocts of tlio king of 
England. Ho addrd that Mr. do la Barro had deomod it 
n duty not to nndcrtako such uu expedition without pre- 
viously inforxning him. 

IMr. do Dt'nouvillo replied ' that they wero very far from 
agreeing, if ho regarded tlio Iroquois as subjects of his 
Britannic majesty ; and as to the course of Mr. do la Barre, 
on which ho pretended to rely, ho must inform him that 
it was not an example for him to follow. Ho spoke all the 
more firmly, as ho had just learned, through the Sieur de 
la Font, some tidings which completely unmasked the 
governor of New York.' The affair in question was this : 

On Lake Huron Mr. de la Durantaye had fallen in with 
sixty Englishmen, divided in two bands, escorted by Sen- 
ecas, led by a French deserter," and carrying goods to 
trade at Miehillimakinac. This was in formal violation of 
the agreement between the two crowns, as Colonel Dongan 
well knew. Accordingly, de la Durantaj'e did not hesitate 
to attack the convoy. All in charge of it were taken, and 
their goods distributed among the Indians. There is no 
doubt that, had these traders reached Miehillimakinac 
■while the commandant was absent, they would again li.u'o 
induced the Indians to take sides with the Iroquois, or at 



of the Viiyape, N. Y. Ctl. Doc., ix., 
p. 8(13. Thi8 Memoir details liis 
march. 

' nrnnnvillc, in the Memoir, does 
not mention receivinf; this letter. 
8«'e in N. Y. Col. Doc, iii., (ip. 4(14-.') ; 
I)(H'. Hist., i., ])\t. 144-.') ; Donjian to 
Lnml>er\'ille, May 20 : Dongnn to 
Denimville, ,Iunc U : Di'nonville to 
Donpnn, August 2'^, N. Y. C'ol. Doc., 
iii., p. 4(19 ; Due. Hist , i.. p. I.")9 

' Di'nnnvillr'B Memoir, N. Y. t'ol. 
Doc., ix , p. :103. 



' La Fontaine Marion. There 
were two parties, one tnlien before 
Tonly renclietl Detroit, the other 
after : Tonty, Memoire in Mnrfrry,p. 
25. Mpr. (le St. VRlier stiites, Etjit 
Present, p. 02, that one of the parties, 
running out of provisions, sent the 
puide to Miehilliiiiukiniic. Fmlicr 
Enjiilran learned nil from liim, and 
warned la Durantaye, who went out, 
took tlicni, and liriiu;rht them nil to 
Miehillimakinac, and then to Toueh- 
arontion. 



I 



» 

L 



r 



. 



niSTORY OF NKW KI:AN('E. 

loiiHt reiaiiin ncutiul. There wiih ovon reason to bolievo 
this thoir iiutiii ol)jnct.' 

After tliiiH HueeeHsfullj (lefeiitiii« their jiIaiiH, Mr. do la 
Diiniiitii.ve procecih-d to join .MesHrs. »hi ],uth and Tonti 
at th(( entrance of tlu« Detroit,' and then advanc.Ml with 
them to Niajrura.' Searei-ly had they arrived wlien the 
Sieur do hi Foret l)rou>,'ht tlient an order from tho f,'overuor- 
Reneral to he on the tenth at Riviero des S ihles, tiiin side 
of tlie hay of the Henecas, towards Cataroeouy.' Mr. <le 
Denonvilh, advanced to that spot with all hi.s"foreo, and, 
l).v a chance from w. '^h tho Indians did not fail to draw 
favorable au<,Miries, they all entered it Himultaneously. 
Tiiey at once set to work to throw nj) on the lake-shoro, a 
little al)()ve the river, an intnuichment witii stockades to 
inclose tho stores. It was completed in two days, and 
Mr. d'Orvilliers left there with four hundred men to guard 
it and protect the rear of tho army.' 



285 



i6«7. 



Kort ■le« 
ShI)]^, 



' Dt'nonvlllo'B Memoir, N. Y. Col. 
Doc, ix„ i>. ;i(i;} : Pcrrot, Mopurs i-t 
('i)iistuini'H (lc8 Siiuvnf,'cs, j). 141 ; 
Bflmont, Histoiro dii Canada, p. at ; 
Tonty, Afcmoirc in .Margry, p. 2!) ; 
do la PotliiTic, llistoire dc I'AnK'- 
riqui' Scptinirioiittlp, ii., pp. 201-5, 
followed by ( 'olden, Five Nations, 
N. v., ITir, pp. i):t-(i ; Smith's New 
York iliru), p. .jl : |a Hontan, Non- 
venu Voyage, i„ p. !Mi ; Information 
furnished hy .Vaiining llarnienlse, 
N. V. Col. IXw., iii., p .(:!(t xhey 
were under Colonel Patrick Maf;re- 
gorie, who came from Scotland to 
Murylaiid in l(;s4, with a number of 
followers, l)Ut removed to New .Jer- 
sey, and was finally induced to settle 
in New York, lie was made nius. 
ter-master jreneral of the militia, 
and turned his attention to the In- 
dian trade. He was .released irt 
l<iH7, and killed at New York bv 
Leisler in KiOl : O'Calhighan, N. Y. 
Col. Doc., ill. 



» Toucharontion, St. Valier, Etat 
Present, p. 0;(. All tliree then ad 
vanced on Lake Erie, and on the 
way to Niagara captured the second 
party: lb. 

'■' Perrot, .Mneurs et Coustuines, p. 
141 • N. Y. Col. Doc, Ix,. p. :m. 

■> N. Y. Col. Doc, ix., p. ;i(i:i ; Tonty, 
•M.-nioire, i>p. a-0. Th,- place wag 
(lannyeodathah on (ianniaf,'aronta- 
gouat (openintf into the hike). New 
Irondi^iuoiti Bay: Mor>;an in N. Y. 
Mist. Col., II., ii„ p. I7(i, „. ; Ci.iden, 
Five Nations (1727), p. 100: N. Y. 
Col. Doc. ix., )). 3(t4 ; ib., p, 2fil, n. 
Smith. History of New York, 17.-)7, 
p. 51, writes Tyrondecpuiit. Bel 
niont, Histoire du Canada, p. 21, 
writes Ateniatarontaf;ui'. Mfrr. de 
St. Valier, Etat Present, p. il.'j, Aten- 
niataronta^'uet. 

^ Di'nonville's Memoir. N. Y. Col. 
Doc. ix., ].. :i(l4 ; la Hontan. .Vouv. 
Voyage, i., ]). 07 : Perrot. M<eiirs et 
CouHturae«, p. 142; Belmont, His- 



'S 



I 



niSTOKY OF NKW FKANC'E. 



I 



1687. 



T!i«« ^nicriil, before iniiirliin^ fioni tluH pcmt, nliot thu 
Frciicliiniiti wlio hud acttul ah gui<lo to tlio Kii^'IIhIi to ^o 
to Michilliiiiiikiiiiic, iiiid who whh tiiki'ii fi^'htin^' a^'iiiiisl 
th(< s(>rvii-(« of hJH Hovcrcign. This thu Ihiron (h) hi Hoiitaii 
(h'lKtunccs iiH uiijiiHt,' IxH'iuiHc, ho Hiiyn, wo wcro tlifii at 
jxiicc witli Eii>,'hiii(l, ami tlio EiiKhHli pretrinhd to ho 
iiiaHtt'i'H of tho hiki>H. Ah thoiif^li tliis chiiiit'iical pictt'ii- 
Hion, iH'Vur iiKMitioiicd to my kiiowlrilg»< hy any oiio hut 
tliis author, rcHtorcil to iniioccm'i! a dcHcitor wlio was 
H(>i'ving another natiun to thu ih'trimcut of his sovurtiigii. 
KnifiiifL'. From Fort dus Sid)h's thu army took its way iiihiud ;' 
ilieSciiut'iu!. "'"^ "" *'"' l'*t''> after liaviuj,' j)ass<'d two very (hiiij,'t'rons 
(h'tih's, it reached a third/ whero it was vif^orously assailed 






tdiri- ilu Canniln, y. 'i\ ; Mgr. ilo St. 
ViiliiT. Kiiit I'rrHi'iit, J). IM ; Tonty, 
Mi'iiiiiirH, |( ','(1. 

' I.a llontnn, Nmiv. Voyajji', 1., p. 
07. I.ii lliintiin rcprrm'iitH hiniwlf 
lis III' Di'uni, Hciii lit' one wliii Imil ilnni' 
Hcrviir til tlic Stiiti', iiH liav' i cimic 
<iiit witli tliri')' ('(iiM|iitiiii'H lit' triiii|iH 
of tilt- iimriiio Bi'iit til di' lu Uarrr in 
th<- uutiiiii lit' His:), an in ili' la 
Harrc's cxpoililinii in lOHJ, in I)r 
nonvilli^'s in KiST, niKl the next yi'ar 
BH Bi-nt to taki- romnianil of Fort St. 
JoHcpli. Iliti |irii|i<Tty in Fninci; 
liavin;; lii'cn titi/.i'il, hi' anltril li'avr 
of aliHiiin- til return to Krauct' in 
1(18H, and linally ifarlii'il France 
early in l(i!l3, after bavins (Hh- 
covered anil explored, an lie pre- 
tended, till' Loiin Kiver. It i« a 
ruriouH tait that no luitlmr alludes 
to such a persiinaj^e as the Huron la 
Ilimtan or his doings in Canada at 
the time. In the series of pajHTs in 
tlip N. Y. Colonial DoninieiitH rover 
inj{ the ihtIikI fniin Ids;) to l(!i):3, his 
name never iwcurs : nor does it in 
Tonty or any of the other writers 
on la Salle's iifTairs in Illinois. 
Fellur represents him us Ijoiii about 



llltlOat Mont ill' Marsan.ln OaHcony, 
lie was sent to I'lareiitia in HWA im 
kinff'^ lieutenant, liut iiuarrelin^ 
with the irovernor. was mshiered, 
went to Piirtnual, and thence to Ih-ii- 
liuirk. He pulilished hin voyaffes In 
Kilo—") at the Ila^'iie, aided liy 
Oueildeville. lie seelils to have 
died liel'iire 171tf, wliell I.eilinitz 
pulilished his |Histhuniiius liepiinse 
a la lii'ttre d'un I'erticulier, etc. 

'■' Three coinpanies of French Cana- 
dians, under la Duran'aye, Tonty, 
and du I.ut, with Indians on the 
Hanks, tiiniieil the van under de 
Callieres, then the fiovernor followed 
with the je)i;uhirh and militia ; St. 
ValiiT, Flat Present, p !(I ; Tonty, 
Menioire in .Marjjry, p. 2ii. 

■' Two Mohawks, Ouiistntsi and 
(■anna^ienrop-n deserted to the Sene- 
cas.and revealed Di'minville's plans: 
III , J). \)'t. St. Valier jjives the inanli 
clearly. First day, four or five hours 
thriiu;;h o|ii'n wimmI ; next day. jrm^d 
road : after a time, j^rass neckliif;U 
lietween hills, then a marshy ^cl'ound 
till wiihin half a league of (Jazts 
roure. 



I f I 



llIKroUV OK NKW KHANCK. 



28- 



l)y oinlit hmi(ln<(l TnM|U()iH.' Twn liuiidrcil of (Ikmc In- '''"r- 
tliiiiiM, aftiT pourinj,' iu ii volloy, worn (Itttachcd to tiiko our '^'"~ 
iiriiiy ill t\w ri'iir, wliilti tlio roHt corjtiimi'd to cIiiuku tho 
van.' Tho arinv was witliiii ^'UiiHliot of tlio first Smcca 
villa;,'!',' ti 1)111 wliifli it was ft'iucd otlicr Iiuliaii forces 
woulil issue; uud this fear, with bciu^' surprised on a tlis- 
ailvaiita^M'ouH j,'rounil, at first eausod some disorder. Many 
of the Indians, better trained to liush-fij,'htinj,' than tlie 
Freiieli, liehl tirni, and K'lve tho army time to colleet itself. 
Then the enemy was rciiulsed on all sides, and, seeiii;^ tiui 
odils too groat, they disbaudod iu orilor to fucilitato thoir 
flight,' 



' Tim pinrc of tin' acliDti, hh lo. 
(Htrd liy <>. II. MarHliiill, Khc| , on 
liiiliaii iiiilhoritv, Ih II H|Hit ni'ur 
HoiikIiioh'h Mill, in tin' town of Vir- 
tor, Ontiirio Ciiunly, Hiill cnlliil by 
the Hi'nii'BH Pyuffixliyii (i. »•.. I'lacn 
of II Uiiltl.'): N. Y. Hint. Col.. II.. 11, 
|). 1")S. HiH niii|i mill rcHiilt art' cor 
rolMiriitiMl by St. Valicr, Ktiit •I'n'M- 
t-nt, p. \t'>, uikI liy Hrlinont, Ilistolrn 
(111 Canadn, pp. 'i'i-''>, who wiyH that 
llu- road to till' Si'iii'ca town Itnl over 
thri'o Hiiiall hilla A river ot its 
foot ran through tliriT laiffrr IuUk, 
and fornu'd a. uiarNh. St. Valicr 
addH that a c|imrt»r of a Icbkui' fur- 
ther it I'liiptied into a larger utreain. 

'' The Si'lienm )KiHte<l five hundred 
at the foot of the hill before »he 
town, Heliiioiit (fix hundred St. Va 
lierl.iiiid threi'huiulred in the marsh, 
to altai'k the French rear after it 
had iiacHed. TliiH (larty nttackeil 
Ju" rear of the van, tliiiikin^,' it the 
whole army. 

^ This villape. called Oaensera by 
Helmont, Oazeroare by St. Vidier. 
Oannaiiaro by IVnonville (Minute 
of taking |M)snesHion, N. Y.Col. Doc., 
ix., !>. ;ioli, ap])areiitly thei anaf.'orah 
of (lreenhnl;rh iN. Y. Col. Odc., iii., 
p. '^51), Mr. MurtiUall, from authentic 



Indian account and actual exainlnn- 

lion, identilic'H wltli (JaoxaehcaKah 
(UilHH Wood UHed to be there', a 
Seneca town on Houfrlitiin'n Hill, in 
the town of Victor : N. Y Hint Col., 
II., il., J). l.MI ; lllftorlenl Sketch.H 
of the Niaffiira Kmntier. p. 10. 
Bishop St. Valier calls it a laiiinim 
Babylon, where so many crimen 
were committed, so much blood 
hIiikI, so many men burned. 

* Oenonville paHHcH Ii^;lilly over 
tlip ronl'iision in his letter and his 
Memoir: N. Y. Col. I)(K', i!t., pp. 
!t;ts, ;t(j,'">. The error of the swamp 
party in. 'J) attackint; the rear of the 
French van (p. '.JHi;, n.), saved Penon- 
ville's army. At the first attack tho 
Ottawas and other Wi'stern Imliani; 
fled: Helmont, p. '.>;(: N V. Col. Doc, 
ix., 'Ml') (Contra, Toiily. Memoire, p. 
'.?til. thouf;li the domiciliated liidiaim 
held firm (lb., St. Valii'r, p. 1)1). 
Di'nonville then camu up with tho 
main body, and emleavored to push 
on to the stockade fort r)r village on 
the hill, but a panic jirevailed ( Bel- 
mont. p. '23 : la Ilontan. 1,, p. 7!)). 
The Berthier battalion pive way, 
but was rallied by Pufjue. cnmman<l- 
iiig the Montreal cumiiaiiy. Bel- 
mont says df Valrt'nnn alonu dis- 



fV"! 



h 



4 



I t 



288 HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 

1687. In this action we had five or six men killed, and aliont 

"""^'^"^ twenty wounded,' among the latter the Jesuit Father 
Anjelran, who was occupied among the Indians when 
the enemy made his first charge." Mr. Denonville, in one 
of his letters to Mr. de Seignelay, says that New France 
was under great obligations to this missionary; that he 
had more than any one else contributed to retain the 
Ottiwas and Hurons in our alliance, and that but for him 
Michillimakinac would long since have been in the hands 
of tiie English or Iroquois.' The enemy's loss was forty- 
5ve men killed on the spot, and they had sixty wounded. 
The bodies of the former were first cut to pieces and 
eaten by the Otiawus, who, says Mr. de Denonville in his 
letter to Mr. de Seignelay, made war on the dead much 
better than they did on the living. 

This was not the case with the Hurons who had come 
with them, and who did their duty perfectly. Those of 
Lorctte, the Iroquois of Sault St. Louis and the Mountain, 
did better still. The only man of mark whom we lost on 



,,f 



t 



'I 



tinduished himself. St. Valierpraines 
Denonville and de Calliereg, who 
fought in their sliirt-sleeveB, and 
would not take to the trees, Indian 
fasliion (p. 97). Peirot, Mtpurs et 
Coustumes, p. 142, gives no details. 
De la Potlierie, in his short account 
(ii., p. 207). which has been followed 
by Coldcn. Histjory Five Nations 
(1727), p 101, and Smith, History of 
New York. ]). 51, reverses it all, and 
makes the Indian van lioid firm. 
Tlie Seneca accounts. N. Y. Docu- 
mentary History, i., pp. 151-3 ; Col. 
Doc, iii., p. 445, agree in the main 
with tlie better French accounts. 
They make the Seneca force four 
hundred and fifty. 

' Denonville states his loss, in 
killed, regulars ont, militia fiv, In- 
dians five ; wounded, five regi!'..:rp, 
six militia ; and the Senecf loss, 
forty-five killed, sixty wounded. 



Belmont makes thi; Seneca loss, 
fourteen died on the field, sixty from 
wounds (pp. 24-5). Tonty, who rep- 
resents his company as forcing the 
Seneca ambuscade, says tliey lost 
his lieutenant and six men then. 
The Indian account, taken down by 
Dongan. makes the French loss seven 
killed, French Indians five killed, 
Senecas sixteen killed: Doc. Hist., 
i., p. 154. St. Valier says thirty 
Senecas, of whom eleven died. La 
Hontan differs widely from these 
more authentic accounts. He makes 
one hundred French, ten French In. 
dians killed, twenty or thirty wound- 
ed. Seneca loss eighty. 

'' John Enjalran came to Canada 
in 1070, and left in 1702 : Martin in 
Carayon, Doc. Im'dits. xiv., p. 7.'!. 

•■' Denonville to Seignelay, Aug. 
25, N. Y. Colonial Documents, ix., 
p. 338. 



'i : 



( 



HISTORY OF NEW FKANCE. 



289 



tliis occasion was a Mohawk' chief of Sault St. Louis, 
naiupd Hot Aslics (la Cendre Chaiule). He had bccu one 
of tlio torturers of Father do Brebeuf, and ascribed hia 
I'ouversion to the prayers of the lioly martyr. So well 
iiad lie repaired his crime, that few missionaries won as 
niiiny heathens to God as he did. The Canadians fought 
with their usual bravery ; but throughout the campaign 
t lie regulars did themselves httle lurnor.' This had been 
expected. "What can be done with such men?" said ill-, 
dii Denonville in a letter to the minister. 

On the IJrth the army proceeded to encamp in one of 
the four great villages which constituted the Seneca can- 
ton, and which was seven or eight leagues distant from 
Fort des Sables. No one was found there, and it was 
burned." The army then advanced further into the coun- 
try, and during the ten days spent in overrunning it did 
not meet a soul. The great number had tied to the Cay- 
ugas, and it was afterwards ascertain(>d that some had 
passed on to New York ; that Colonel Dongan had suj)- 
plied tJiose who attacked the French with munitions of 
war, and Hiat the king of England having sent an inten- 
dant to New York to enforce the neutrality treaty, the 
governor had at once compelled him to re-embark, and 
sent him back to Europe.' 



ifiS- 



k ( 



' Do la Potlii-rii- (i.. \>. ;J49) says 
lie wns an Oiii'ida, but li-,' is mis- 
taken. C/iiv/i-riHX. Oyrnratniihi'n 
or Hot Ciudurs (Helniont, Histoire 
dii Canada, p. 24), called, also, (hir- 
onhiafiue (Chaucheticre, Vie de la 
Bonne Catherine) was really an 
Oneida. lie was eonverted at la 
Prairie: Sliea'sCatliolicMissions, jip. 
2!IT-;]18. St. Valier deserihes his 
death, Etnt Present, p. 07. The 
head cliief of tlie Mountain, called 
Ti'naretounn, or the Sun, was also 
killel: Bilmont, Ilisioire du Cana- 
d:., p. -H ; St. Valior, Ktat I'r.'.sent, 
\i. V~ ; also, tlie Huron chiel' oalli'd 
iu French lo Ciel des Tionoutatez. 



'-' The refrulars really stood firm 
after the militia broke, 

■' Mjrr. d.'. St. Valier nays. Efai 
Present, \>. '.tH, that they liurned this 
town, three others, and a fort. The 
second fort on a hill near the first, 
Morgan identifies with (iahayanduk 
(tficir tens II flirt then), (iannogarae 
of Denonville with Chinosh:thi;eh 
(mi the i/iipe i,f the raHii/), northea.st 
of the present K. Bloomfii'ld, To- 
tiakto with Deyudehaakdoh tt/ii- 
Bunt) with the Benil mar U'. .Men- 
don, ^!onroe Co. (N. V. Hist. Col., H,, 
ii , pp. Isl-Ti, (iannounata with 
I)ynd<iosot.twomilesS Ivof K. .\von. 

* Belmont, Ilistoire du Canada, p. 



Conse- 
qni'iice ot' 

Hit' UL-ti'ill. 



i 



1?> 



,1 : 'i| 

I' * J 



I 



M-f 

.« 



t 'i ^^iJf 



,1* 



290 



HISTORY OP NEW FRANCK. 



1687. To return to oiiv army, tlic ton days s])oiit in tlif 
"' ■' "" onomy's country were employed in ravu^'in^ it, and es- 
pecially in destroyinf? 400,000 bushels of corn.' An im- 
mense number of lio^s were also killed, which caused nuich 
sickness.'' This, with the fatigue of two days' march over 
terrible roacis and the general's fear of being abandoned 
by his Indians, who threatened it constantly, forced him 
to limit his exploits to this. Accordingly, after taking 
possession anew of the country just conquered,^ he ad- 
vanced towards the Niagara River.' 

It is certain that Mr. de Dc'nonville did all that was pos- 
sible, under th(> circumstances in which he was i)laced, to 
l)ut this nation, once for all, out of the power of giving 
any further annoyance, that he spared himself in nothing, 
that he labored like a common soldier, evinced great in- 
trepidity in the action just described, that the Scni>cas 
•w(>re really humbled, and all the Irocjuois und(!ceived in 
the o]union th(>y entertained that with the protection of 
the English they had nothing to fear from the French 
arms, that they understood that if the blows struck at 
them did not totally humble them, and even did theai very 
little injury, they were indebted to it for accidents that 
could not have been foreseen, and that they should not 
expose tluunselves lightly to the same risks which they 
had just encountered ; but, after all, the colony derived no 
benefit from it. 
Fort i.niitiit The governor-general had consumtly his heart set on 
„^i'i"-3"; building a fort at Niagara, and the opportunity for carry- 
iihalu'i-mMi "'" "^^^ '^'^^*' design was too fair a one to bo neglected. 
The fort was erected, and the Chevalier de Troye, with 
one hundred men, left there to guard it." Our allies tes- 



85 ; Tonty , Mcnioirc in !\Inr{?ry, p. 20. 

I Dt'iionvillc'H Moiiioir. N. Y. Cnl. 
r>nr . ix . 11. .'ills. St. Vulior. Ktnt 
Prc'wnt, 1' lis. siiyn COO.dOO luislicln 
new, nml :!0.0I)() old. 

• Belmont, Ilistoiri' du Cuiinda, p. 
26. 



^ Minnte of tnkin<; possession, N. 
Y. Col. Don., ix., p. ;),'!4. 

* Tnkiiitr possession of Xiagnrn, 
N Y. <'o1. Doc. ix.. p. ;i;i"i. 

^ Prnonvilli's Memoir, N. Y. Col. 
T>oc.. ix., p. 3;!il ; Hehiiont, Histoirn 
du Canada, p. 2(5. La Hontan, i., p. 



HISTORY OF NEW FR.VNC'E. 



291 



tififd ^rtiiit j()_v, iunl tlic stniiu'l will show tliiit nothius '^''^7' 
should hiivf been ii(!<,dcot('d to niiiiutiiiu tlmt post, uot- ""—^'''""^ 
witlistaiidiii^f the dilHcnltiiis encountered ; but sieknesa 
bre,ikin<4 out soon ul'ter amon<^ the {garrison, which died 
to a man,' this fatality was ascribed to the air of the place. 
Tlici (■ is, liowcvei', every ground to infer that it was caused 
siilcly by the provisions, which were spoiled.' Be that as 
it may, this im])ortant p(jst was soon after abandoned and 
destroyed, to the ^leat regret of Mr. de Deuonville.' 

Meaiiwliile the governor of New York steadily jnirsued New 
his plan, which consisted in endeavoring to debauch our '"ro'i'mei'' 
allies and draw to himself all the trade of Canada, as well ^""^""'• 
as render the Iroquois our irreconcilable enemies. He 
infornjed the cantons that he did not wish them to go any 
more to Cataroccniy, or have any missionary except of his 
choice ; he even persuaded them to send back to the Hu- 
rons and Ottawas of Michillimakiuac all the prisoners 
they had taken from them. He again sent word to the 
Iroquois of Sault St. Louis and the Mountain that if they 
would remove near him he would give them English Jes- 
uits as missionaries, and a much more advantageous tract 
of land than that which they occupied. He finally notified 
the Marquis de Deuonville that if he continued to molest 
the Iroquois, he could not refrain from giving them open 
aid.' 



■' J 



lOl.siiys df Berfrurs, witli one liuii- 
(Ircil and twenty iiiiMi, was lut't uu- 
(Icr tlic Clicvalii'i' Ul' Trovt'S, wiili 
sii]i|ili('s tor ciiilit iMontlis. Di' la 
I'Dtlicrio. Ilistoire do I'Aim'iiiiuc 
Sciiti'iitrionalc, ii., p. "JOS, says dcs 
BiTjriTs liad (iiic huiiilrcd lurii, 
Sec (N.ldcii. Kivr Xatimis, ITOT, p. 
10','. 

' La lliintan siiys tlmt de iIiTfriTs 
and twi'lvc iiu'ii < scaped tlie sciii-vy, 
and were I'omid by sniui' Mhiniis, 
wlio aided tliemti) reacli l'at;iruC"iiy: 
Noiiv. Voyaire, i., p. l;!l. He la 
I'olheiie, llisloire de I'.Vnii'i'iiiuo 



Septentrionale, ii., p. 210, says all 
died liiit seven or eij,'lit, who were 
saved l)y -Mianiis. 

'■■ HehiKint aseiibes it to the I'resh 
pork eaten at the Seneea village, 
whieli caused dysenteries, Histniro 
(111 Canada, p. 20, tlKuich on \>. 27 
hi altriluites it to scurvy I'roui salt 
fond and lack of veixetaMes. 

■' .\ new fort has been built here 
within a few years. Several colo- 
nists have .setth'd thiTe, but no ono 
complains of the unheidth fulness of 
tlie lur. C/i'ir/' rfii.v. 

'Dnlltiall to Dell, )nville, Mil Sept., 



(I, 



292 



HISTORY OP NEW FRANCE. 



:! 



.1 



;f 



L ,.i . 



\ ,< 



t ' H, 



" , . 



1 ''- 



1687. Tlio gciicrtil mado lij^lit of his threats, and seeing no 

""*'>'""'' i)rospcct of rodiicinf]; the Iroquois by force of arms, de- 

Aii iro.iiiuis voted himself entirely to creating division among them. 

St. I, .Ills He had not yet been able to penetrate the real disposition 

Vi'iii'.v lor of the Mohawk canton. Ono of the chiefs of Sault St. 

ru ifion uiit Lq^Jj,^ ^,]jq y.^^ from that canton, and who was styled in 

'^°'"">- Canada " Tlie Great Mohawk" (Le Grand Agnier), offered 

to go with five others, and Itriug back certain intelligence ' 

His offer was accepted, and as ho was crossing Lake 

Champlain, he met a party of sixty Mohawks sent out by 

Colonel Dongan to make prisoners. He went forward 

fearlessly to meet them, told them that Ononthio did not 

wish to make war on them, and spoke with so much power 

that he induced them to return home. He even preached 

Jesus Christ to them in a manner which affected them 

pensibly, and he actually brought four of them to Sault 

St. Loiais." 

He then sent his nephew with another Indian to the 
cantons of Oneida and Onondaga, to give them the same 
assurance that he had just given his own tribesmen ; and 
the great influence Avhich his merit and virtue had ac- 
quired, upheld oy the good servi( 'S of Garakonthie, who 
nvrested aii the violent resolutions in his canton, were for 
some time a powerful barrier, which all the efforts of the 
governor of New York could not overthrow. Fear of 
treatment like that just experienced by the Seneca canton, 
had also its effect. 
Matters were still on the same footing at Hudson's 



IfiST. N. Y. Col. Doc, iii., j). 472 ; 
Doc. Hist., i., p. 1(13. 

' Dt'noiivillH to ^-''ifrnt'lay.Octolicr 
27, 1()S7, N. Y. Col. Doc, is., p. 352. 
The great Mohawk, cnllcd in New 
York accounts Krvn: N. Y. Col. 
Doc, iii., p. 47s. Hi' lii'canic a cou- 
vrrt at l/iiprairii' in l(i7l, and, re- 
turuing to Causlmawaga, wuly iu 
1071) li'd quite a colony to tlie St. 
1.., .vrence : Helaliones Inc'ilites, ).. 
y, iibl ; Mission Ue St. Xuvier lies 



I'res. 1C.74, ^rS. ; Cliauchetiere, Vio 
de la L'onm; Catherine, MS. ; Rela- 
tion, 107:i-il, |). 142. After the event 
nienlicned in the text, he joined the 
expedition against Schenectady, and 
was killed .lune 4, KillO, on Salmon 
River by some Abnakis, who mis- 
took his party lor Enirlisli : Siiea, 
Hist. Cath. Missions, p]). 271 , 2!)S. :)20. 
'^ Denonville to Siignelay, < )ctoljer 
27, 1(1S7, N. Y. Col. Doc, ix., |i. ;i."i2 ; 
Schuyler to Dongan, ib., iii., p. 478. 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



293 



IJay ; Imt tlio prfcpclinp; antumii thoro took place an ac- 1687. 
tioii too siiii^nliir to l)o omitted in tins history. I derive it ^"""^i^""^ 
from ii letter of the Marquis do Denonvillo, who received Kxi'ioit of 

' ' two 

iiitf'lli<,'ei)ee of it on his return from Niagara. Fri>iiciiim'n 

ill IIiiiUou's 

^Ir. (Vllierville, who was still in command of the forts at 'iay- 
th(^ head of the bay, learning; that an English ship was 
cauglit in the ice near Charleston, a small fort recently 
tlirowu up liy the English, six leagues from Saint Anne, 
sent four men to reconnoitre it. One of the four fell sick 
on the way, and was obliged to return; tlio three others 
were a]i]iarently not sufficiently on their guard ; they al- 
lowed tlicmselves to be surprised by the crow of the shi^-*. 
When they least expected it, a volley of musketry was 
poured on them, though without wounding any of them. 
Tlii'v cndeavoi-ed to fly, but were pursued. One escaped ; 
tlie two others were taken and bound, then carried on 
board and shut up at the bottom of the hold. 

When the ]u'oper time for navigation came, the master 
of tlie slii]) having been drowned while running on the ice 
floes, one of which gave way under him, the crew found it- 
self reduced to six men, and was consequently too feeble 
to work the vessel. They accordingly released one of 
their two prisoners, choosing the man who seemed to them 
the least resolute, but they had miscalculated. One day 
when four Englishmen were busy on the yards, tho 
Frenchman, seeing only two sailors near him, seized an 
axe unperceived by them, and tomahawked them. He 
then ran to release his comrade, and the two having armed 
themselves to the teeth, forced tho Englishmen to come 
down, and secured them. They then sailed for St. Anne, 
but had not proceeded far when they met Mr. d'Ibervillo, 
who, having heard of their detention, was coming to re- 
cover ov av(^nge them. Tho ship which then' brouglit was 
quite richly laden, and well provided with goods which 
came quite seasonably to revictual Fort St. Anne, and fill 
its storehouses.' 



' Denouvillt; to Scignelay, August 85, 1087, N. Y. Col. Doo., ix., p. 344. 



i 

■n 



I 






294 



if)R7. 



Knteriiri-c 

oflllU 

Kiii;lisli ill 
Aoadiii, 



HISTORY OP NEW FRANCE, 

DriKiiivillc was far fi'om liavin,!^ as favoralilo iiitcllit;i'iir'o 
to coiuinnnii'iiti' to tlio I'ourt from Acadia and its vicinity. 
Thoso soutlu'rn provinces of Canada continued to bo left 
nurelieved, and tlie Enj^dish rarely missed the opportunity 
to jirofit by this nejj;li^ence, to assail tlie ]iosts which were 
not in a ])osition to resist. Dntohnien who arrived oil' tho 
coast a few years b(>fore, had demolished Fort Penta^'oet.' 
Baron do Saint Castiu, ex-ca]itain in the Cari^nan regi- 
ment," had taken up his post there after a partial restora- 
tion ; but some time after the governor-general of New 
England sent to summon him to retire, ]iretending that 
tho whole country, as far as St. Croix Island, belonged to 
his government. 

Ho derided the summons, though jierfectly conscious 
that unli'ss relief came he must at last succumb ; and this 
is evident from his letter of July 9th of this year, addressed 
to Mr. de Deuonville, complaining of the English preten- 
sions. He added that the governor-general of New Eng- 
land a]ipeared to have correspondents in the country. On 
tho whole, the neglect into which those fine provinces had 
been allowed to fall, was the more surprising, as in tho 



Ht> mnl\iH it nrcur in the fall, conse- 
quently of lOSfi, after the departure 
of (le Trove in Auf^ust. KigC. Iber- 
ville remained six raonths longi'V : 
Pe In Pdtlierie. 

' Ante, ,). 188. 

■ N. Y. Col. Poc., ix., p. mo. Vin- 
cent, Baron de St. Castin. was n na- 
tive of Oleroii, in Heiu-n : came to 
Canada in l('i(!."i, not as colonel of the 
reirimcnt Carifinnn Saliere.i, as erro- 
neously Slated by Dexter (Cliurch's 
Indian Wars, partii., p. li'lnnd other 
American writers, wlio follow Uny- 
nnl. but as we are told by Rev. Mr. 
Petit (h'ttcr in M<rr. St. Valier's 
Ktat Present, p. :!!li. liinisclf oriKin- 
nlly a cai'tnin in tliat rei'inient. as 
ensiirn ill Chambly's company, beiiij; 
at the lime only ftfleen years of age. 



That he ever became captain is 
doubtful: Ferland. ii., ji. 151. He 
married n daughter of Mndocka- 
wnndo. by whom he Imd several 
children. When the Chevalier de 
(frandfontaine, cajitain in the reu'i- 
meiit ('. S.. was put in command in 
.''. 'adia (ante 1:i8i, St. Cnstin is said 
to have been made his liententaiit, 
althougli this may have been under 
(irandfontaine's successor, de Cliaiii- 
bly. The plunderins: of St. Castin's 
place by the Knglish drove him 
among the Indians, whose life lie to 
someextent adopteil, and over whom 
he acquired great influence. His 
wroiiirs cost \ew Kii;r'aiid dear. He 
returned to France about ITIO, soiiio 
of his children ri'iiiaiiiiiig : Shea's 
Catholic Missions, p. l!(i. 






( 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



295 



= 



])r('C('(liii,i,' yt'iii's tliu court sci'UuhI to hiivu (letcniiiiicil to ' ' ' 
derive from them nil the iulviiutiigo that tlu-y could reudor 
to Friiuce. 

Mr. do Moulos, as already remarked, visited Acadia to- Advico of 
wards the close of the year 1G85. On his returu to Que- m,.",ii,V'u» to 
hec he reported to tho minister that the most useful set- shouM bo 
tleniiMit that his majesty could make in America was Aca- * °'.u',i,iJrjV° 
dia. Ho at tho same time wrote to tin; kiuf,' that New 
France could not, in its actual condition, maintain itself, 
and tliat the fur-trade was not enough to supjiort it ; that 
this was most unfortunate tho setters being fitted for any 
thing ; that in truth if wo had all the furs of Canada it 
would be an important object, but this could not be reck- 
oned on as long as tlujre were Iroquois in the country and 
English in their vicinity.' 

That this was not the case with Acadia, where there was 
nothing to ^u'event the establishment of fisheries ; Ijut that 
to be abh; to do so securidy, it was necessary to settle and 
fortify Port Royal and to build a good fort at Pentagoet, 
to serve as a barrier for Acadia against tho English ; that 
if with this sonu'thing could be expended on Port de la 
Heve, on the island of Cape Breton, Isle Percee, and in 
fortifying Placentia, in Newfoundland, which Sieur Parat, 
then in command tliere, was too weak to defend in case 
of attack, France would be sole mistress of the cod fish- 
eries ; but it was advisable that his majesty should incur 
all the ex)ienses, and not farm out the fisheries so soon : 
l.)y allowing those who undertook it to make some profit, 
lie would soon be reimbursed for his outlay. He added, 
that having taken the census of all that depended on the 
government of Acadia, he had found nine hundred souls 
there." 

Towards the close of summer there was a great mortality 
in Canada,'' and this was what chiefly prevented Mr. de 



N. Y. (V) 



I'OC. IX., ]!. 



DeMcmvillo to Scifjnclay, OctoIxT 



• Letters .hily 18-li), ' iHl, ainatla 37, KiST. N. V. V<>\. Dee., ix.. p. -M. 
Doc., II., v., p. 353. Measles was brought by tlie ships, 



f 




I 

'I. « 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



168: 



Wlint 

)iieviiits 

Mr. ilo 

Di'iioiiville 

I'rimi 
nijiri'liinir 



Di'iionvillc from carryiiif,' out the projoct lio had foinxd 
of a ftccoud exjx'dition aj^'aiust tho Senecas ; inon'over, lie 
couhl now h'ss than ever eomit ujion tlio Indians of the 
wesstorn parts, especially ou the Hurons of Michillinnikinac, 
for ho had discovered that these last kept np secret cor- 
iiifiiiriHt tiiu resjioudence with tho Iroquois, even before the preceding 
Bucoiidtiiiio. cauiijaigu, althouf^h during it they did their duty quite 
Avell.' Moreover, tho English were waging open war upon 
us on the coast of Acadia," and there could be no doubt 
that they were always ready to aid our enemies when wo 
wished to attack them. 
Reflections The general's gi-eatcst embarrassments came from the 
enviriHT's orders which he received from tho court, to give them no 
" "'ti'uu''^ ' cause of complaint ; ' but these orders, doubtless, presup- 
])osed that the English on their side would act in the same 
spirit towards us, but this was not so. It is certain that 
a firmer and more lofty attitude with neighbors of that 
stam]), who observed none of the articles of the treaty of 
neutrality, would not have been disapproved. It is not 
disobeditMice to a sovereign to interpret his will, and do 
whnt he would do himself were lie informed of the actual 
state of aft'airs. This is especially true in a remote colony, 
where a governor-general may suppose that his master 
does not require of him a blind obedience, and where he 
must know that it is for him to harmonize the interests 
of the state and the glory of the prince with the instruc- 
tions which he receives. Louis XIV. more than once so 
explained his instructions, even with regard to the com- 
mandants of distant posts ; but Mr. de Denonville did not 
sufficiently reflect on this. 

Moreover, he did not personally make himself sufficiently 
acquainted with the affiiirs of t^.e country, or rather all 



f 



and spotted ('over broke out. Sillery ' Perrot, Mreurs et Coustunies, p. 

was dei)0])ulated, one hundred and 14;! ; la Hontan, i., p. 113. 

iliirty linvinir died. Belmont, Hist. - Williiinison'n Maine, i., p. HS^. 

du Canada, p. '^S, puts deaths at ■'' Louis XIV. to I)i'noiiville, Juno 

Bwenteeu hundred. 17, 1089, N. Y. Col. Doc, ix., p. 330. 



HTSTOHY OF NEW FRANCE. 



997 



whom he cniisnltcd t'ov infdnnatioii did not dcsorvo {]w 
coiitidciici' ht' vt'pdscd ill thciu. Scncral cvmi iilmscd it, 
t(i luako liiiii follow tlii'ir ]KH'nliai' ideas or to subsorvo 
tlicir own ends. I'ndt>r a fj;ovt'riiov who (h'clarcs 0]>(>nly in 
favor of virtuo, and does not snltiinoiitly <listrust those who 
surround him, interest, amViition, and the other ])assionH 
have only to assume a mask, the casi(>st tiling in the 
world to men who are not t^nichnl by conseienee and honor. 

This was never more sensil)le t'lan under the adiiiinis- 
triition of the Marquis do Dv'nonriile. This }];eneral ]>os- 
sessed, in a sovereifi;n deforce, all that can constitute a per- 
fectly upriu;lit man in the eyes of God and in the eyes of 
man. He lacked no qmility necessary to form the mind 
and heart of a youn^' ]irineo destined to f»overn a p;i-eat 
kiii;4(h)m ; and it is known how his oxamplo caused virtuo 
and roli<j;ion to bo respected at court. He was, moreover, 
of tried coura<^e ; ho was well versed in war. He had 
solely hi view the advautafj;o of the colony and the pro- 
j^'ress of relijj;ion, and he zealously embraced ev(>ry pro^io- 
sition for causing,' either to flourish. No one i^avi* the court 
more just or sound advice as to what Avas to be done in 
Canada, and seldom but in his time were the three who 
shared authority guided by that good understanding which 
is so necessary for the happiness of the people and tlio 
good of the service. 

But he sometimes lacked activity and vigor. He did 
not apply himself to know well those who approached liini, 
and he did not always i)ersovcre in what ho undertook, as 
in the case of Fort Niagara. Before undertaking to estab- 
lish that post, he should have been well resolved to main- 
tain it without being discouraged by difficulties, and not 
expose himself to the contempt of all the nations by aban- 
doning it. Moreover, the mortality ^vhich ensued there, 
and which deprived the colony of the Chevalier de Troye, 
an othcer of yreat merit, with an entire garrison of a hun- 
dred men, and whieli committed ravages equally as great 
at Catarooouy, did not arise, as Mr. de Denonville sup- 



16S7. 



His 

l'lll(Pl.'MlMl. 



KrpTrt tliiit 

lie 
CdiuiiiiltfJ, 



M' 



298 



HISTOUY OF NEW FHANCE. 



I. \l 



I 
I' I 



,1 



163;. posed, fi'oiii tlicir 1)<Mii<:j eonHtuntly 1iai'a><s<r'(1 mid in Hotno 
'"'^' ~~" Koi't hlockiidt'd ]>\ tilt' iMU'iiiv, so tliiit tlicy liiid not lilicrty 
to obtiiiii tlic It'iist ivfroHliniciit by mciiiiH of liiiiitiiiM; and 
fisliinf?, Imt from the fiu-t tlmt most of tlio i)rovisions left 
tliero ]ii'ovod to lio spoiled and eansed scurvy, and from 
the fact that no attention was i)aid to sendinj^' remo- 
dics there, faults that would not havo been eommittod, 
or at least not havo gouo unpuuishod, under .i firmer 
rule. 

It has been stated that Mr. do Denonvillo had so pi-oat 
an aversi(m to the Indians, that he eould scarcely b(>ar tho 
sij,'lit of them witlioiit being, in a manner, beside himself ; 
but nothing is mon^ unjust than the re])roach nnide him on 
this score, for, were it a fact, this purely natural defect 
W(mld redound only to his glory, as it never ju'evented his 
tieating with those Indiam , either in public or private, 
when there was niH'd. This lie could not have done with- 
out incalculable struggles with himself, which constituto 
real courage. 
Vurimis "^'^ returu to the Iroquois : while men were reposing a 
'"^"'j'l''^"-"""'' little too much on tho fear in which tho Iroquois seemed 
lp..|ii,,is. to i„. „f .^ ,,^,\y irrujjtion into their country, and perhaps 
also on new orders just received by Colonel Dongan, to 
labor for a p(^ace between the other cantons and ourselves, 
■with very formal directions against his furnishing them 
arms or munitions of any kind, on the 3d of November' 
Fort Chanibly w;is suddenly bosi(>ged by a largo numl jr 
of Mohawks and ^Mohegjins ; and it was afterwards [iscer- 
tained that this enterprise was the work of the governor 
of New York.' 



' N. Y. Col. Doc. ix., p. non, but Coldcn, Five Nations (172T). p. 103 ; 

no dnti' fiivcn. Brlmont, Ilistoire Bniitli's Hintory of New York, IT.")?, 

(lu Ciinnilii, ]i. 37, says OcIoIkt 4. p. 5.3. lie advised thciii to tako 

r»u ricssis coiiuimndcd tlii' fort. Fri'ncli prisoners (Coldoii, ji. 10(i ; 

Tlic nssailantswi'n' onclmndn'd mid Siuitli, \t. T)!!) ; to look out sharp, eg- 

fitly Moliawks. 'I'licy tool; a soldier ]x>cially at • 'adarackui, Oiiinirarn, 

nnd his wil'.' and child. 'I'mis Ki . icn-s, Mmitri'al. and Clinm 

■•' See Donpraii':; address to the Five Idy (('olden, p. lO'.l ; Siiiitli, ]i. .1(5), 

Nations at Albany, August 5 (of.) : planning the subsetjueut eampaigUB 






IITSTOHY OF NKW FItANrE. 



290 



T\w rcsistiuici' tlii'V riicouiit.'ifil forced tlinn, iiidocd, to 1687. 
d.ciiiiii. th.' iKNt (liiv ; liiit it was not till aftrr tlioy lind 
liiinicd some isoliitt'd lumsca mid carried oil" suine prison- 
ers. 'I'lie l'aihir<' of this expedition, and a notification to 
Governor Don.itaii that his complicity in it was known, 
made iiiiii fear ivprisuls. The ahirm at Oranf,'e was even 
so ^'reat tiiat tlui coiintry-piMjpln sent in all their vahiaMes, 
and a hody of twelve hundred Indians sjuait tin! whoK) 
winter around that town to protect it." 

Simultaneously almost with the investment of Fort 
Chanibly, forty ()nondaf,'as apin'oached ("atarocouy and 
carried iitV, near that Un\, three soldiers and Mademoisello 
d'.Uonne.' Mr. d'Orvilliers, to whom that lady found 
me.'ins of making,' known the misfortune tiiat had lielalleu 
her, sent to the enemy to propose a conference on tho very 
spot where they had halted. It was acceiited, and Father 
<h' I.aml)ervi'lle, wlio was fortunately then at ("atarocouy, 
consented to unih'rtakc; to f^o and ne}:;otiate with them. 
The missionary ])o<^nn by askinjj; them why they had 00m- 
mittc-'d this hostility whilo wo were at war with the Seno- 
cas only. They replied that Onontliio, having' arrested 
their chiefs, had ^ iolated tho peace. 

" Your chiefs," replii'd tho Father, " arc at Quebec ; they 
were arrested only because you k'^"^"^'' "*^ reason to distrust 
yon." " And how," replied the Inxiuois, "are they treati'd 
at (Juebec ?" " Except," lie replied, " tiiat they have had 
fetters jmt on their teet to prevent their escape, they have 
110 reason to complain of the treatment given them." On 
conchiding these words he presouted thom two belts ; one 

of tlu' l.nL'uc. ('oia.'ii, \\ 111, iu 'TlwrPSCfiiiwnonutl.orityfnrtliiK. 

gtatiiifillii.t l)(..ii;.ui was c.iuih'II.mI '•' Hrlntion of tlw Kvnts of the 

bv \hv lull^' t,. iifTiv.' to 11 (vssatioM Wiir, N. V. Col. I»o<' , i\.. P- :!^!>- 

of nrms an.l (i.'livrr up i.ris-n.Ts Arconlin- to Hrliuoiit. lllslunv du 

without r,m,litio,is, is ..Vulrntlv Cnnmli;, i.).. '-'<l-7. t'ataronmy was 

wroiv Tlu' tiv»t>- of ivutiiiliiy lirsicgcd in Au.irust and Scpi. lulx-r. 

in-ucodrd 'lasr niatlVrs. an.l tliouu'l. Niajinra was brsifgod by forty 

Dnn-an was ivniovud, ibo instnic- cauo.'s. l-'.mi' Inin.liv.i Iro.pw.iH dn- 

tionsToAn.irossbowlhat.bmwsII. Hn^ndrd tlir St l.awicna' The 

yiulded uolhint; of Dongiiu'H clalni.^. Mubawiis buinrd Vfivluivs, 



i i 



I ir' 



i 



I 



:ll", 1' 



!i 



H ' 






noo 



niHToRY Of NFVV F»AN('E. 



j6)<7. to Iiidiicc lliciii not to liiiriM tlicir priHoiiorM, iiiul tlio otiirr 
"-""'"^ to ixliort tluni not to tiikt* ii|> tlic (|uaiTnl of tho Sonocas, 
who hail iiiisrasonalily (Uawii on thtMnsi'Ivi'S th(> in(lij,'na- 
tirin of tlitir iMitlicr. They rrcoivtul tho Ix'ltH, and tlio 
part it's scpaiiitnl. 'IMii! juiMoiicrH wcro taktui to Onon- 
(iH^a, will TO th< V were ticatnl vtiy It'uinutly, but tho Wits 
n('i'(> st'ut to tho ^,'ovovnoi' of Now York.' 

If th(» Tro(|uois seized at Catarocony wcro still at Qno- 
('"inii.i lice when Father de Ijanilierville so positivelv asserted it,' 
|.r i|.(i.i. it is certain that thoy wore not whon tho f^ovonior-^ouoral 

■ .In Mr 



Vlllf 



lu II, ii.ri-' loarucd what had taken i)hico. Ahoiit a mouth al'turwardH 
an envoy of Colonel Don^^'an ' arrived at the capital with a 
letter from that governor, who denninded an explanation 
of th(! two holts prosontt>d by tho missiomiry to tho Onon- 
da^'as ; and tin* f^enoral, not yot inforniod of tho fact, re- 
plied verbally that ho woidd send his reply when ho was 



in 



formed of tho matter in ipiestion 



111 fact, ho soon after dispatched to Manhattan Father 
KithiT Vaillant de (iueslis, whom ho advised, on his return, to 



N'Millllllt 



that 



mm lu iiiiii. visit the ]\rohawks, by whom that missionary was mm 
csteeiiiod, to niako no pro])ositioii to Colonel Doii<,'an, and 
merely to ascertain wliother that {^'ovei mcu' had any ])ropo- 
sitioii to submit to him. Fathor Vaillant sot out on tho 
last day of tho year KW?, and in the first interview which 
lie had with the Eii.ylish f^foveriior he could el,""it notliiiii,' 
from him excei)t that ho had sent an (sxpross t tlio Mar- 
quis do Di'nonvillo, simply to liavo an explanation of tho 
two bolts which Father de Lambervillo liad presented to 
the Onondaf^as. 




This wiiH ('(ili)iii'l I'ulriik Miif^ic- 



1 
1 



b 



niSTOHY (IF NFW FUANCK. 



aoi 



Omduiilly, iKVi'itlit'li'HH, tlw iniMHioimn" iiidnocil him to i(>^7- 
pxpliiiii Ills (Ii'IhiiihIm iiiurr fully, ami DoiiKmi iit liiHt ilf- """'■''"■^ 
ciiircd pliiiiily tim) tlic Frmcli iimst cxiu'ct pciu'c IVimi tlic |.;,yjj|",,, 
Ti'iMjiiois only 1)11 tlicsf four ('oiiilitioiis : 1st, tliiit tlic In- j,^''','|^,'|','[|,"l[i, 
iliiuiH sent to Friuici' to Hcrvo in tlio niillinM slumM lio 'IimiuihN 
lii'ou^;lit Wiick ; -M, tlnit tiic C'liristiiin Tnn|ii(iiH of Siiult St. mii-iHmiry. 
Lniiis iintl tlif Moiintuin sliould lio oMi;.;('d to return to 
tlii'iv ciintoiiH ; !!d. Unit I'ovtH C'litiii'ocony mid Niii;,'iini 
slionld lie nizcd ; Itli, that every tiling,' taken fnmi the 
Seneca vilhi},'eH Hlumkl ho restored to tiieiii. lie then dis- 
inissed tho misHionary without allow inj,' him to see tho 
^lohawkw.' 

Ho innuediately suuimonod to Alhany the ])rineipal |,;^ 
HaeheiiiH of the tivo eantons,' to whom ho Btated that the '"'■'j'|;|«'' t" 
^oveiiior-^teiieral of tho French had sent to lie^' him to Ir'"!"""". 
elVeet a ])eiice lu'tween thiMn and him ; tiiat he had not 
deemed it ])roi)er to refuse to enter into negotiation, luul 
that he had submitttul to tho French eonditicmn, with which 
tliey would have every reason to lie sati; IicmI. Pie ex- 
plained these c(niditions to them, and then added : " I de- 
sire you to lay down the hatchet, hut I do not wish you to 
Iniry it : content yourselves with merely liidiiif,' it under 
the grass, so tliat you may take it up a},'ain easily when 
there is need. Tho king, my master, has forhidden mo 
to furnish you with arms and ammunition in case you 
continue to mak(! war cm the French ; tait do not allow 
this prohibition to alarm you. If the French reject these 
cime.itions which I have projiosed to them, you .shall want 
nothing necessary to do justice to you. I will sooner fur- 
nish it to you at my own oxpenso than forsake you in so 
just a cause. ]\Iy advice to yon now is, to keep well on 

' N. Y. Col. noo., ix., p. "iSO. Fn- DocumcntH, ili., pj). .")20-.5;t2. 
tlii-r Vnilliuit wiih HcconipnnitMl l)y ' N. Y. Ctil. Doc.ix, p. "SH. Dim 

Isliiiiilicrt Dimioiit, 'I'hi'V wen: gun's Addrrss to the Fivi' Niitioiiw is 

tiiUi'ii by till' Molii'jjcims, iind ill dnti'd Fcliiuary S (ib., iii , p. r,:V.i), 

tri'iitrd. 'I'lic corrcspuiKlciici' be- cnrliiT tliuii the lust paprr in the 

twfcn tlii^ni imil I)on;.riin, in I'clpni nrgotiiilidu with Viiilluut. 
urv, ttiSS, is in N. Y. ("iiloniHl 



MM. 



,il 



I' t 



^■f 



'• K 



I' 



,1 ' 



302 



1688. 



Those 
Iiulians re 

new l;,s 

llOSlililiL'S. 



Neffotiii- 
tioiis with 

tliu 
Oiiondagiis 



HISTORY OP NEW FRANCE. 

your f;;n.ir(I for fear ot some now treachoiy on the part of 
your enonucs, and secretly to make yoiir preparations to 
burst down on them by Lake Champlain and Catarocouy 
when you are oblij,'ed to renew the ■war.'" 

Tlie Iroquois deputies understood all that the governor 
wished them to infer, and remained (juite tranquil durinjif 
tlie rest of the winter. As soon as the navigation of the 
rivers was open, Mr. de Denonville sent a great convoy to 
Catarocouy ,'' with orders to the officer in command to as- 
certain the condition in which the garrison at Niagara 
might be, and to send a reinforcement there, should it be 
necessary. This convoy reached its destination quite 
safely ; but as those who had conducted it were returning 
to Montreal, twenty-five or thirty Iroquois surprised one 
of their canoes, and cut off the heads of two men in sight 
of the commandant, who, instead of rushing to the relief 
of the wretched men, destroyed seventeen of his canoes, 
in order to increase the crews of the rest and escape more 
easily.'' Mr. de Denonville gives in one of his letters a 
different account, apparently as reported to him by the 
officer. He simply states that five men of this convoy 
having straggled somewhat to hunt, were killed bj- the 
Iroquois. 

It was evident that these savages would no longer listen 
to propositions of peace ; and the governor-general, who 
saw himself in no position to carry on war, was greatly 
embarrassed. The only resource left him was to gain over 
th(^ Onoudagas, and detach them fioni the leagiie. He 
wrot(! to Father de Lamberville, who Avas still at Cataro- 
couy, to which he had been carried over the ice in almost 



^ 



t 



' 1 



' This wns. of coiirsi', n hcars'iy you with what jKiwcr will hi' upccs- 
nccmnit that rciichcd Ciiniuhi. It is sarv." 



given in N. Y. (ol. Doc, ix., ]). ;!I10 ; 
but Sfi' Dongan's Aiiilifss, N. Y. Col. 
Doc, iii., p. .■):!:!. IK' aski'il them 
whether they would ciiiisent to an 
armistice fur filti'cii ninnths, or 



■' This was undef Mr. de Ste. Htv 
lene : Heliniint, llistDire dii ('anadn, 
1.. 27. 

" N. Y. Col. I)oi\. ix., ]). :!!I0. Bel. 
nionl savs Ste. lieleiie was attacked 



would coutinuo the war, '■ I to joyno at Toniliala, uud had tour nieu 



^ 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



808 






a clyiii!^ state' At tlie same time that the sonerars letter 
was haiideil to that missionary, Father Vailhuit arrived at 
Catarocouy, with two Imliaus whom Governor Dougau 
had <;ivon him to attend him ou his return, and prevent 
liis passing through the Mohawk canton." 

Fath(n- de Lamberville gained one of these two Indians, 
and induced him to go to Onondaga to inform that can- 
ton tliat the governor of New York was guided solely by 
self-interest while laboring to involve them in a war with 
the French. This Indian found all the cantons assembled, 
and a ])arty of about a thousand men ready to dash down 
on the French settlements. He had no little ditHculty iu 
disabusing them of the false impressions which Colonel 
Dongan had given them, that the French were plotting 
some new treachery against them. Ho succeeded, never- 
theless, in jiart, and even induced them to send d(>puties 
to treat with Mr. de Deuonville ; but five hundred war- 
riors resolved to accompany these deputies, under pretext 
of acting as an escort." 

When they arrived near Catarocouy, Haaskouaun, one 
of the deputies, called in French accounts hi Gramlc 
Giicnlc, advanced from the party with six men, entered the 
fort, and asked the commandant for one of his otficers to 
accompany him to Montreal. Mr. d'Orvilliers gave him 
the 8ieur de la Perelle, his lieutenant, who, on embarking 
in that Indian's canoe, was quite surprised to see himself 
in the midst of six hundred well-armed warriors, and re- 
ceived in a manner to lead him to fear that he was a pris- 
oner in their hands.' 
They were, however, only making game of him, by ex- 



\6A«. 



Uillrd mill one tiikcn : Histoire du 
Ciuutda, )i. -S. 

> Kutlicr Liiiulifi'villc wont to Ni- 
ixixava ScptrnilxT'-i t, and wns si'izcd 
witli till' scurvv thrrc. Stc Uclrni' 
wa-^ to lii'lnir li'nn down from Cata- 
roi'oiiy : Bchuont, Ilistoiri! dii Can- 
nda, p. 27. 



' St't> Ri'lmnnt. Ilistoiro du Can- 
ada, p. "'7. 

'■' "harlevoix sccins to follow con- 
versations or noti>sof doI.anibi'rviUi'. 

' N. V. Col. Doc. i\., p. :"M). B.-l- 
niont says Ontn'ouliati, otlicrwise 
cuUid Urandi' OuouK', Black Kuttlo, 
and Qaguit'goton. 



Hi 



'i. i 



I 

It 



'KM 
Mi 



i 



u 



804 



1688. 



CniiiilL'riiu- 

tion of 
tlic colony 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 

citing his foars. Tlioy condnctod him as far as Lake St. 
Francis, whore he met another body of Inxjuois as numer- 
ous as the former. Both halted at this point, and allowed 
la Perolle, with the deputies, to proceed to Montreal alone. 
There they found the governor-general, who at once gave 
them aixdience. Haaskouaun, Avho was the spokesman, 
began by describing in extremely emphatic terms the ad- 
vantageous position in which his nation stood, the weak- 
ness of the French, and the ease with which the cantons 
might exterminate them, or force them to leave Canada. 

" For my part," he added, " I have always loved them, 
and I have just given an i;neqitivocal proof ; for on learn- 
ing the design formed by our warriors to come and burn 
your forts, your houses, yoiir barns, and your grain, in 
order that, reducing you to famine, they might make short 
work with you, I have so well argued in your favor that 
I have obtained permission to warn Ononthio that he 
might avoid this misfortune by accepting peace on the 
conditions proposed by Corlar. And then I can give you 
but four days to decide, for if you delaj- longer to adopt 
your course, I cannot ansn-er for the consequences." ' This 
Indian was a Seiieoa,'' and the same who had spoken so 
insolently to Mr. de la Barro at Camp de la Famine. 

So haughty an address, and twelve hundred Iroquois at 
Lake St. Francis, whence they could in less than two days 
fall upon the islund of Montreal, filled all minds with con- 
sternation. To crown the misfortunes, information had 
just come in of the death of the Chevalier de Troye and 
all his garrison ; and it was known that from Sorel River 
to Laprairio de la Magdeleine, the settlers durst not leave 
their houses for fear of falling into some hostile party. 
What n;ost embarrassed the Marquis do Dc'nonville was 
the fear that by repulsing these parties with open force, 
he would break oft" the negotiations already begun with 
tae Onondagas, to whom ho had restored several prison- 






' N. Y. Col. Doc, ix., p. 390. 



' He was an Onondaga : Ante, p. 354. 



St. 



i 



aibrOiiY OF NKW FRANCE. 

ora ; ho had even mailo one of thera tlie bearer of the con- 
ditions on wliic'h \w. was willing to treat with that canton. 
Tlicst! prisoners, on arriving at Catarocouy, found the 
fort invested by eight hundred Iroquois, who had already 
l)urned ail the hay with tiery arrows, and killed all the 
cattle. Lake Ontario, too, was all covered with the ene- 
my's canoes, which, to the number of foiir hundred, at- 
tacked a bark conveying men and provisions to Niagara. 
Two canoes even attempted to board it ; but two volleys 
from swivels, fired at the right moment, drove them off, 
and the wind springing up. bore the bark out of danger.' 

Foitunately the chief in command of the force blockad- 
ing Catarocouy, was uncle of the Indian prisoner sent by 
the governor-general to make his intentions known to the 
Onondagas. This chief was not insensible to the liberty 
given to his nephew, and his gratitude induced him to 
draw off with all his troops. Catarocouy was thus re- 
lieved at the very moment when they despaired of sav- 
ing it. 

On the 8th of June, deputies from Onondaga, Oneida, 
and Cayuga arrived at Montreal, and asked peace in the 
name of the whole nation. These two unexpected events 
convinced the whole colony that Providence watched in a 
special manner over its preservation. The general, on his 
side, deemed it a duty to show more reluctance as his 
enemies took steps to approach him. He replied that he 
would willingly consent to peace, but that he would grant 
it only on these conditions : 1st. That all his allies should 
be included ; 2d. That the Mohawk and Seneca cantons 
should also send deputies for the same object ; 3d. That 
all hostilities should cease on both sides ; 4th. That he 
should be at perfect liberty to revictual Fort Catarocouy.' 



' N. Y. Col. Doc, ix., i>. ;!95 ; Ab 
Btract of U'tters. August 10, Novem 
ber 0, 1(188. 

•' lu the N. Y. Col. Doc, ix., p 
384, is n cloil»nitiiiQ of the Iro(iuoiB Orehouae, Otatcliete, etc. 
Vol. 111.-20 



306 



i688. 



New 

piTiposi- 

tioiis 
of pcaoe. 



in presence of Mr. de Denonville at 
Montreal, June l.'i, 1088, signed in 
behalf of the Omidas, ("'ayugiis, and 
Onoiidn''nslivOtreouat(',('araeoutie, 



306 



I 

I 



i68S. 



Tlioy nre 
ttccuptud. 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 

He iiiailo no .allusion to tlio fori at Niagara as having 
made the use of and for which they liad asked its estab- 
lishment ; he was very glad to make a merit of yielding to 
the request of the deputies that ho should demolish it.' 
His conditions were accepted, and the exchange of pris- 
oners was regulated without any diffioixlty. Mr. de Dc'iion- 
ville had even already written to the court to solicit the 
recall of the Iroquois detained at Marseilles, and he had 
requested the minister to send Serigiiy," one of the sons of 
the Sieur le Moyne, then a cadet at Rochtfort, to receive 
them. This young man spoke the "anguage of these In- 
dians quite well, he Avas esteemed by them, and the 
governor-general was satisfied that these prisoners would 
receive much better treatment at his hands than they had 
received from those who conveyed them to France. 

The truce was consequently arranged on the spot. The 
Iroquois consented to leave five of their party as hostages, 
in order to assure the convoy preparing for Catarocoiiy, 
and it was agreed that if nnj hostility was committed by 
our allies during the negotiation, it should make change in 
what had just been agreed upon. However, when the 
convoy started, conducted by the Chevaliers de Callier.>s 
and Vaudreuil, and escorted on land by domiciliated In- 
dians, some Iroquois carried off one canoe. Mr. de 
Di'nonville was the more surprised at this as, before the 
departure of the convoy, an envoy of Colonel Dongan had 
reached Montreal, with Mademoiselle d'Alonne and twelve 
other French prisoners, and had handed him a letter from 
the king. It was a duplicate of one already received by 
the general, and related to the treaty of neutrality re- 
newed by the two sovereigns.'' 

The governor of New York at the same time informed 



' Foi't Niapnrn wns abanduncd, of n cliip of tho lin". Charhvoix. 

Sfptfinber 15, 10s8. Hoc stateiiiPiit Pi'nnnville in N. Y. Col. Doc, ix., p. 

of its condition ; N. Y. Col. Doc, ix., ;i!l."i. 

p. JiSO. ■' N. Y. Colonial Documents, ix, 

' Ho diod not long since, captain p. S91. 



\ 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



307 



I 



iiiiii tlmt he had Riven ordcvs to his envoy to withdraw all ^688. 
Frcnoli ])risoncrs from the Iroquois villages through which '^ 
he might pass, and that it would not depend on him if ^'I-m"^ 
tliere was not a perfect concert between them. Still, be- Dohkuu. 
sides the hostile act just mentioned, the Iroquois soon 
appeared in onr settlements, which had been stripped of 
men to strengthen the Catarocouy convoy. On the first 
tidings of this, the general called together all the troops 
left near his person and marched to scatter these small 
parties. The enemy v"id not await him ; but he pursued 
them and overtook some at Lake du St. Sacrement. Ho 
rescued from their hands two Frenchmen whom they 
were carrying off, killed some Mohegans, and took some 
Mohawks."^ From them he learned that Colonel Dongau 
had urged them to make this irruption, and had furnished 
them for the purpose with mirnitions and arms. Yet he 
had already received letters from the king, his master, to 
renew the treaty of neutrality, and that prince had warned 
him that he should answer in his own individual name 
for all contraventions committed against the treaty." 

Tiie vigor and promptitude thus displayed by Mr. d(! 
Denonville in arresting the course of these hostilities, ob- 
11 "ed the Iroquois to keep themselves quiet, and the 
French avaded themselves of it to gather then- harvest. 
"God alone," wrote that general to Mr. de Seigneley, on 
the lOtli of August, " could have preserved Canada this 
year. I have no merit in it : Mr. de Callieres will tell you 
"better than I can write how necessary Father de Lamber- 
ville has been to us, with what ability he has averted the 
storm which menaced us, in what a manner he sways the 
minds of these Indians, who are more clear-sighted than 
men think. If you do not find means of restonng these 
Fathers to their former mission, you must expect many 
misfortunes for this colony, for I must tell you that 

1 This i.ron.pt ft'-tion of P.'non- Y. Col. Doc., ix., p. 391. Chnrle- 
vi",. is lint iiu'iitidiRcl in the H<-lii- voix dt-rivi'd it probably from the 
tion of the Events of the War : N. letter of August 10. 



To wliiim 
Mr. (lu 

Di''ii'iji\illo 
iitlrihiilu.l 



Ciiiiadii. 






t 



308 



HISTORY OP NEW FRANCE. 



I 



1688. 






fc'>' 



Cciloiicl 

Diiiii.'aii re- 

ciillud. 



hitlicrto it has boon their ability that Iihh sustained tho 
affairs of the conutry by the number of friends tliey have 
won among all tho Indians, and thi;ir dexterity in man- 
aging the niind of the&o barbarians, who aro savages only 



m rame. 



" Tho Sedentary Fishery Company designs preventing 
tho Jesuits n-om re-establishing thi mission which they had 
among tJio tribes near Pentagout (to which they returned 
last year at my request), and to retain those Indians in 
our interest, they having left them en account of the dis- 
orders caused in those parts by liquor. It is my duty to 
inform you that it will bo a great misfortune for Acadia, if 
these gentlemen let these missions fall into other hands ; 
for it must not be imagined that it is the work of five or 
six years to learn the language of these nations and 
govern them well. The best minds, niter twenty years 
toil and hardship beyond description, sometimes find 

themselves deficient Father Bigot is towards Pon- 

tagoiit, in order to gather together a new village on the 
king's territories, and prevent tlieii' being drawn ofl" by 
Chevalier Andros."" 

This knight commanded in New England in the absence 
of the governor-general, and he had just been appointed 
governor-general of New York.^ Ho was a Protestant, 



I Tho abstract (N. Y. Col. Docu- 
int'iitu, ix., p. yo;!) douH not contain 
tliis part. 

'•' For an nccount <pf' Sillory about 
this time, sw St, Valirr, Etat Pn'- 
bcnt. p. (i8. We have Relations of 
Abnaki Missions by the Bigots in 
1()84 and 1(18.'), In May, 108,-), the 
mission was removed from Sillery 
to the C'haudiere, and fortified. Of 
th(^ mission to Maine in 1088 I find 
nothing. Rev, Peter Tliury of Que- 
bec seminary was sent to Acadia in 
lr)H4 by Bp, Laval and by St. Va- 
lier in 108.1: Etat Present, p. I'J. 
After laboring among the Qaspe- 



Bians, he was sent to the Pentagoi't, 
in 1087 : Taschereau, Memoir on tho 
Acadian Missions. 

■' lie was captain-tcneral and gov- 
ernor-in-chief in and over our col- 
onies of the Massachusetts Bay atd 
New Plymoutl;, oar Provinces of 
New Hampshire and Maine, the Nar- 
raganset country or King's Province, 
our colonies of Rhode Island and 
Connecticut, our Province of New 
York, and East and West Jersey, 
and of all the tract from 40 N. to the 
River St. Croix, thence N. to tlio 
St, Lawrence, and by all that breadth 
to the Pacific, constituting " our 



1 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



309 



and if Colonel Don^an, although a Catholic, had acted "^««- 
towards the French in the manner tliat we liave seen, iind 
deferred so little to the wishes of his sovereign, whoso 
relirrion he followed, it was to bo expected that his suc- 
cessor would not obey that prince's orders more exactly.' 
The event, as we shall soon see, justified only too well the 
fears of the colony in this matter ; but this was not what 
most troubled the general. 

It is a maxim foimded on reason, and daily confirmed 
by experience, that every State, every society, whatever 
forms a body, ecclesiastical or civil, runs much less risk 
fi'om those who attacked it from without than from the 
disorders which it suffers internally from the non-observ- 
ance of laws, and by all other causes that weaken its con- 
stitution and sap the foundations on which it rests. On 
this principle the Marquis de Denonville beheld only with 
grief the sad state to which New France was reduced by 
the misconduct and insubordination which characterized 
the majority of those of whom that colony was composed. 
He expresses himself thus in a letter to Mr. de Seignelay, 
dated the same day as that cited, and I have believed 
that it would be read here with pleasure almost entire, be- 
cause it is very instructive, and contains the reflections of 
a man whose thoughts were just, and whoso views all 
tended to the good of the State, and never deviated from 
the truth. After a short exposition of the prodigious 
change, wrought within a few years in a country whei-e 
religion good faith, and the strictest probity had so long 
reigned, he adds : 

"New settlements were pushed ahead of each other 
fi'om a jealous desire to be nearer to the Indian trade 
withoiit reflecting that, by not concentrating, they made it ,. "".""^^ 

,, rt' J (ll.siir'Icrs n 

impossible tor them '- -> concert means of defence. . . . 



Li'ttor of 

Mr. ,U- 
Dt'doiivillo 



til.- 
colony. 



tprritory and doininion of New Eur- ' Hig instructions required liini to 

land in America." See ConimiH- defend and protect tlie Iroquois ':f 

BJon, N. y. Col. Docuiueuts, iii., p. invaded by the French ; N. Y. Col. 

5*57. Doc, iii., p. 548. 



II 



I 



rr* 



» ; 



310 HISTORY OP NEW FRANCE. 

1688. The Bnshlopcrs liavo committod anothor ovil r;roator 
'""^^^^^ tlian can bo conceived ; it can only be known on the spot. 
Their cnjiidity has h'd tliem to commit tlie most (h'spica- 
ble acts, Avliicli have rendered ns eontem]itible, (h'jirc- 
ciated tlio goods, heightened the price of the beaver skins ; 
and the Indians, naturally prond, seeing themselves sought, 
become still more >o. Then came the misunderstanding 
between Mr. do la Barre and Mr. do la Sale ; it divided 
the French and even tho Indian allies. These divisions 
have kept .dive quarrels among these latter, which have 
given great i)uin to our missionaries. The same misun- 
derstanding between the general and Mr. de la Sale 
caused the first pillage which the Iroquois made of fifteen 
canoes loaded with goods, which they took from the 
French, believing, they said, that they thus executed the 
orders which they had received to plunder Mr. de la 
Sale's people. There had, in fact, been marks given to 
distinguish them. This mistake occasioned the war which 
Mr. de la Barre made on the Iroquois. It was always a 
great evil, and of very dangerous consequences, to em- 
powv.'r these barbarians to assume rig. 'ts over French- 
men." We have seen Mr. de la Sale set the example first 
at (Green) bay, under color of his monopoly, " and it may 
well be that his enemies wished Mr. de la Barre to extort 
from him permission to make reprisals on his canoes, 
without telling him they would employ Iroquois to do this, 
a thing which that general, in all probability, would not 
have permitted." 

Mr. de Denonville then returns to the Bushlopers, 
whose number, he said, "is such that it depopulates the 
country of the best men, renders them indocile, incapable 
of discipline, debauched, and causes their children to be 
brought up like savages." He maintains that it was their 
roving that have occasioned those of the English among 
your allies, whom they have allured by cheaper goods, 
and whom it is almost impossible to divert from trading 
with New York. Speaking of the Indian wars, he says, 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 



311 



"tliat tio l)ottf'i' idea cnii l)o eonroivod of tlicm than if>^^- 
to l■t'ln•o^ont thoso barbarians as savaj^o beasts scattered —— r— ' 
tlirouKli I' vast forest, wlicnco they ravage all the neigh- 
boring countries. The colonists assemble to give them 
chase, inquire th(>ir retreat, and it is everywhere; they 
must be awaited with your hand on tlio trigger, and they 
are long awaited. They can be hounded only with hounds, 
and Indians are the only dogs that can bo used for tho 
Iiur))oso ; but they are failing us, and tho few that we have 
are not to be depended on ; they are afraid ol" roach- 
ing the enemy, and dare not provoke him. no course 
thiit hiis bet>n adopted has been to build forts in each 
K('i_'ncury as a refuge for tho people and their cattle ; 
moreover, the tilled lands lie far apart, and are so sur- 
roniidiMl by woods, that at each field a corps of troops 
would 1)(> needed to support the field laborers. The sole 
and only means of making war was, to have troops enough 
to advance on the enemy by three routes at once ; but to 
(■H'cct tliis would require four thousand men and provisions 
for two years, with four or five hundred batteaux, and all 
the other details of such an outfit, for to be obUged as wo 
are to live from hand to i^^./uth, is a sure way to build up 
nothing solid." ' 

The king was certainly not disposed to send to Canada Refleetion>, 
the number of troops asked by the Marquis de Denon- 'jJltJi,','" 
ville.' Many peojile even in the country were convinced, 
that to reduce the Iroquois, it required only a little more 
disci]>line in the troops at his dit-posal ; and we shall see, 
before the close of this history, that if they did not succeed 
with the colonial forces alone, it was because it was not 
earnestly desired. It also seems that the general's alarmed 
inmgination, or that of those to whose coiuisels he lis- 
tened had somewhat magnified the objects ; but it is cer- 
tain that if the disorders of which he complained had been 



• Abstract of dispntolii'S : N. Y. is not tlio time to think of tlint war. 
Col. Doc, ix., p. no."). Tliu kinir's Inrcrs arc too much (»•- 

'•' The miuister's minute is : "This cupicd olwnvlierH :" lb. 



I 



812 



1688. 



P 



w I 



Wi 



Our iillifH 

iiiiii'li 

(li>|ili':ise'l 

Willi tliu 

piiU'O. 



HISTORY OF NEW FRANCE. 

correcti'tl, ami •■s|)«uMiilly if duo ineaHuros had Ix-cn taktii 
to provont yonnp; men ruuning the woodH, thoy might at 
all times have had a very excellent militia, which would 
have held in respect to the Iroquois and the English. 
The misfortune of New Franco is, that all who have 
wielded authority there, have not shown the zeal displayed 
l)y this general for due order, and that he himself had 
not all the firmness necessary to punish rigorously what 
he detested sincerely, and to make his orders respected. 

He ardently desired to close the war ; but he felt that 
it was neither just nor very safe even to conclude peace 
without the participation of our allies ; and we have seen 
that ho expressed himself distinctly to the doi)uties of the 
cantons ; but either there was not time to inform the In- 
dians of the general's intentions, or, as is more probable, 
these nations were persuaded, that the cantons were not 
treating in good faith hence almost all appeared greatly 
displeased at these negotiations. Some even evinced 
their contempt for us at a peace in Avhicli the Iroquois 
seemed to desire to impose conditions haughtily on us. 



DIRECTIONS TO THE BINDER. 



Faqi 
PoiiTRAiT OK Talon. Intend.vnt of New Fuance-To fnc- Title. 

140 

M \1- OK Nkwfoundland 

141 

Mai' ok 1'i,a(i:ntta Bay 

, „ 2;);} 

Map of Hudson s Bay 

237 
Mai' of Southern Part of Hudson's Bay